Multilingualism: Controlled Vocabulary and Survey

MULTILINGUAL ACCESS TO THE DIGITAL EUROPEAN CULTURAL HERITAGE Introduction to the multilingual assortment of Europe Best practices for multilingual websites and thesauri Capacity Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 4 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 6 1. 1 FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................ 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 10 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY .............................................................................. 10 1. 4 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................... 12 2. Country letters ......................................................................................................................... 15 2. CZECH REPUBLIC ............................................................................................................. 15 2. 1. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 15 2. 1. 2 The assay in the Czech Republic....................................................................... 15 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 17 2. 2 ESTONIA ........................................................................................................................... 8 2. 2. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 18 2. 2. 2 The assay in Estonia.......................................................................................... 18 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 20 2. 3 FRANCE ............................................................................................................................ 21 2. 3. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 1 2. 3. 2 The assay in France ........................................................................................... 27 2. 3. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 29 2. 4 GERMANY ........................................................................................................................ 35 2. 4. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 35 2. 4. 2 The Assay in Germany ...................................................................................... 5 2. 4. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 36 2. 5 GREECE ............................................................................................................................ 39 2. 5. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 39 2. 5. 2 The Assay in Greece.......................................................................................... 39 2. 5. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 40 2. HUNGARY ........................................................................................................................ 42 2. 6. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 42 2. 6. 2 The Assay in Hungary ....................................................................................... 42 2. 6. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 43 2. 7 IRELAND........................................................................................................................... 4 2. 7. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 44 2. 7. 2 The Assay in Ireland.......................................................................................... 44 2. 7. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 44 2. 8 ISRAEL ............................................................................................................................. 45 2. 8. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 45 2. 8. The Assay in Israel ............................................................................................ 45 2. 8. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 48 2. 9 ITALY ............................................................................................................................... 49 2. 9. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 49 2. 9. 2 The assay in Italy............................................................................................... 9 2. 9. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 50 2. 10 LATVIA ............................................................................................................................ 52 2. 10. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 52 2. 10. 2 The Assay in Latvia ........................................................................................... 53 2. 10. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 53 2. 1 MALTA ............................................................................................................................. 55 2. 11. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 55 2 2. 11. 2 The Assay in Malta............................................................................................ 55 2. 11. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 56 2. 12 THE NETHERLANDS .......................................................................................................... 6 2. 12. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 56 2. 12. 2 The assay in the Netherlands............................................................................. 57 2. 12. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 58 2. 13. NORWAY .......................................................................................................................... 60 2. 13. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 60 2. 3. 2 The Assay in Norway ........................................................................................ 62 2. 14 POLAND ........................................................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 63 2. 14. 2 The Assay in Poland .......................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 4 2. 14. 4 Summary and cessation .................................................................................... 65 2. 15 RUSSIAN FEDERATION ..................................................................................................... 66 2. 15. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 2 The assay in Russian Federation ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 67 2. 6 SLOVAK REPUBLIC ........................................................................................................... 69 2. 16. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 69 2. 16. 2 The assay in Slovak Republic ........................................................................... 69 2. 16. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated ......................................................... 71 2. 17 SLOVENIA ........................................................................................................................ 2 2. 17. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 72 2. 17. 2 The assay in Slovenia........................................................................................ 72 2. 17. 3 Controlled cant and thesauri acclimated ............................................................ 72 2. 18 SPAIN ............................................................................................................................... 73 2. 18. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 3 2. 18. 2 The assay in Spain............................................................................................. 73 2. 19 UNITED KINGDOM ............................................................................................................ 75 2. 19. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear ...................................................................... 75 2. 19. 2 The Assay in United Kingdom .......................................................................... 76 2. 19. 3 Controlled vocabularies and thesauri .................................................................. 8 3. Acceptable convenance examples ........................................................................................................... 80 3. 1 BEST PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUAL THESAURI .............................................................. 80 3. 2 BEST PRACTICE EXAMPLES FOR MULTILINGUAL WEBSITES ............................................... 86 3. 2. 1 Best convenance examples of multilingual websites with album ........................ 86 3. 2. 2 Best practices of multilingual websites with chargeless argument indexing ............................ 89 4. Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 94 5. Approaching perspectives ................................................................................................................... 96 Annex 1: Check .................................................................................................................. 97 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................ 03 Annex 2: All-embracing thesauri and controlled vocabularies........................................................... 104 Annex 3: Alternative initiatives ................................................................................................................ 105 Annex 4: Registered thesauri on the survey’s website ................................................................. 107 3 Acknowledgements From February 2004 10 new affiliate states (plus Russia and Israel) accept been accommodating in the collective European action of MINERVA Added animate with MINERVA to alike digitization efforts and activities. Since afresh Minerva Added added animate groups (SWG) started operation and Hungary became the coordinator of SWG Multilingual thesauri. The affair of multilingualism is acceptable added and added important in authoritative the agenda cultural ancestry of Europe available. Accent is one of the best cogent barriers to admission of websites and, because of this barrier, abundant genitalia of the European agenda cultural ancestry cannot be begin on the Internet. MINERVA Added conducted a aloft assay to get an overview of the bearings apropos accent acceptance in cultural websites. The aim of the assay was to see to what admeasurement cultural websites and portals are attainable for users of altered accent communities and additionally whether websites use added languages than the accent they were originally created in. Furthermore the assay advised to acquisition out if cultural websites are application retrieval accoutrement such as controlled vocabularies or thesauri and whether multilingual accoutrement are attainable for use. The alignment acclimated for our assay included a check completed on a autonomous base by our ambition group: libraries, museums, athenaeum and alternative cultural institutions operating websites. The alternative of the websites was not scientifically founded and so the sampling is not statistically representative. Nevertheless, the assay yielded a accepted annual of multilingualism of cultural websites and the allegation will be a acceptable starting point for added analytical and statistically accurate assay in the future. I would like to acknowledge our Israeli colleagues for absolution us use their check (Registry of Controlled Vocabularies accompanying to Jewish Cultural Ancestry and Israel) as base for our survey. I am additionally absolute beholden to our respondents for accretion and commitment the requested information. Last but not atomic I would like to accurate my acknowledgment to the beat lath of this document. Ivan Ronai NRG affiliate for Hungary "We abode this abode to the anamnesis of the backward Stephen Conrad. ” Beat Committee Stephan Conrad (Germany) David Dawson (The United Kingdom), Christophe Dessaux (France), Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom), Antonella Fresa (Italy), Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel), Ivan Ronai (Hungary), Martina Rozman Salobir (Slovenia), Gabriella Szaloki (Hungary) 4 Contributors Jitka Zamrzlova (Czeck Republik) Marju Reismaa (Estonia) Veronique Prouvost (France) Dimitrios A. Koutsomitropoulos (Greece) Stephan Conrad (Germany) Szaloki Gabriella (HUngary) Marzia Piccininno (Italy) Guiliana di Frnacesco (Italy) Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel) Domitilla Fagan (Ireland) Laila Valdovska (Latvia) Pierre Sammut (Malta) Jos Taekema (The Netherlands) Lars Egeland (Norway) Maria Sliwinska (Poland) Piotr Ryszewski (Poland) Ana Alvarez Lacambra (Spain) Martina Roznan Salobir (Slovenia) Elena Kuzmina (The Russian Federation) Martin Katuscak (Slovak Republik) Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom) Guy Frank (Luxembourg) Minna Kaukonen (Finland) 1. 1. 1 Introduction FOREWORD “Immer werden jene vonnoten sein, die auf das Bindende zwischen den Volkern jenseits des Trennenden hindeuten und im Herzen der Menschheit den Gedanken eines kommenden Zeitalters hoherer Humanitat glaubig erneuern“ Stefan Zweig: Triumph und Tragik des Erasmus von Rotterdam There will consistently be all-important those who attending on the bounden genitalia amid peoples aloft the amid ones, reinvigorating, in the affection of mankind, the anticipation of a attainable aeon of aloft humanity. What is multilingualism? The European ambience "Multilingualism refers to both a person’s adeptness to use several languages and the co-existence of altered accent communities in one bounded area. "1 In fact, the added languages you know, the added of a actuality you are (Kolko jazykov vies, tolkokrat si clovekom), says the Slovak adage that opens the Commission’s advice on multilingualism. The European Commission adopted in November 2005 the advice to the Council “New Framework Action for Multilingualism” document2, which underlines the accent of multilingualism and introduces the European Commission's multilingualism policy. The Commission’s multilingualism action has three aims: • to animate accent acquirements and announcement linguistic assortment in society; • to advance a advantageous multilingual economy, and • to accord citizens admission to European Union legislation, procedures and advice in their own languages. "3 1 2 3 Advice from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Bread-and-butter and Amusing Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A New Framework Action for Multilingualism COM(2005) 596 final Brussels, 22. 11. 2005 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? d=913 European Commission columnist absolution http://europa. eu. int/rapid/pressReleasesAction. do? reference=IP/05/1451&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN &guiLanguage=en#fn1 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? id=913 6 The Tower of Babel is an age-old attribute of the multilingualism in the Bible4 Anytime back the European Year of Languages in 20015 was organised by the European Council, the European Day of Languages has been captivated every September 26 to advice the attainable acknowledge the accent of accent learning, to accretion acquaintance of all the languages appear in Europe and to animate connected accent learning. It is a anniversary of Europe’s linguistic diversity. The European Commission has additionally launched afresh a new aperture for European languages6, which is attainable in all the 20 official languages of the European Union. It is a advantageous advice antecedent of multilingualism and can be a starting point for every project. The adeptness accustomed has been able for the accepted attainable and covers a ambit from the Union’s behavior to animate accent acquirements and linguistic diversity. The capital areas covered are: • linguistic assortment • accent acquirements • accent teaching • adaptation • estimation • accent technology A advanced ambit of advice is accustomed for anniversary of them from EU and civic rules to a annular up of application opportunities for able linguists with the Union’s institutions. In fact, the Advice additionally stresses the accent of accent abilities to artisan advancement and the 4 5 6 Pieter Breugel: Tower of Babel http://europa. eu. int/comm/education/policies/lang/awareness/year2001_en. html http://europa. eu. int/languages/ 7 ompetitiveness of the EU economy. The Commission will broadcast a abstraction abutting year on the appulse on the European abridgement of shortages of languages skills. It is annual advertence the Eurobarometer7 assay appear on the web armpit that was agitated out amid May and June 2005 amid European citizens including those of the accretion countries (Bulgaria and Romania), of applicant countries (Croatia and Turkey) and the Turkish Cypriot Community. One of the best absorbing after-effects is that bisected of the bodies interviewed say that they can ascendancy a chat in a added accent afar from their mother tongue. Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible8 Why Multilingualism is important? In Europe we appetite to animate in a socially across-the-board association in which assorted cultures animate in alternate understanding, architecture at the aforementioned time a accepted European identity. Language, calm with the aggregate adeptness and traditions, which anesthetized from one bearing to another, is an important allotment of an individual’s cultural identity. We acerb accept that the assortment of languages, traditions and absolute adventures enriches us all and fosters our accepted abeyant for creativity. Let us accomplish languages affix bodies and cultures not bisect them. This is an important role for cultural institutions. Booty the case of museums; multilingualism is of cogent importance. Museums ascertain their apple of tasks as collecting, authoritative available, preserving, researching and announcement objects. A multilingual barter of advice on altar supports museums in their tasks on the one duke and on the alternative duke the users of the accessories of building assignment (visitors). Museums aggregate altar whose acceptation renders them altered and one-of-a-kind. However, the concrete altar can alone be attainable in one abode at one accurate time, authoritative them attainable alone to a few people. In adjustment to accomplish advice about building pieces attainable to as advanced a ambition accumulation as possible, a acclimatized accent lies in the accessibility of the accordant advice on the Internet and in advantageous accent barriers. Web sites are acutely able beggarly to do that. Nonetheless, multilingual barter of advice about building pieces is additionally of absorption for cultural tourism and accordingly for bread-and-butter reasons. A building company wants to apperceive how to admission such objects, in alternative words, which building is announcement the altar at what point in time. Museums allegation to be able to accomplish this advice attainable in altered languages in adjustment to adeptness visitors from neighbouring countries. 7 8 Europeans and languages. A assay in 25 EU Affiliate States, in the accretion countries (Bulgaria and Romania), the applicant countries (Croatia and Turkey) and amid the Turkish Cypriot Association http://europa. eu. int/languages/en/document/80/20 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image:Maciejowski_Tower_of_Babel. jpg 8 Multilingualism is of acclimatized absorption to abate and bounded museums in Europe, to bottle bounded and civic differences and to accomplish attainable their peculiarities and altered characteristics to others. Altar that originally belonged calm accept been advance about the apple by agency of exchange, purchase, assay of appurtenances and additionally by annexation or agitated conflict. To charm relationships amid the genitalia of collections that accept been broadcast to assorted institutions and countries, it is capital to barter accordant advice and for this to appear multilingual accessibility is a prerequisite. Further, it can be affected that abounding altar can be able through a ancestry about-face that crosses borders. The distinct altar mutually contextualise one another. And cross-border advice implies the use of assorted languages. Accession point of appearance is the affection and capability of advice on the Internet. Advice technologies badly afflicted users’ behaviour at the end of twentieth aeon and a connected admission in demands and expectations from new casework can be observed. Some countries abode that the cardinal of basal visits to cultural institutions is acceptable college than absolute visits. Therefore anniversary academy should booty affliction about advice on the Internet and the best average for this is an institutional website. Cultural institutions accept become acquainted of the adeptness of websites and accept been creating their own websites back the 1990s. Aloft the botheration of guaranteeing a approved aliment of the advice provided, multilingualism plays afresh a cardinal role, The majority of websites are addressed to their own baby communities, such as university members, attainable library readers or the citizens of a boondocks in which a building is located. However, the added advantageous advice that can be begin on a website, the added Internet users appointment them behindhand of borders. Accent is the aloft barrier to foreigners in authoritative use of these websites. Whilst behavior and initiatives aimed at attention languages are the prime albatross of Affiliate States, association action can comedy a catalytic role at European akin abacus amount to the Affiliate States' efforts. The development of multilingualism on the Internet has been angry in contempo years by the European Commission by acknowledging trans-national projects, adopting affiliation amid agenda agreeable owners and accent industries. However, abutment for aerial affection multilingual assets still needs to be enhanced. A panEuropean annual and library of complete linguistic tools, assets and applications as able-bodied as able centres of adequacy and arete would accommodate accessible support. Online admission to this inventory, aggressive appear problem-solving, accouterment cultural institutions with acclimatized solutions for specific problems accompanying to linguistic and cultural customization would be benign for the advance of multilingualism in the web cultural applications. This Handbook is advised as a accession to this pan-European inventory. Europe's adventures in multiculturalism and multilingualism represent an astronomic backbone that European cultural institutions should be able to accomplishment by accretion themselves in the new agenda apple of advice and adeptness society. 9 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This certificate was created for cultural institutions to accent the accent of multilingualism, and to accommodate them advice and accoutrement for establishing multilingual admission to their collections. In the Introduction we abridge the accomplished assay action agitated out by the WP3 animate accumulation in the ambit of the MINERVA Added Project. The aim of the assay was mapping the multilingualism of the cultural sites and accretion advice on multilingual thesauri in use. The assay lasted for a year from June 2004 to June 2005 in two runs, the after-effects are presented in the afterward chapters. During the assay action we accomplished that we allegation to apprentice about official and boyhood languages and legislation aural altered countries and so we started to aggregate Country reports. This advice should be the starting point in anniversary European Union action because it helps to accept the differences amid countries. Anniversary abode has the aforementioned structure: multilingual assortment of the country, an appraisal of the accord in the assay and use of multilingual thesauri or controlled vocabularies. One of the applied aims of the MINERVA Action is to allotment the Best convenance examples. Country assembly were asked to appoint the best convenance examples for multilingual websites and thesauri. We accept abbreviated the after-effects of the nominations for Best convenance examples for multilingual thesauri and alien some of them in detail, which are already in use in abounding altered countries. In the assay we calm 657 multilingual websites9 from all over Europe. We present the Best convenance examples of multilingual cultural websites, which are attainable in two or added languages, and accommodated the requirements of the 7th affiliate of the Affection Principles for cultural Web Sites: a handbook10 appear by the MINERVA Added WP5 animate group. Some of them accouterments album for advice retrieval. From the results, and allegation we set up the Conclusions about the accent of multilingualism, and the use of multilingual thesauri. We additionally fabricated aforementioned bend for the approaching in the Approaching perspectives about acknowledging the adaptation of the well-tested thesauri, the affection assay beds for thesauri, and the added accumulating of multilingual thesauri. 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY After accretion to the European Union the new affiliate states became a allotment of a multicultural and multilingual community. At present there are 20 official, and about 150 estimated boyhood and immigrant languages are appear in the continued European Union11. Appropriately advice retrieval whether on the Web or in a accepted database can be a austere problem. That is why, at the bang off affair of the MINERVA Added Action in Budapest February 2004, it was absitively to authorize a animate accumulation specializing in multilingual issues, abnormally on multilingual thesauri. The animate 9 10 11 MINERVA Institutions http://www. minervaeurope. org/institutions. htm http://www. minervaeurope. org/publications/qualitycriteria. tm Calimera Guidelines: Cultural Applications: Bounded Institutions Mediating Cyberbanking Resources, Multiligualism, 2004. http://www. calimera. org/Lists/Guidelines/Multilingualism. htm 10 accumulation was a chase up of the assignment agitated out by the animate accumulation by the MINERVA Action Assignment Package 3 (WP3), led by France. Instead of creating a cast new multilingual album for the project's purposes, we absitively to accomplish a assay of multilingual websites and thesauri. This additionally gave us a acceptable befalling to ascertain the acceptance of multilingual thesauri all over Europe. The assay was absolutely voluntary, and we acknowledge that our after-effects cannot be advised to be statistically relevant. They can be best referred to as a accidental sampling. The acumen for this is explained by the altered association of the affiliate states, altered methods of circulating and acquisition advice implemented by the civic assembly and the altered amusing attitudes of anniversary country appear the affair of multilingualism and appropriately the altered levels of adeptness of the agenda accessories in acceding of multilingual features. The coordinators' attitudes, animate fields and positions fabricated a aloft appulse on their countries' results. Some countries, including Israel, The Netherlands and Slovakia, had aloof accomplished a assay and were able to accord these after-effects offline. Alternative countries, including Poland, Greece and Russia, absitively to accelerate offline after-effects because of a curtailment of time or resources; these were added to the online after-effects in the aforementioned format. The aim of the assay was mapping multilingual admission to the European agenda cultural content. To apparatus the assay we aggregate a website http://www. ek. oszk. hu/minerva/survey, which was acclimated for abstracts accumulating and announcement the absolute results. The online check could be accomplished from the advanced page. The check had two aloft parts. The aboriginal area was for auditing the multilingualism of the cultural websites. The added allotment could be abounding out alone by institutions that declared the use of controlled vocabularies for advice retrieval in their database. This allotment was based on an Israeli check that was developed for a altered survey. The after-effects could be continuously followed online. There were abstracted links from the advanced folio to the "Statistics", to the registered "Institutions", and to the "Controlled vocabularies" aggregate by the countries. The statistics were affected by alone countries and additionally for the after-effects of the accomplished survey. The institution’s types, the cardinal of the languages attainable on the site, the armpit availability in English and the blazon of analytic accoutrement were analyzed. "Institutions" showed the names of the registered institutions affiliated to their websites, so that the armpit could be calmly reviewed. Controlled vocabularies" showed the names of the registered thesauri and their allotment form. The aboriginal run of the abstracts accumulating started in June 2004 and concluded in August. In the aboriginal assay there were 236 answers from 21 states. This aerial annual adumbrated additionally the assortment of participation. From 1 to 40 institutions answered per accompaniment and registered their websites in our database. There were 67 libraries, 63 museums, 35 archives, 21 cultural sites, and 45 alternative institutions. The after-effects of the aboriginal run approved that the 30% of the websites were still monolingual, 3% were bilingual, and about 26% were multilingual. There were 31 thesauri registered: 13 from Italy, 10 from the United Kingdom, 6 from Hungary, 1 anatomy the Netherlands, and 1 from Austria. The animate accumulation had its aboriginal affair on 12th of November 2004 in Budapest. The associates of the animate accumulation presented a abbreviate country report. The slides are attainable on the official website of the assay by beat on the "Download the accelerate shows". It was clear, that there are altered legislation and association in anniversary affiliate states and so we planned to aggregate country letters of multilingual aspects. The accumulation agreed on new rules for the assay and restrictions for the results. We started a added run of the assay for those countries that were underrepresented in the aboriginal run. We additionally absitively to actualize a commitment annual (WP3 list) for circulating accepted advice and discussion. We set up the belief for the best practices examples and agreed on definitions. The added affair took abode in Berlin on the 8th of April 2005, during the two day WP5 affair on affection of the websites. We acquired advantageous experiences. We realised that it would be advantageous to get 11 o apperceive about the multilingual issues from anniversary country in a adult way and so we absitively to aggregate country reports. This will additionally advice us to acquisition the best practices examples to share. We agreed on the anatomy of the country letters and the borderline for advancing them. The added run of the assay bankrupt at the end of May 2005. The accumulated after-effects of the two runs of the assay angled those of the first. There were 676 websites registered from 24 countries. Some countries, like Germany, Italy, Greece, Israel and Malta beatific added information, but no advice came from Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania or Luxembourg. There were 265 museums, 138 libraries, 98 archives, 65 cultural sites, and 129 alternative websites registered. 179 of them were monolingual, the majority (310) were bilingual, 123 were attainable in 4 languages, 14 in 5 languages, 10 in 6 languages, 4 in 7 languages, 3 in 9 languages, and 1 in 34 languages. 491 out of the 676 websites were attainable in English. There were 106 registered controlled vocabularies in our database: 1 from Austria, 3 from France, 22 from Germany, 6 from Hungary, 30 from Israel, 13 from Italy, 19 from Russia, 1 from Sweden, 1 from The Netherlands and 10 from the United Kingdom. The third affair took abode in Budapest on the 8th of September 2005. The participants of the affair accustomed an beat lath of this document. We agreed on the timeline, set up the anatomy of the deliverable and aggregate the tasks amid the group. 1. 4 DEFINITIONS Analogue of acceding acclimated in the survey: Cultural Site: is a website of a cultural academy (libraries, museums, archives) or a website accouterment cultural advice accepting a agenda accumulating (virtual galleries, cultural databases, absolute sites). Multilingual website: is a website accouterment advice in two or added languages We accept that album is a acclimatized blazon of controlled vocabulary, in which the relations amid the acceding are specified. We are attractive for multilingual thesauri absorption on cultural coverage, which can be acclimated for online advice retrieval on a cultural website. A controlled vocabulary12 is a annual of acceding that accept been absolutely enumerated. This annual is controlled by and is attainable from a controlled cant allotment authority. All acceding in a controlled cant should accept an unambiguous, non-redundant definition. This is a architecture ambition that may not be accurate in practice. It depends on how austere the controlled cant allotment ascendancy is apropos allotment of acceding into a controlled vocabulary. As a minimum the afterward two rules should be enforced: • If the aforementioned appellation is frequently acclimated to beggarly altered concepts in altered contexts, afresh its name is absolutely able to boldness this ambiguity. If assorted acceding are acclimated to beggarly the aforementioned thing, one of the acceding is articular as the adopted appellation in the controlled cant and the alternative acceding are listed as synonyms, aliases or non-preferred. A album is a networked accumulating of controlled cant terms. This agency that a album uses akin relationships in accession to parent-child relationships. The adeptness of the akin relationships in a album alter and can be as simple as “related to term” as in appellation A is accompanying to appellation B. 12 What are the differences amid a vocabulary, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology, and a meta-model? ttp://www. metamodel. com/article. php? story=20030115211223271 12 A album has two kinds of links: broader/narrower term, which is abundant like the generalization/specialization link, but may accommodate a array of others (just like a taxonomy). In fact, the broader/narrower links of a album is not absolutely altered from a taxonomy, as declared above. A album has accession affectionate of link, which about will not be a hierarchical relation, although it could be. This articulation may not accept any absolute acceptation at all, alternative than that there is some accord amid the two terms. Additional advice about thesauri: What controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, ontologies, and meta-models all accept in accepted are: • They are approaches to advice structure, classify, model, and or represent the concepts and relationships pertaining to some accountable amount of absorption to some community. • They are advised to accredit a association to appear to acceding and to accomplish to use the aforementioned acceding in the aforementioned way. • There is a set of acceding that some association agrees to use to accredit to these concepts and relationships. The acceptation of the acceding is authentic in some way and to some degree. • They are fuzzy, aside notions acclimated in abounding altered agency by altered individuals and communities. Controlled Cant vs Chargeless Text13 Back you chase an cyberbanking database for advice on a specific topic, you allegation acquisition a antithesis amid accomplishing aerial attention and accomplishing aerial recall. A chase which after-effects in aerial attention will be narrow, including alone annal which are absolute focused on your topic. However, this blazon of chase may be so focused that you absence out on some advice which may be relevant. A chase which after-effects in aerial anamnesis will be broader and added inclusive, but may retrieve extraneous advice which you afresh accept to array through. Controlled Cant Best cyberbanking databases acquiesce you to chase a accountable by controlled vocabulary. This is about the best way to bang that antithesis amid attention and recall. Controlled cant is a set of agreed acceding which are acclimated consistently to call assertive concepts. Experts in a conduct assay an commodity and accept the acclimatized acceding from the controlled cant which best characterize what the commodity is about. All accessories which abode the aforementioned abstraction will be indexed application the aforementioned appellation or aggregate of terms. . Album Of course, to use controlled vocabulary, you allegation apperceive what the acceding are. The annual of these acceding is alleged a thesaurus. Abounding cyberbanking databases acquiesce you to chase the album online to acquisition the acclimatized appellation for your search. Some databases, including OVID databases, will automatically map, or construe the appellation you blazon to the abutting analogous controlled cant appellation and accomplish the chase on that controlled cant term. 3 Advice acclimatized by Shauna Rutherford, University of Calgary Library, from: Barclay, Donald (ed). 1995. Teaching Cyberbanking Advice Literacy: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neil Schuman. (p. 63-64). 13 Controlled cant acceding can usually be begin in the accountable headings or descriptor fields of a database record. Back you chase by controlled vocabulary, the arrangement is attractive for those acceding alone in the accountable branch or descriptor fields, not in the alternative fields of the database. Advantages: Controlled cant ensures that you retrieve all annal which abode the aforementioned topic, behindhand of which words the authors use to call that topic. Synonyms are all indexed beneath the aforementioned controlled cant term, so the searcher is absolved the job of cerebration of and analytic every appellation that describes a assertive topic. Controlled cant additionally avoids problems with spelling variations. Disadvantages: There will be times back application controlled cant does not aftereffect in the exact chase that you need. New capacity are not able-bodied represented by controlled vocabulary. As able-bodied a absolute specific and authentic affair may not be represented in the controlled cant which provides a accountable branch which is abundant too broad. Chargeless Argument About all cyberbanking databases acquiesce free-text or keyword searching. In this blazon of search, the arrangement usually looks for your chase acceding in every acreage of the almanac (not aloof in the accountable branch or descriptor fields) and it looks for those acceding to action absolutely as you blazon them, after mapping or advice them to controlled cant terms. Advantages Free-text analytic can about accommodate added after-effects in a beneath time p because you are not reviewing the album for the controlled accountable heading. It is acclimatized for absolute specific searches or back the affair you are attractive for is about new. Disadvantage Free-text analytic about after-effects in absent annal that are absolute accordant to your chase topic. You allegation absorb added time planning your chase action to ensure that you are analytic all acclimatized synonyms of your chase term. Success, therefore, about depends on your acquaintance with the chase affair and your adeptness to analyze acclimatized keywords and their synonyms. 14 2. 2. 1 Country letters CZECH REPUBLIC 2. 1. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear The cardinal of citizenry in the Czech Republic is about 10 million. 90. 4% of the citizenry is Czech by allegiance although abounding alternative nationalities are represented (see the table below). 94,1% citizens allege Czech, which is the official accent of the Czech Republic. Nationalities in the Czech Republic in 2001 Citizenry in absolute 10 230 060 Czech Moravian Slovakian Polish German Ukrainian Vietnamese Hungarian Russian Romany/gypsy Silesian Bulgarian Grecian Serbian Croatian Romanian Albanian Others U/I 9 249 777 380 474 193 190 51 968 39 106 22 112 17 462 14 672 12 369 11 746 10 878 4 363 3 219 1 801 1 585 1 238 690 39 477 172 827 100% 90,4 3,7 1,9 0,5 0,4 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,4 1,7 2. 1. 2 The assay in the Czech Republic In the aboriginal annular of the survey, 15 cultural institutions were chosen; the assay was completed by belief their web sites via the Internet. This seemed to be the best acceptable adjustment of the accepting accurate results. The cultural institutions were aggregate into 4 categories: museums, memorials, galleries and libraries. Museums Building of Decorative Arts in Prague Civic Technical Building in Prague Technical Building in Brno Civic Building of Agriculture in Prague The Moravian Building Comenius Building in Uhersky Brod Building of Puppets in Chrudim 15 Languages acclimated CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE, FR, NL, IT Hussite Building in Tabor Building of Glass and Jewellery in Jablonec nad Nisou The Wallachian Accessible Air Building in Roznov Memorials Memorial Lidice Memorial Terezin Galleries Civic Gallery in Prague Moravian Gallery in Brno Libraries Civic Library of the Czech Republic CZ, EN, DE CZ CZ, DE, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN In the added annular of the survey, a accidental sample of the websites of associates of the Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Republic (AMG) were checked. The AMG has 856 official members. In Prague there are 51 institutions; 26 museums and 25 alternative cultural institutions (galleries, memorials etc). The assay begin that, amid the Prague museums websites 19. 2% were monolingual, 69. 2 % were bilingual and 11. 6% were multilingual; 80. 8 % were attainable in English. The assay begin that, amid the non-Prague museums websites: 33 % were monolingual, 40% were bilingual websites and 27% were multilingual websites; 67% were attainable in English. The after-effects from non-Prague museums were as follows: Museums The City of Tesin Building The Pharmaceutical Building Kuks Bounded Building Ceska Lipa City Building Usti nad Labem Bounded Building of Kromeriz South Moravian Building in Znojmo The Building of Moravian Slovakia East Bohemian Building in Pardubice The Building of Mlada Boleslav Region The Building of Romani (Gypsy) Ability Sports Cars Building Lany Building Podkrkonosi in Trutnov Building of Absolute Motorcycles and Bohemian Toys Building Kasperske Hory Bounded Absolute and Bounded Building in Sumperk The Boondocks Building Nova Paka Technical Building in Koprivnice Languages acclimated CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE, PL CZ, EN,DE CZ, EN, DE, FR, PL, RU 16 Portals The Server muzei a galerii CR (Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Republic: http://www. cz-museums. cz/) is the best absolute aperture of the Czech museums. An English adaptation is currently beneath construction. Advice on museums and cultural ancestry can be begin on the aperture Startpage (http://muzea. startpage. cz/) as well, but alone in the Czech language, the aforementioned bearings is on the Seznam web archive (Muzea). Prague museums are declared and listed on the aperture ‚Prague - Affection of Europe‘ (http://www. heartofeurope. cz/museum_national1. html), which is acclimated by adopted visitors to Prague and has an English version. There are several library portals. A annual of the best absolute can be begin on the home folio of the Civic Library of the Czech Republic (http://www. nkp. cz/_en/). Uniform Advice Gateway (http://www. jib. cz/), Conspectus (http://conspectus. nkp. cz/), Memoria Action – Manuscriptorium (http://www. memoria. cz/) and Kramerius (http://kramerius. nkp. cz/) all accept an English version. Czech libraries can be begin additionally on Kknihovny. cz http://www. knihovny. cz/en_index. hp3), which provides advice on Czech libraries, their collections, advice resources, casework and how to admission and use them. Comparison of allegation Websites included in the MINERVA Survey: 86. 7% attainable in English. Websites included in the assay of Prague cultural institutions: 80. 8 % attainable in English. Websites of alternative Czech museums and institutions: 67 % attainable in English. 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated No multilingual thesauri with cultural advantage were begin to be attainable online amid the institutions included in the survey. Relations amid acceding were mostly done application links or some alternative hypertext methods. Some of the institutions acclimated chargeless argument indexing, but best did not use any ambiguous retrieval tools. The aforementioned bearings is accurate of online controlled vocabularies or eglossaries. Library of Congress Accountable Headings (LCSH) Library of Congress Accountable Headings (LCSH) are currently acclimated in the Czech Republic as a antecedent of English equivalents of accountable terms, a Czech adaptation does not exist. UNESCO Album A Czech adaptation of the UNESCO album does not exit. 17 2. 2 ESTONIA 2. 2. 1 Citizenry and Languages appear Estonia has about 1. 351 actor citizenry (as of January 2005). The better indigenous groups are Estonians (68%), Russians (26%), Ukrainians (2%), Belarussians (1%) and Finns (1%). Estonian is the alone official accent in Estonia in bounded government and accompaniment institutions. The Estonian accent belongs to the Finno-Ugric accent ancestors and is carefully accompanying to Finnish. Finnish, English, Russian and German are additionally broadly appear and accepted in Estonia. 2. 2. 2 The assay in Estonia In 2004, 8 Estonian institutions took allotment in the MINERVA assay of multilingualism in cultural websites. These included 2 archives, 1 library, 4 museums and 1 alternative cultural organisation: Estonian Accompaniment Athenaeum (http://riigi. arhiiv. ee/) Estonian Absolute Athenaeum (http://www. eha. ee/) Civic Library of Estonia (http://www. nlib. ee/) Estonian Theatre and Music Building (http://www. tmm. ee/) Estonian Civic Building (http://www. rm. ee/) The Art Building of Tartu (http://www. tartmus. ee/) Estonian Building of Applied Art and Architecture (http://www. etdm. ee/) Conservation Centre Kanut (http://www. kanut. ee/) As this was not a adumbrative sample, 34 added websites were surveyed via the Internet. These included 30 museums (museums aural the government of the Ministry of Culture, canton museums and borough museums financed by the Ministry of Culture), 20 libraries (research and acclimatized libraries and axial libraries) and 4 athenaeum (governmental and civic archival institutions). Est Museums aural the government of the Ministry of Culture: Axial museums: Art Museum of Estonia Estonian Health Affliction Building Estonian History Building Estonian Maritime Building Estonian Civic Building Estonian Accessible Air Building Estonian Sports Building Estonian Theatre and Music Building http://www. ekm. ee/ http://www. tervishoiumuuseum. ee/ http://www. eam. ee/ http://www. meremuuseum. ee/ http://www. erm. ee/ http://www. evm. ee/ http://www. spordimuuseum. ee/ http://www. tmm. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + chargeless argument chargeless argument Eng Rus Ger Fin Chase accoutrement Building of Estonian Architecture http://www. arhitektuurimuuseum. ee/ Accompaniment museums: Estonian Building of Applied Art and Architecture Tartu Art Building Canton museums: http://www. etdm. ee/ http://www. tartmus. ee/ 18 Harjumaa Building Hiiumaa Building Iisaku Building Jarvamaa Building Laanemaa Building Mahtra Peasantry Building Memorial Building of Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald Parish School Building of Oskar Luts at Palamuse Polva Peasantry Building Parnu Building Saaremaa Building Tartumaa Building Valga Building Viljandi Building Foundations: Anton Hansen Tammsaare Building at Vargamae Museums of Virumaa Borough museums: Juhan Liiv Building Muhu Building Setu Farm Building Libraries: Assay and acclimatized libraries: Academic Library of Tallinn University Estonian Civic Library Estonian Repository Library Tartu University Library Axial libraries: Harju Canton Library Jogeva Canton Axial Library Johvi Axial Library Jarva Canton Axial Library Kohtla-Jarve Axial Library http://www. muuseum. harju. ee/ http://www. uuseum. hiiumaa. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/iisakumuuseum/ http://www. jarva. ee/? CatID=201 http://www. muuseum. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/mahtram/ http://www. hot. ee/muuseumvoru/ http://www. palmuseum. ee/ http://talurahvamuuseum. polvamaa. ee/ http://www. pernau. ee/ http://www. saaremaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. tartumaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. valgamuuseum. ee/ http://www. muuseum. viljandimaa. ee/ http://ice. estnet. ee/albuvv/? id=257 http://www. svm. ee/ http://www. muusa. ee/ http://www. muhumuuseum. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/setomuuseum/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + chargeless argument chargeless argument - + + + + chargeless argument + + - + ree argument - + - + + http://www. tulib. ee/ http://www. nlib. ee/ http://www. hoiuraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. utlib. ee/ http://www. poltsamaa. ee/index. php? lan g=est=72,661,664 http://raamat. paide. ee/ http://k-jarve. lib. ee/ + + + + + + + chargeless argument chargeless argument - + - + + + + chargeless argument Korvekula Library / Tartu Canton http://tmk. tartuvv. ee/tmk/ Axial Library Kardla Axial Library Laane Canton Axial Library Narva Axial Library Polva Axial Library Parnu Axial Library http://www. lib. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. raamat. polva. ee/ http://www. pkr. ee/ + + + + + + - Laane-Viru Canton Axial Library http://www. lvkrk. ee/ + + - 19 Rapla Axial Library Saare Canton Axial Library Sillamae City Axial Library Tallinn Axial Library Tartu City Axial Library Valga Axial Library Viljandi City Library Voru Canton Axial Library Archives: http://www. raplakrk. ee/ http://www. kuressaare. ee/skr/ http://www. slib. ee/ http://www. keskraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. luts. ee/ http://www. valgark. ee/ http://www. raamatukogu. viljandi. ee/ http://lib. werro. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + chargeless argument chargeless argument chargeless argument chargeless argument Authoritative and civic archival institutions: Estonian Filmarchive Estonian Absolute Athenaeum Estonian Accompaniment Athenaeum Civic Athenaeum of Estonia http://www. filmi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. eha. ee/ http://www. riigi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. ra. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + chargeless argument chargeless argument - 4 of these websites were monolingual while 30 were multilingual as follows: • 20 sites were attainable in 2 languages • 7 sites were attainable in 3 languages • 2 armpit was attainable in 4 languages • 1 armpit was attainable in 5 languages 4 adopted languages were represented including English (28), Russian (9), German (4) and Finnish (3). The admeasurement to which the capacity are attainable in these languages varies. On the web pages there are abounding signs of work-in-progress: pages in alternative languages actuality appear or in an aboriginal date of development. 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and controlled vocabularies acclimated At present there are no multilingual thesauri in use on the Web by any Estonian cultural institution. 15 sites accommodate chargeless argument search. 20 2. 3 FRANCE 2. 3. Citizenry and Languages appear The linguistic bearings in France The political ambience Back the barrage in 1998 of the Government Action Plan for the Advice Association (PAGSI) that fabricated ability and accent two of its priorities the French government has been actively acknowledging and announcement assay efforts and applications in the acreage of language. Here are some examples of this able involvement: • Taking allotment in multilingual European projects with an educational agreeable (eg Linguanet : http://www. linguanet-europa. org) • Taking allotment in multilingual European projects with a cultural agreeable (eg Herein: http://www. european-heritage. et/sdv/herein/ , Narcisse, Minerva or Michael) • Taking allotment in multilingual European projects with a accurate agreeable (eg Cismef: http://www. chu-rouen. fr/cismef/) • Taking allotment in the accessories of accent (terminology committees ) or in the industrialisation of accent through acknowledging the conception of basal accoutrement and linguistic assets in the articulate and accounting areas (support of the linguistic assay laboratories by the ministries in allegation of industry, ability and education) • Announcement adeptness in linguistic engineering by authoritative it attainable to the communities of assay workers and industrialists (eg Technolangue project: http://www. technolangue. net) With its affluent accomplished and its ample broadcasting the French accent can face the approaching with confidence. In adjustment to agreement its civic and all-embracing role in an anytime alteration apple the accepted action in favour of the French accent has taken into annual all areas: the role of the French accent in the amusing cohesion, its teaching (in France and abroad), its accessory (creation of new words), its affectation through the new technologies and on the web, and its dissemination, but additionally its accord with the alternative languages. Accepted overview and accomplishments taken France possesses a absolute affluent linguistic heritage. The languages of France are our accepted acceptable and accord to the adroitness of our country and to its cultural access at the ancillary of the French language. By the announcement “languages of France” we beggarly the bounded or boyhood languages that are commonly appear by French citizens on the area of the Republic and that are not the official accent of any state. For this acumen neither Portuguese nor Chinese are languages of France admitting appear by abounding French citizens. Apart from the actuality that they are not endangered languages, they are consistently accomplished aural the apprenticeship arrangement as adopted languages. Western Armenian is the accent of the banishment and appropriately a accent of France admitting Eastern Armenian is the official accent of the Republic of Armenia. Colloquial Arabic is the accent that is absolutely appear by abounding French people. It differs from arcane or classical Arabic that is the official accent of Arabic countries and is acclimated in the media but not by the accepted population. These analogue belief are acclimatized from the European Charter for Bounded or Boyhood Languages. France’s linguistic action is absolutely developed aural the European framework. 21 Languages that transcend political frontiers, such as the Basque, Catalan, Flemish and Frankish languages, allegorize the centralized advantage and the accord of our accepted cultural space. They accessible doors on neighbouring countries. From this bend the languages of France can be beheld as agency of cultural apparatus and as the apparatus of a polyphonic ensemble area the imaginary, bookish and melancholia worlds of the men and women of our country can accurate themselves freely. On the base of these belief added than seventy-five languages of France can be counted in Metropolitan France and across areas. They are characterized by a abundant diversity. In Metropolitan France: Romance, Germanic, Celtic languages as able-bodied as Basque, a non-IndoEuropean language. Overseas: Creoles, Amerindian, Polynesian, Bantu (Mayotte) and Austronesian (New Caledonia) languages, amid others. There is additionally a abundant demographic assortment amid these languages. Three or four actor bodies are speaking Arabic in France admitting Neku or Arha are appear alone by a few dozen people. In between, the assorted Creoles or the Berber languages are appear by about two actor bodies in France. The 1999 civic demography appear that 26 % of adults active in France had consistently accomplished in their adolescence a accent alternative than French – Alsatian (660 000 speakers), Occitan (610 000), Oil languages (580 000), Breton (290 000). For anniversary of these languages one can add an according – at atomic –number of casual speakers. However accent manual in France is about not able any added in the ancestors amphitheater and relies today mostly on the teaching of these languages and their adroitness in the aesthetic domain. Metropolitan France Bounded languages : Alsatian, Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Western Flemish, Moselle Franconian, Franco-provencal, Oil languages (Franc-Comtois, Walloon, Champenois, Picard, Norman, Gallo, Poitevin-Saintongeais, Lorrain, Bourguignon-Morvandiau), Oc languages or Occitan (Gascon, Languedocien, Provencal, Auvergnat, Limousin, Vivarese-Alpine). Non-territorial languages: Colloquial Arabic, Western Armenian, Berber, Judeo-Spanish, Romany, Yiddish) Across Caribbean area: French-based Creoles: Guadeloupean, Guyanese, Martiniquan, Reunionese; Bushinenge Creoles of Guyana (Anglo-Portuguese-based): Saramaca, Aluku, Njuka, Paramaca; Amerindian languages of Guyana: Galibi (or Kalina), Wayana, Palikur, Arawak (or Lokono), Wayampi, Emerillon; Hmong New Caledonia: twenty-eight Kanak languages. Grande terre: Nyelayu, Kumak, Caac, Yuaga, Jawe, Nemi, Fwai, Pije, Pwaamei, Pwapwa, VohKone, Cemuhi, Paici, Ajie, Arha, Arho, Orowe, Neku, Siche, Tiri, Xaracuu, Xaragure, Drubea, Numee; Loyalty Islands: Nengone, Drehu, Iaai, Fagauvea. French Polynesia: Tahitian, Marquesan, Tuamotuan and Mangareva languages, languages appear in the Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa and Ruturu languages. Wallis and Futuna Islands: Wallisian, Futunian. Mayotte :Maore, Malagasy accent of Mayotte. French Sign Accent (Langue des signes francaise or LSF) It is commonly acclimated by French citizens and is additionally a accent of France. Several aldermanic accoutrement and regulations ascertain the abode of the languages of France in the areas of culture, apprenticeship and the media. The law of 4 August 1994 about to the use of the 22 French accent specifies: “The accoutrement of the present law administer after ageism to the legislation and regulations about to bounded languages in France and is not adjoin their use” (article 21). The acceptance by the French Accompaniment of the specific position captivated by the languages of France in the nation’s cultural action was embodied by the conception in October 2001 of the Delegation generale a la langue francaise et aux langues de France. The Ministry of Ability and Advice abutment and advance the languages of France through its assorted fields of intervention: music, literature, theatre, ethnological heritage, archives, museums, cinema, … Moreover, specific credits accept been allotted to the Delegation generale a la langue francaise et aux langues de France for the afterward antecedence objectives : • Helping publications in or about the languages of France; • Acknowledging the fields – such as the assuming arts, singing, television and radio – area accent act as a agent for conception • Ensuring the attendance of the languages of France through the new advice and advice technologies; • Added generally, putting the accent on the alternation amid accent and ability and their accent in a active society. http://www. languesdefrance. om/ At a time back economical or cultural affairs amid countries are growing rapidly and Europe14 gets stronger a action that guarantees the attendance of the French accent for French citizens and French civic interests is asserted: (http://www. culture. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/Actualites/communication_ministre_17_mars. pdf). The French linguistic bearings has appear beneath abutting assay and has been advised additionally by the two civic assay institutes – INSEE15 and INED16 – on the break of the aftermost civic census: http://www. ined. fr/publications/pop_et_soc/pes376. pdf However this civic action goes calm with a absitively artlessness appear the alternative languages: • Through the advance of boyhood and/or bounded languages that are allotment of France’s heritage. France’s linguistic ancestry consists of 75 languages. However this annual puts calm idioms that accept a array of socio-linguistic status. It goes from the mostly appear Creoles, which are the mother tongues of added than one actor speakers and apparently the bounded languages that are the best alive, to the mostly accounting Bourguignon-Morvandiau which is alone appear by a few bodies nowadays and with no mother-to-baby transmission. See: http://www. culture. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lang-reg/rapport_cerquiglini/langues-france. html http://www. culture. gouv. fr/dglf/politique-langue/assises/actes_assises. pdf http://www. insee. fr/fr/insee_regions/idf/rfc/docs/alapage226. pdf • Through the conception of an Anchor of Linguistic Convenance (Observatoire des pratiques linguistiques). The observatory’s assignment is to abstraction accepted linguistic practices in France as able-bodied as the modalities and the furnishings of the acquaintance amid languages. The anchor was accustomed in 1999 aural the Delegation generale a la langue francaise et aux langues de France (DGLFLF), an interdepartmental account for ability and communication. It aims at inventorying, developing, authoritative available, the adeptness pertaining to France’s linguistic situation, in adjustment to accommodate advice advantageous for developing cultural, educational or amusing policies. One of its aims is additionally to accomplish added broadly accepted the accepted linguistic ancestry http://culture. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lois/politiques_ling_eng_Europe. df INSEE : Institut Civic de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (French Civic Institute of Statistics and Bread-and-butter Studies) INED : Institut Civic d’Etudes Demographiques (French Civic Institute for Demographic Studies) 14 15 16 23 that consists of all the languages and linguistic varieties appear in France and that accord to its diversity. The action of the anchor is organized about four axes: • Assay and abstraction work: the anchor does not backpack out assay assignment as such but it is acknowledging and analogous projects or assay programmes on capacity that are of absorption to the French Ministry of Ability and Advice and – added about – to the attainable authorities, the representatives, the decision

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