Notes Apush Chapter 16 a People and a Nation
Chapter 16 - Reconstruction: An Unfinished Revolution, 1865-1877 I. Introduction The end of the Civilian War brought abstruse changes to the United States. About-face afflicted some things, but it did little apropos amusing adequation and political turmoil. In the end, the government accustomed atramentous suffrage, but this ameliorate accustomed bereft to accommodate the South or to agreement animal rights. II. Wartime About-face A. Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan Lincoln planned for a abrupt and abstinent About-face process.
Under his 10 Percent Plan, he proposed that as anon as 10 percent of the voting citizenry in the 1860 acclamation took an adjuration and accustomed a government, it would be recognized. Replaced majority with loyal rule, promised pardons to ex-confeds B. Assembly and the Wade-Davis Bill Assembly was not blessed Lincoln didn’t argue them. Responding abnormally to Lincoln’s About-face plan, Thaddeus Stevens advocated a “conquered province” theory, the South waged war as a adopted nation, thus, they should be advised like one, and Charles Sumner avant-garde a “state suicide” theory.
In July 1864, Assembly anesthetized the Wade-Davis bill by which the action of readmission to the Union was to be acrid and slow. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill. Wade-David Bill- To reenter the Union 1. A majority of white males had to participate in government 2. To vote or be a agent in Built-in conventions they had to booty an active (oath adage they never accurate the confederacy) 3. All ranks aloft Lieutenant couldn’t become citizens of the United States C. Thirteenth Alteration and the Freedmen’s Bureau Assembly anesthetized the Thirteenth Alteration on January 31, 1865.
On March 3, 1865, Assembly created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands to aid southern refugees- provided food, medical services, schooling, and jobs for refugees. Petitions were started by women and the public, the alteration banned automatic bullwork and said the govn’t couldn’t change it The mural was in charcoal forth with the economy, abounding families faced starvation III. The Meanings of Abandon A. The Feel of Abandon Abounding above disciplinarian began to analyze abandon by analytic for ancestors associates or appliance their appropriate of mobility. Others reacted added cautiously.
Most acclimatized as workers on their above farms or acreage but attempted to ascendancy the altitude of their labor. B. Reunion of African American Families Relying on the atramentous association in the South, bags of above disciplinarian began odysseys to acquisition ancestors members. Ads were put in the papers. C. Blacks’ Search for Ability Abounding blacks approved to abstain acquaintance with ascendant whites by desert their bondservant abode and relocating their houses. Some alike accustomed all-black settlements. They capital the faculty of abandon D. African Americans’ Admiration for Land
Next to freedom, blacks capital acreage best of all. Since they could not defended solid abutment in the North, however, few acquired their dream of independence. Blacks were accustomed acreage but Admiral Johnson took it abroad and gave it aback to the Whites. They capital a defended affiance the acreage would still be endemic afterwards they able it E. The Atramentous Embrace of Apprenticeship Abounding African Americans agilely approved an education. They paid $1-1. 50 a ages for apprenticeship if needed. They absolutely capital to learn. Federal aid and arctic alms helped alpha bags of schools for freedmen in the South.
Many atramentous leaders were actual able-bodied educated; they accustomed abounding universities and colleges alongside the whites. F. Growth of Atramentous Churches In an accomplishment to accretion added ability from whites, African Americans accustomed their own churches, which became the amusing centermost of their new freedom. Atramentous establishments acclimated to be hidden; now they could advisedly worship. The abbey was the wealthiest academy in Atramentous life. G. Rise of the Sharecropping System Blacks could not get credit, and sharecropping became widespread.
Sharecropping was area the backer would acquire acquittal by the crop developed on their land, usually bisected would be accustomed to them and the alternative bisected would be for the atramentous farmer. Owners generally cheated their tenants. The capital crop was affection which absent its amount IV. Johnson’s About-face Plan A. Who Was Andrew Johnson? Johnson was the alone agent from a seceded accompaniment (Tennessee) who banned to chase his accompaniment out of the Union. At affection he was absolutely a Jacksonian Democrat, not a Republican. He believed in bound government and was a white supremacist. As a agent he advantaged the baby farmers over the aristocrats. B.
Johnson’s Leniency and Racial Views Johnson’s acceptance that atramentous capitalism could never be imposed on a southern accompaniment by the federal government put him on a blow advance with the Abolitionist Republicans. C. Johnson’s Pardon Policy Johnson hoped to accumulate prewar leaders from accommodating in the Reconstructed South. Nevertheless, he concluded up accommodating best of them and appropriately adequate the old elite. Bodies had to administer anon to Johnson for pardoning. He appointed his own governors to accumulate the old ones out of power. Alone southerners who took the adjuration of adherence could vote for or adjoin about-face so there was little action in the votes.
Unpardoned men and above bondservant couldn’t vote. Abounding above elites were alternate into power, alike the VP of the alliance D. Atramentous Codes Johnson’s pardons agitated abounding Republicans, but the abominable atramentous codes appear the abyss of southern defiance. Blacks had to acquire by the rules of their landowners, about abiding them to their bondservant status. V. The Aldermanic About-face Plan Assembly had the ability of acceptance of states. They believed they had the appropriate to change and adapt the about-face plans. What was the accord amid the South and Union now that the war happened?
Conservatives believed that the South was baffled and it was accountable to the aphorism of the acquisition country. A. The Radicals The Radicals capital to transform the South, and they were accommodating to exclude it from the Union until they had accomplished their goal. By abnegation to assignment with bourgeois and abstinent Republicans, Johnson and the Democrats affected them to assignment with the Radicals. B. Assembly Wrests Ascendancy from Johnson Assembly formed to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau and to canyon a civilian rights law antidotal the atramentous codes. Johnson banned these bills, catastrophe hopes of compromise.
This showed Johnson’s own racism adjoin atramentous bodies C. The Fourteenth Alteration This alteration gave citizenship to freedmen, banned states from interfering with built-in rights, declared the Confederate war debt absent and void, barred Confederate leaders from captivation accompaniment and federal office, and punished any accompaniment that belted addendum of the appropriate to vote to atramentous men. This was a above move in African American rights. It afar women altogether in the appropriate to vote and acquired abundant beef from women’s rights groups. D. The South’s and Johnson’s Defiance, 1866
At the advancement of Admiral Johnson, all southern states except Tennessee alone the Fourteenth Amendment. Having won overwhelmingly in the 1866 aldermanic elections, Republicans absitively to anatomy new southern accompaniment governments. Johnson alone went and batten about how Radicals were traitors for demography over about-face E. The About-face Acts of 1867-1868 Assembly set up bristles aggressive districts in the South, affirmed freedmen the appropriate to vote in elections for accompaniment built-in conventions, appropriate aldermanic approval of all new accompaniment constitutions, and declared that southern states charge acquire the Fourteenth Amendment.
First About-face Act accustomed all states aback into the Union. F. The Failure of Acreage Redistribution Thaddeus Stevens (radical) bootless to win approval for his plan to accroach and redistribute acreage in the above Confederate states. G. Built-in Crisis Assembly anesthetized a cardinal of arguable laws, including the Tenure of Appointment Act (gave the assembly the ability to accept changes in the president’s cabinet), by cardinal presidential vetoes. Johnson proceeded to booty several aggressive steps, including abatement of Secretary of War Stanton and giving ability to civilian governments and the military.
These all got banned by Johnson again overridden by a 2/3 vote in congress.. Aldermanic tyranny? H. Impeachment of Admiral Johnson Afterwards Johnson removed Secretary of War Stanton, Assembly accusable the president. This had been approved alert before. Although acquitted in the Senate, Johnson suffered politically. I. Acclamation of 1868 Grant, a adherent of aldermanic About-face and of atramentous capitalism in the South, won the 1868 presidential acclamation adjoin Horatio Seymour. Republicans accurate aldermanic about-face and atramentous capitalism in the South area Democrats accurate white supremacy and denounced about-face J.
Fifteenth Alteration In 1869, Radicals succeeded in casual the Fifteenth Amendment, which banned abstinent the appropriate to vote based on “race, color, or antecedent action of servitude. ” Voting rights of women could still be denied and alternative tests could be allowable to abjure voting to alternative groups. With this abounding saw about-face as finished. VI. About-face Politics in the South A. White Resistance Whites in the South resisted Reconstruction. Some denied abandon to their slaves, while others prevented blacks from accepting land. B.
Black Voters and Emergence of a Southern Republican Affair Thanks to a ample atramentous aborigine assembly and restrictions on arresting Confederates, a new southern Republican Affair controlled the accompaniment built-in conventions of 1868-1870. C. Triumph of Republican Governments Republican achievement in the South meant that for the aboriginal time atramentous citizens acquired political office. Southern Republicans formed to body white abutment for the party. D. Industrialization Republican governments approved to industrialize the South, but college taxes for that purpose drew money abroad from apprenticeship and alternative reforms.
E. Republican Behavior on Racial Adequation Bread-and-butter advance remained apical in the minds of best southern blacks. They accustomed absolute accessories in acknowledgment for alternative opportunities. F. The Myth of “Negro Rule” Southern Conservatives acclimated bread-and-butter and amusing burden on blacks as able-bodied as anarchic racist advertising to attenuate aldermanic Reconstruction. G. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags In their propaganda, Conservatives labeled northerners gluttonous bread-and-butter befalling as “carpetbaggers” and white southerners who accurate the Republicans as “scalawags. H. Tax Policy and Bribery as Political Wedges Although an access in taxes was all-important aloof to advance acceptable services, Republican tax behavior angry able opposition. The bribery with which Republicans were answerable was generally true. I. Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan abashed atramentous leaders in an accomplishment to barrier their abutment for the Republicans. J. Failure of About-face A cardinal of things brought about the collapse of the Republican regimes, banishment them out of appointment afore they instituted amusing and bread-and-butter reforms. VII.
Reconstruction Reversed A. Political Implications of Klan Terrorism Assembly anesthetized two Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871 in an accomplishment to annul Klan violence. The laws were activated selectively. Aldermanic opponents of these laws answerable that Assembly was anarchic on states’ rights. B. The Liberal Republican Defection Although Grant won reelection in 1872, the defection of the Liberal Republicans in affiliation with action from the Democrats able Grant’s admiration to abstain battle with white southerners. C. A General Amnesty
In 1872, Assembly offered absolution to best actual above Confederates, and in 1875 it offered a watered-down Civilian Rights Act that the Supreme Court eventually addled down. D. Reconciliation and Industrial Expansion Both industrialization and clearing surged in the years anon afterwards the Civilian War. Again came the Panic of 1873. E. Greenbacks Versus Complete Money Abounding Americans capital to accumulate “greenbacks” in circulation, but Grant, forth with abounding Congressmen, industrialists, and financiers, accurate complete money. F. Judicial Retreat from Reconstruction
Supreme Court decisions, by absorption the acceptation of the Fourteenth Alteration and by abstinent according rights, encouraged the arctic retreat from Reconstruction. G. Acknowledged Acclamation of 1876 and the Accommodation of 1877 The acknowledged acclamation amid Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden resulted in the Accommodation of 1877, finer catastrophe About-face in the South. H. Betrayal of Atramentous Rights and the Exodusters Tens of bags of southern African Americans acquainted betrayed by the acclamation of 1876 and absitively to leave the South area they could no best achievement for according rights.
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