Microbiology: An Introduction to Microbial Genetics

8. 1 Assorted Choice Questions 1) A gene is best authentic as A) a articulation of DNA. B) three nucleotides that cipher for an amino acid. C) a arrangement of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a anatomic product. D) a arrangement of nucleotides in RNA that codes for a anatomic product. E) a transcribed assemblage of DNA. Answer: C Skill: Recall 2) Which of the afterward pairs is mismatched? A) DNA polymerase — makes a atom of DNA from a DNA arrangement B) RNA polymerase — makes a atom of RNA from an RNA arrangement C) DNA ligase — joins segments of DNA D) transposase — admittance of DNA segments into DNA E) DNA gyrase — coils and twists DNA Answer: B Skill: Recall 3) Which of the afterward statements is FALSE? A) DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one administration only. B) The arch fiber of DNA is fabricated continuously. C) The backward fiber of DNA is started by an RNA primer. D) DNA archetype gain in one administration about the bacterial chromosome. E) Assorted archetype forks are accessible on a bacterial chromosome. Answer: D Skill: Understanding 4) DNA is complete of A) a distinct fiber of nucleotides with centralized hydrogen bonding. B) two commutual strands of nucleotides affirmed A—C and G—T. C) two strands of nucleotides active antiparallel. D) two strands of identical nucleotides with hydrogen bonds amid them. E) None of the answers is correct. Answer: C Skill: Understanding 5) Which of the afterward is NOT a artefact of transcription? A) a new fiber of DNA B) rRNA C) tRNA D) mRNA E) None of the answers are correct; all of these are articles of transcription. Answer: A Skill: Understanding 6) Which of the afterward statements about bacteriocins is FALSE? A) The genes coding for them are on plasmids. B) They account aliment contagion symptoms. C) Nisin is a bacteriocin acclimated as a aliment preservative. D) They can be acclimated to analyze assertive bacteria. E) Bacteriocins annihilate bacteria. Answer: B Skill: Understanding Figure 8. 1 7) In Figure 8. 1, which colonies are streptomycin-resistant and leucine-requiring? A) 1, 2, 3, and 9 B) 3 and 9 C) 4, 6, and 8 D) 4 and 8 E) 5 and 6 Answer: D Skill: Analysis Table 8. 1 Culture 1: F+, leucine+, histidine+ Culture 2: F-, leucine-, histidine- 8) In Table 8. 1, what will be the aftereffect of alliance amid cultures 1 and 2? A) 1 will abide the same; 2 will become F+, leucine-, histidine- B) 1 will become F-, leu+, his+; will become F+, leu-, his- C) 1 will become F-, leu-, his-; 2 will abide the aforementioned D) 1 will abide the same; 2 will become F+, leu+, his+ E) 1 will abide the same; 2 will become F+ and recombination may occur Answer: A Skill: Analysis 9) In Table 8. 1, if ability 1 mutates to Hfr, what will be the aftereffect of alliance amid the two cultures? A) They will both abide the same. B) 1 will become F+, leu+, his+; 2 will become F+, leu+, his+ C) 1 will abide the same; recombination will action in 2 D) 1 will become F-, leu+, his+; 2 will become Hfr, leu+, his+ E) The acknowledgment cannot be bent based on the advice provided. Answer: C Skill: Analysis 10) An agitator produced in acknowledgment to the attendance of a substrate is alleged a(n) A) inducible enzyme. B) repressible enzyme. C) brake enzyme. D) operator. E) promoter. Answer: A Skill: Recall 11) Back glucose is high, cAMP is _____: CAP _____ bind the lac operator, and RNA polymerase _____ bind the lac promoter. A) high; does; does B) low; does not; does not C) high; does not; does D) low; does not; does E) None of the answers is correct. Answer: B Skill: Understanding 12) Transformation is the alteration of DNA from a donor to a almsman cell A) by a bacteriophage. B) as naked DNA in solution. C) by cell-to-cell contact. D) by bridge over. E) by animal reproduction. Answer: B Skill: Recall 13) Abiogenetic change in bacilli can be brought about by A) mutation. B) conjugation. C) transduction. D) transformation. E) All of the answers are correct. Answer: E Skill: Understanding 14) Which of the afterward statements apropos a bacillus that is R+ is FALSE? A) It possesses a plasmid. B) R+ can be transferred to a corpuscle of the aforementioned species. C) It is aggressive to assertive drugs and abundant metals. D) It is F+. E) R+ can be transferred to a altered species. Answer: D Skill: Understanding 15) The antecedent aftereffect of ionizing radiation on a corpuscle is that it causes A) DNA to break. B) bonding amid adjoining thymines. C) abject substitutions. D) the accumulation of awful acknowledging ions. E) the beef to get hot. Answer: D Skill: Recall 16) According to the operon model, for the amalgam of an inducible agitator to occur, the A) end-product charge not be in excess. B) substrate charge bind to the enzyme. C) substrate charge bind to the repressor. D) repressor charge bind to the operator. E) repressor charge not be synthesized. Answer: C Skill: Understanding 17) The amalgam of a repressible agitator is chock-full by the A) allosteric transition. B) substrate bounden to the repressor. C) corepressor bounden to the operator. D) corepressor-repressor circuitous bounden to the operator. E) end artefact bounden to the promoter. Answer: D Skill: Understanding Figure 8. 2 Replication Fork 18) In Figure 8. 2, if abject 4 is thymine, what is abject 4'? A) adenine B) thymine C) cytosine D) guanine E) uracil Answer: A Skill: Analysis 19) In Figure 8. 2, if abject 4 is thymine, what is abject 11'? A) adenine B) thymine C) cytosine D) guanine E) uracil Answer: B Skill: Analysis 20) In Figure 8. 2, abject 2 is absorbed to A) ribose. B) phosphate. C) deoxyribose. D) thymine. E) The acknowledgment cannot be bent based on the advice provided. Answer: C Skill: Recall 21) The accident acquired by ultraviolet radiation is A) never repaired. B) repaired during transcription. C) repaired during translation. D) cut out and replaced. E) repaired by DNA replication. Answer: D S kill: Recall Table 8. 2 Codon on mRNA and agnate amino acid UUA leucine UAA nonsense GCA alanine AAU sparagine AAG lysine UGC cysteine GUU valine UCG, UCU serine 22) Refer to Table 8. 2. If the arrangement of amino acids encoded by a fiber of DNA is serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, what is the adjustment of bases in the faculty fiber of DNA? A) 3' UGUGCAAAGUUA B) 3' AGACGTTTCAAT C) 3' TCTCGTTTGTTA D) 5' TGTGCTTTCTTA E) 5' AGAGCTTTGAAT Answer: B Skill: Analysis 23) Refer to Table 8. 2. If the arrangement of amino acids encoded by a fiber of DNA is serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, the coding for the antisense fiber of DNA is A) 5’ ACAGTTTCAAT. B) 5’ TCTGCAAAGTTA. C) 3’ UGUGCAAAGUUA. D) 3’ UCUCGAAAGUUA. E) 3’ TCACGUUUCAAU. Answer: B Skill: Analysis 24) Refer to Table 8. 2 The anticodon for valine is A) GUU. B) CUU. C) CTT. D) CAA. E) GTA. Answer: D Skill: Understanding 25) Refer to Table 8. 2. What is the arrangement of amino acids encoded by the afterward arrangement of bases in a fiber of DNA? 3’ ATTACGCTTTGC A) leucine-arginine-lysine-alanine B) asparagine-arginine-lysine-alanine C) asparagine-cysteine-valine-serine D) Adaptation would stop at the aboriginal codon. E) The acknowledgment cannot be bent based on the advice provided. Answer: D Skill: Analysis 26) Refer to Table 8. 2. If a frameshift alteration occurred in the arrangement of bases apparent below, what would be the arrangement of amino acids coded for? ’ ATTACGCTTTGC A) leucine-arginine-lysine-alanine B) asparagine-arginine-lysine-alanine C) asparagine-cysteine-valine-serine D) Adaptation would stop at the aboriginal codon. E) The acknowledgment cannot be bent based on the advice provided. Answer: E Skill: Understanding 27) In Figure 8. 3, if admixture C reacts with the allosteric armpit of agitator A, this would exemplify A) a mutation. B) repression. C) acknowledgment inhibition. D) aggressive inhibition. E) transcription. Answer: C Skill: Understanding 28) In Figure 8. 3, if agitator A is a repressible enzyme, admixture C would A) consistently be in excess. B) bind to the enzyme. C) bind to the corepressor. D) bind to RNA polymerase. E) bind to gene a. Answer: C Skill: Understanding 29) In Figure 8. 3, if agitator A is an inducible enzyme, A) admixture C would bind to the repressor. B) admixture A would bind to the repressor. C) admixture B would bind to agitator A. D) admixture A would acknowledge with agitator B. E) admixture C would acknowledge with gene a. Answer: B Skill: Understanding 30) Alliance differs from reproduction because conjugation A) replicates DNA. B) transfers DNA vertically, to new cells. C) transfers DNA horizontally, to beef in the aforementioned generation. D) transcribes DNA to RNA. E) copies RNA to accomplish DNA. Answer: C Skill: Understanding 31) The all-important capacity for DNA amalgam can be alloyed calm in a analysis tube. The DNA polymerase is from Thermus aquaticus, and the arrangement is from a animal cell. The DNA actinic would be best agnate to A) animal DNA. B) T. aquaticus DNA. C) a admixture of animal and T. aquaticus DNA. D) animal RNA. E) T. aquaticus RNA. Answer: A Skill: Understanding Table 8. 3 Amino Acids Encoded by the Animal p53 Gene 32) Based on the advice in Table 8. 3, prostate blight is apparently the aftereffect of which affectionate of mutation? A) analog B) frameshift C) missense D) nonsense E) None of the answers is correct. Answer: D Skill: Analysis Figure 8. 4 33) In Figure 8. 4, the antibacterial chloramphenicol binds the 50S ribosome as shown. From this information, you can achieve that chloramphenicol A) prevents archetype in eukaryotes. B) prevents adaptation in eukaryotes. C) prevents archetype in prokaryotes. D) prevents adaptation in prokaryotes. E) prevents mRNA-ribosome binding. Answer: D Skill: Analysis 34) The apparatus by which the attendance of glucose inhibits the arabinose operon is A) catabolite repression. B) translation. C) DNA polymerase. D) repression. E) induction. Answer: A Skill: Recall 35) The apparatus by which the attendance of arabinose controls the arabinose operon is A) catabolite repression. B) translation. C) DNA polymerase. D) repression. E) induction. Answer: E Skill: Recall 36) If you knew the arrangement of nucleotides aural a gene, which one of the afterward could you actuate with the best accuracy? A) the primary anatomy of the protein B) the accessory anatomy of the protein C) the tertiary anatomy of the protein D) the quaternary anatomy of the protein E) The acknowledgment cannot be bent based on the advice provided. Answer: A Skill: Understanding 37) An agitator that makes covalent bonds amid nucleotide sequences in DNA is A) RNA polymerase. B) DNA ligase C) DNA helicase. D) transposase. E) DNA polymerase. Answer: B Skill: Recall 38) An agitator that copies DNA to accomplish a atom of RNA is A) RNA polymerase. B) DNA ligase. C) DNA helicase. D) transposase. E) DNA polymerase. Answer: A Skill: Recall 39) An agitator that catalyzes the acerbic and resealing of DNA, and is translated from admittance sequences, is A) RNA polymerase. B) DNA ligase. C) DNA helicase. D) transposase. E) DNA polymerase. Answer: D Skill: Recall 40) Repair of damaged DNA ability be beheld as a chase amid an endonuclease and A) DNA ligase. B) DNA polymerase. C) helicase. D) methylase. E) primase. Answer: D Skill: Understanding 41) The blight gene ras produces mRNA absolute an added exon that includes a cardinal of UAA codons. Blight beef aftermath ras mRNA missing this exon. This aberration best acceptable is due to a aberration by A) a actinic mutagen. B) DNA polymerase. C) photolyases. D) snRNPs. E) UV radiation. Answer: D Skill: Understanding Figure 8. 5 42) In Figure 8. 5, which archetypal of the lac operon accurately shows RNA polymerase, lactose, and repressor protein back the structural genes are actuality transcribed? A) a B) b C) c D) d E) e Answer: D Skill: Analysis 43) The miRNAs in a cell A) are begin in prokaryotic cells. B) are a allotment of the prokaryotic ribosome. C) are a allotment of the eukaryotic ribosome. D) acquiesce altered beef to aftermath altered proteins. E) are amenable for inducing operons. Answer: D Skill: Recall 44) Assume the two E. coli strains apparent beneath are accustomed to conjugate. Hfr: pro+, arg+, his+, lys+, met+, ampicillin-sensitive F: pro-, arg-, his-, lys-, met-, ampicillin-resistant What supplements would you add to glucose basal salts agar to baddest for a recombinant corpuscle that is lys+, arg+, amp-resistant? A) ampicillin, lysine, arginine B) lysine, arginine C) ampicillin, proline, histidine, methionine D) proline, histidine, methionine E) ampicillin, prolein, histidine, lysine Answer: C Skill: Analysis 45) Protein amalgam in eukaryotes is agnate to the action in prokaryotes in that both eukaryotes and prokaryotes A) accept exons. B) accept introns. C) crave snRNPS. D) use methionine as the “start” amino acid. E) use codons to actuate polypeptide sequences. Answer: E Skill: Understanding 8. 2 True/False Questions 1) Recombination will consistently adapt a cell’s genotype. Answer: TRUE Skill: Understanding 2) Open-reading frames are segments of DNA in which both alpha and stop codons are found. Answer: TRUE Skill: Understanding 3) Bacilli about accommodate assorted chromosomes. Answer: FALSE Skill: Recall 4) Mutations that are adverse to beef action added frequently than those that account cells. Answer: TRUE Skill: Recall 5) The miRNAs in a corpuscle arrest protein amalgam by basic commutual bonds with rRNA. Answer: FALSE Skill: Recall 6) Some bacilli may accommodate assorted genomes. Answer: FALSE Skill: Recall 7) Both abject barter and frameshift mutations can aftereffect in the accumulation of abortive stop codons. Answer: TRUE Skill: Recall 8) In the Ames test, any colonies that anatomy on the ascendancy should be the aftereffect of ad-lib mutations. Answer: TRUE Skill: Recall 9) Transposition after-effects in the accumulation of abject barter mutations in a cell’s DNA. Answer: FALSE Skill: Recall 10) Cell-to-cell acquaintance is appropriate for transduction to occur. Answer: FALSE Skill: Understanding 8. 3 Essay Questions What is the adaptation amount of the semiconservative archetype of DNA? Scientists are anxious that bacilli will be aggressive to all antibiotics aural the abutting decade. Application your ability of genetics, call how bacterial populations can advance biologic attrition in such a abbreviate time frame. Explain why the afterward account is false: Animal reproduction is the alone apparatus for abiogenetic change. Why charge the cultures acclimated in the Ames analysis be auxotrophic? Explain the call of application a ache that is mutated in this experiment. What is the adaptation amount of the abasement of the abiogenetic code?

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