Mercury Effect on Seed Germination
MERCURY EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Capsicum annuum SEEDS NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (Hons. ) TECHNOLOGY AND PLANTATION MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF PLANTATION AND AGROTECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA JULY 2012 MERCURY EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Capsicum annuum SEEDS NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN Final Year Action Address Submitted In Fractional Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Bulk of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Plantation Management In the Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology
Universiti Teknologi MARA JULY 2012 DECLARATION This Final Year Action is a fractional fulfilment of the requirements for a bulk of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Plantation Management, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA. It is absolutely my own assignment and has not been submitted to any alternative University or college apprenticeship institution, or for any alternative bookish accolade in this University. Area use has been fabricated of the assignment of alternative bodies it has been absolutely accustomed and absolutely referenced.
I hereby accredit all and every rights in the absorb to this Assignment to the Universiti Teknologi MARA (“UiTM”), which afterward shall be the buyer of absorb in this Assignment and that, any reproduction or use in any anatomy or by any agency whatsoever is banned afterwards a accounting accord of UiTM. Candidate’s signature: ............................................. Date: .................................... NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN Name: ......................................................................
I hereby acknowledge that I accept arrested this action and in my opinion, this action is able in agreement of ambit and affection for the accolade of the bulk of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Plantation Management, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA. Signature: ……………………………..................... DR. TSAN FUI YING Name of Supervisor: …………………………........ SENIOR LECTURER Position: …………………………............................ Date: ………………………….................................. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Alhamdulliah and acclaim be to Allah for the admonition and blessing, I was able to complete this final year project.
First of all, I would like to accurate my acknowledgment to my supervisor, Dr Tsan Fui Ying, for her guidance, advice, encouragement, acceptable criticisms and additionally for he r backbone in allegorical me throughout final year project. My appropriate acknowledgment from the basal of my affection go to my ancestor s and my ancestors for their compassionate and abutment during my abstraction in UiTM. Lastly, I would additionally like to accurate my appropriate acknowledgment to all my accompany who were anon or alongside complex in giving their ideas, advice, criticism, and moral abutment throughout the project. Thank you actual much. NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background Of Capsicum annuum 1. 2 Bulk Of Capsicum annuum 1. 3 Background of the abundant metal 1. 4 Drupe formation and advance 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 Problem Account Objective Of Abstraction Acceptation Of Abstraction Ambit Of Abstraction 1 2 4 4 5 6 6 6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Antecedent of abundant metal 2. 2 Inhibition of drupe formation Ecology aftereffect 2. 3 7 9 12 3 MATERIAL AND METHOD 3. 1 Location of abstraction . 2 Assay Actual 3. 3 Experimental Action 3. 4 Abstracts accumulating 3. 5 Experimental architecture 3. 6 Statistical assay 3. 7 Assignment agenda 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 17 5 CONCLUSION 20 21 24 34 CITED REFERENCES APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure Caption Page 4. 1 Formation of C. annuum seeds afterwards assay with HgCl2 17 4. 2 Drupe formation at the 10th day with HgCl2 assay at 25mg/l 18 v LIST OF TABLES Table Caption 1. 1 Raw chili peppers (C. annum), comestible bulk per 100 g 3. 1 Assignment agenda for the abstraction on formation and advance of C. nnuum afterwards appliance of HgCl2 at assorted concentrations Formation and advance of C. annuum afterwards assay withHgCl2 4. 1 Page vi 3 16 18 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS UiTM Universiti Teknologi MARA Hg Mercury HgCl2 Mercury chloride mg/l milligram per liter cm Centimeter vii ABSTRACT Mercury Aftereffect on Formation and Advance of Capsicum annuum Seeds A abstraction was agitated out to actuate the formation and advance of Capsicum annuum afterwards appliance of mercury chloride (HgCl2) at assorted concentrations. This abstraction was conducted at Class A603, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam.
A absolute of 600 C. annuum seeds were acclimated in this study. A absolute of 5 altered assimilation s of HgCl2 (0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) were activated in this study. The treatments were agitated out by agency of applying the actinic to the seeds on cardboard anhydrate in Petri dishes. The appliance aggregate was 2 ml per Petri bowl at alternating canicule unless the cardboard anhydrate was still clammy with the antecedent appliance of solution. The abstracts in agreement of drupe formation and growth, included breadth of abolitionist and plumule, were recorded.
This abstraction was based on Complete Randominized Architecture (CRD) with 5 replicates for anniversary treatment. All the abstracts were subjected to Assay of About-face (ANOVA) and assay agency were compared appliance Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. The formation and advance of C. annuum was decidedly afflicted by the assimilation of the abundant metal below study, abnormally with assimilation ? 50 mg/l. Abolitionist advance was begin added acute to the attendance and assimilation of HgCl 2 as compared to calamus with this bake-apple vegetable species. viii ABSTRAK Kesan Merkuri terhadap Percambahan dan Pertumbuhan
Biji Benih Capsicum annuum Satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk menentukan percambahan dan pertumbuhan biji benih Capsicum annuum selepas aplikasi merkuri klorida (HgCl2) pada kepekatan yang berbeza. Kajian ini telah dijalankan di Makmal A603, Fakulti Perladangan dan Agroteknologi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam. Sebayak 600 biji benih telah digunakan dalam kajian ini. Sebanyak 5 kepekatan HgCl2 (0 (kawalan), 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) telah digunakan dalam kajian ini. Rawatan ke atas biji benih adalah dengan menggunakan bahan kimia pada biji benih yang diletakkan di atas tuala kertas dalam piring Petri.
Isipadu aplikasi ialah 2 ml bagi setiap piring Petri dan rawatan diulang pada selang 2 hari kecuali tuala kertas masih lembap dengan larutan sebelumnya. Abstracts mengenai percambahan biji benih dan pertumbuhan, termasuk panjang akar dan pucuk, dicatatkan. Kajian ini dijalankan berdasarkan Rekabentuk Rambang Lengkap (CRD) dengan 5 kali pengulangan bagi setiap rawatan. Semua abstracts dianalisis dengan menggunakan Assay of About-face (ANOVA) dan purata rawatan dibandingkan dengan menggunakan Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. Percambahan dan pertumbuhan C. annuum dipengaruhi dengan ketaranya oleh kepekatan logam berat yang dikaji, terutamanya pada kepekatan ? 0 mg/l. Pertumbuhan akar didapati lebih sensitif kepada kehadiran dan kepekatan HgCl2 berbanding dengan pucuk untuk spesis sayuran buah ini. ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of Capsicum Capsicum annuum is a affiliate of the ancestors Solanaceae and a chic of Dicotyledons. It is frequently accustomed as Chili. Capsicum contains aerial bulk of comestible bulk such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), A, B-complex and E forth with minerals like molybdenum, manganese, folate, potassium and thiamine. Capsicum contains seven times added vitamin C than orange (Simone et al. , 1997).
Capsicum analogue is absolutely confusing, the analogue is synonymously acclimated for “chilli pepper” plants alleged such as pepper, chili, chile, chilli, aji, paprika and Capsicum. There are anticipation to be 25-30 Capsicum breed with bristles altered names, such as C. annuum L. , C. frustescens Mill. , C. baccatum L. , C. chinense and C. pubescens Ruiz and Pavon, which accept been calm and currently able (Csillery, 2006). Capsicum is the best boundless and broadly able breed in subtropics and abstemious countries (Belletti et al. , 1998). The accurate allocation of C. nnuum is as below: 1 Kingdom : Plantae – Plants Chic : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Subclass : Asteridae Adjustment : Solanales Ancestors : Solanaceae – Potato ancestors Brand : Capsicum L. – Pepper Breed : Capsicum annuum L. – cayenne pepper Although the breed name annuum agency “annual” (from Latin annus “year”), the bulb is not an anniversary and in the absence of winter frosts, it can survive several seasons and abound into ample abiding shrub. The si ngle flowers are of fair (sometimes purplish) blush while the axis is densely angled and the bulb can abound up to 60 centimeter tall.
The bake-apple is drupe which may be green, chicken and red back ripe. While the breed can abide best climates, C. annuum is abnormally advantageous in balmy and dry climates (Anonymous, 2012b). 1. 2 Bulk of capsicum Capsicums accept their own allowances and ethics to beastly beings. As we know, capsicums are acclimated in affable and additionally as medicines. Capsicum is an basal aroma acclimated as basal additive in a abundant array of cuisine all over the world. It is additionally acclimated as flavoring, blush and adds aroma and aftertaste to the contrarily anemic food. Moreover, Capsicum breed are active accomplished 2 r arena and abandoned or in aggregate with alternative flavorings agents, primarily in the pickles, broiled or barbeques (Ravishankar et al. , 2003). Table 1. 1: Raw chili peppers (C. annum), comestible bulk per 100 g Principle Comestible Bulk Allotment of RDA Action 40 Kcal 2% Carbohydrates 8. 81 g 7% Protein 1. 87 g 3% Absolute Fat 0. 44 g 2% Cholesterol 0 mg 0% Dietary Fiber 1. 5 g 3% Vitamins Folates 23 mcg 6% Niacin 1. 244 mg 8% Pantothenic acerbic 0. 201 mg 4% Pyridoxine 0. 506 mg 39% Riboflavin 0. 086 mg 6. 5% Thiamin 0. 72 mg 6% Vitamin A 952 IU 32% Vitamin C 143. 7 mg 240% Vitamin E 0. 69 mg 4. % Vitamin K 14 mcg 11. 5% Electrolytes Sodium 9 mg 0. 5% Potassium 322 mg 7% Minerals Calcium 14 mg 1. 5 % Chestnut 0. 129 mg 14% Adamant 1. 03 mg 13% Magnesium 23 mg 6% Manganese 0. 187 mg 8% Phosphorus 43 mg 6% Selenium 0. 5 mcg 1% Zinc 0. 26 mg 2% Phyto-nutrients Carotene-? 534 mcg -Carotene-? 36 mcg -Cryptoxanthin-? 40 mcg -Lutein-zeaxanthin 709 mcg -Source: USDA National Comestible abstracts abject (Anonymous, 2012a) 3 1. 3 Background of abundant metal According to Thomine et al. (2000), metals such as adamant (Fe), manganese (Mn), and chestnut (Cu) are all-important as co-factors for abounding enzymatic reactions.
Some metals, such as zinc (Zn), comedy important structural roles in proteins. Furthermore, metal cations accept afresh been apparent to be complex in signaling in animals and plants. According to Ghavri and Singh (2010) in agreement of stabilizing attenuated sites, a lower metal assimilation in axis is adopted in adjustment to anticipate metal from entering into ecosystem. However, plants additionally charge to ascendancy adjoin boundless accession of capital cations and baneful abundant metals, such as cadmium (Cd2+), lead, mercury, and arsenic.
When taken up in boundless quantities, these elements are transferred in the aliment alternation area they may accept adverse furnishings on the bloom of bodies and animals. Abundant metals can access the aliment alternation via bulb uptake (Chayed, 2009). According to Mami (2011) from Guilan University, Rasht, Islamic Republic of Iran, abundant metals accept afresh accustomed the assimilation of advisers all over the world, mainly due to additionally their adverse aftereffect on plant. 1. 4 Drupe formation and advance According to the drupe physiologists, formation is authentic as the actualization of the abolitionist through the drupe coat.
Basic requirements for formation accommodate water, gases, temperature and damp availability. 4 According to Vera et al. (2010), acknowledgment to calefaction and to low pH promotes formation and reduces time to germinate, which indicates that formation is accompanying to access of blaze and to clay pH. Formation is additionally activated with wet and algid altitude and cessation can be classified as actuality the physiological type. In addition, it able-bodied accustomed that temperature, ablaze conditions, nitrates or hormonal assay may additionally affect germination. In an agreement conducted by Koger et al. 2004), Caperonia palustris seeds from artlessly dehisced with absolute aphotic gray blush were apparent to pre air-conditioned in attempts to breach any cessation apparatus imposed on drupe kept at allowance temperature. After-effects showed that pre air-conditioned did not absolution dormancy. Drupe germinated with clashing 12-h light/dark and connected aphotic conditions. Drupe formation assay appliance absorber solutions of pH 4 to 10 recorded formation of 31 to 62% over a pH ambit from 4 to 10. Abundant metals may additionally affect drupe germination, mainly believed to be attributed to toxicity effects. They can be chancy because they cannot be estroyed or abandoned but they are bioaccumulated. 1. 5 Problem account Capsicum annuum is a affectionate of bake-apple vegetable best frequently captivated and its assembly is of concerned. Like alternative crops, Capsicum needs to ascendancy adjoin boundless accession of capital cations and baneful abundant metals for drupe development and production. The abundant metals may account a abrogating aftereffect to the drupe formation and growth. 5 1. 6 Objective of abstraction The agreement was conducted by because the objectives of abstraction as below: 1. To actuate the mercury aftereffect on formation of C. nnuum seeds. 2. To analyze the mercury aftereffect on consecutive antecedent bulb advance of C. annuum afterwards drupe germination. 1. 7 Acceptation of abstraction This abstraction is important to beam and actuate the mercury aftereffect on formation and advance of C. annuum seeds. The aftereffect from this abstraction is hoped to accommodate advice on formation and advance of C. annuum seeds as afflicted by mercury assimilation in soil, e. g. ex-mining soils. 1. 8 Ambit of Abstraction The agreement conducted to analyze the assimilation of mercury that may affect formation and advance of C. nnuum seeds complex the drupe abstraction from fruits, drupe assay with mercury chloride (HgCl2), drupe formation recording, altitude of breadth of abolitionist and plumule, abstracts assay and address writing. 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Antecedent of abundant metal There are abounding sources of abundant metals in clay including accustomed sources e. g. clay ancestor material, agitable eruptions, abyssal aerosols, and backwoods fires; agronomical sources e. g. fertilizers, carrion sludge, pesticides and irrigation water; action and ammunition assembly sources e. g. emissions from adeptness stations; mining and admixture e. . tailing, smelting, adorning and busline (Reichman, 2002). It is about accustomed that abundant metal contagion can not alone aftereffect in adverse furnishings on assorted ambit apropos to bulb affection and yield, but additionally account changes in the size, agreement and action of the clay microbial association (Giller et al. , 1998). Abundant metals adeptness accrue in the aliment chains, with risks for the bloom of animals and humans, which are below acute to metal toxicity than plants, but they are able of apperception abundant metal in assertive tissues and organs (Peralta et al. 2001). The access of metals on development and reproduction of plants can be firstly quantified by chargeless the formation ancestry of seeds and advance achievement of seedling. In the attendance of aerial concentrations of some abundant metals, best bulb breed performe the abridgement of drupe formation and bulb advance (Patra and Sharma, 2000). 7 The aerial metal accommodation advance the abeyant for abundant metal accession and phytotoxicity for crops developed in soils accepting the metal accomplished carrion sludge.
Hence, it will absolute its appliance on land, because of the acrimonious regulations for acreage appliance of abundant metals i n the anatomy of carrion (Wong et al. , 2001). The aerial abundant metal accommodation adeptness affectation a baneful aftereffect to plants and account abundant metal accession in bulb tissues (Wong et al. , 2001). Abounding of those who performed concise class studies additionally altercate ed their after-effects in affiliation to absolute regulations for abundant metals in soils, or the accessible aftereffect of the agronomical use of metal-contaminated articles such as carrion sludge, beastly manures and fungicides (Giller et al. 1998). The administration of abundant metals in the organs of plants is not homogenous; it depends on the breed and the aspect (Kozanecka et al. , 2002). The appliance of cow dung in boscage clay not alone provided nutrients for bulb growth, but additionally counterbalanced the metal in the clay and bargain metal toxicity to the bulb (Ghavri and Singh, 2010). According to Longman (2006), mercury is a abundant argent white poisonous metal that is aqueous at accustomed temperature and it is a actinic aspect attribute is Hg. It is a common pollutant that accumulates in bacilli and is awful toxic.
Elemental mercury is calmly transported as a gas about the 8 globe, and alike alien areas actualization affirmation of mercury abuse basic from automated sources such as adeptness plants (Morel et al. , 1998). Mercury is a baneful abundant metal that is of cogent affair as an ecology pollutant back mercury is not actual phototoxic in frequently occurring concentrations. In attenuated regions, mercury is a non -degradable baneful abundant metal pollutant back it is accumulated by plants. The advice is alarm about its uptake apparatus and advance inhibition. There are a advanced ambit of sources that afford mercury to the atmosphere.
Approximately bisected of the atmospheric account of vapor-phase mercury is attributed to anthropogenic sources and bisected to accustomed antecedent (Nriagu, 1989) The accession of mercury in earthbound plants increases with accretion clay mercury concentration. Clay blazon has ample access on this process, i. e. aerial amoebic bulk agreeable will abatement uptake. Generally, the accomplished concentrations of mercury are begin at the roots, but about-face to alternative organs occurs. In adverse to college plants, mosses are accustomed to booty up mercury via atmospheric degradation (Boening, 2000).
The assuming of mercury uptake showed that mercury bounden is abased on antecedent pH, agitation speed, bulk of dosage and additionally the alternation amid pH and acquaintance time (Ling, 2010). 2. 2 Inhibition of drupe formation According to Longman (2006), drupe is a small, adamantine article produced by plants, from which a new bulb of the aforementioned affectionate grows. Poor affection seeds ache from afterward problems of low formation percentage, poor 9 emergence, poor survival, and poor adeptness to site, afflicted to ache and pests, poor growth, and low abundance (Anonymous, 2011a).
The characteristics of acceptable seeds are able-bodied ripened, advantageous and accurate to type, authentic and chargeless from apathetic abstracts and edger seeds, applicable and accept acceptable formation capacity, compatible in its texture, anatomy and appearance, and chargeless from accident and should not be burst and inflected by pests and diseases (Anonymous, 2011a). Drupe formation is authentic as the actualization and development from drupe antecedent of those capital structures, which are apocalyptic of the adeptness of drupe to aftermath a accustomed bulb below favorable altitude (Anonymous, 2011a).
Seeds charge to be handled anxiously to abstain accident to the embryo. Rough administration at agriculture time can aftereffect in a lower allotment of germination. Actual tests are fabricated at intervals to assure a acceptable allotment of germination. Abounding seeds will germinate in a anniversary or two or three weeks, but some seeds may booty weeks or alike years until barriers to formation are removed (Butterfield, 1967). Although seeds are rather agnate in anatomy and in the aforementioned taxonomic family, their formation patterns are absolutely altered (McDonald, 2011).
Seeds abide in a accompaniment of dormancy, arresting oxygen, giving off carbon dioxide, and boring appliance up their stored aliment affluence during formation (Rindels, 1996). Every applicable drupe has the abeyant to become a plant. For this to happen, the drupe charge germinate, and for formation to occur, a drupe 10 about needs baptize (during assimilation and consecutive stages of growth), oxygen (for respiration) and temperature able for metabolism and growth. Some seeds additionally crave ablaze and accordingly charge be on the clay apparent in adjustment to germinate, and not active below the clay apparent (McDonald, 2011).
A accepted account was fabricated that percent of formation or p ercent of applicable seeds of Rumex scutatus bead over time as a aftereffect of acknowledgment to ecology altitude (Yilmaz and Aksoy, 2007). Some seeds accept assertive chemicals central them to which anticipate their germination, while some seeds may not accept able-bodied developed antecedent and crave accumulator for a few weeks afore formation can booty abode (Anonymous, 2011a). Some seeds present abysmal physiological cessation with a actual low formation allotment and they charge a continued time to alpha formation (Vera et al. , 2010).
Heavy metals of Zn and ZnO particles were empiric to accept cogent inhibition on drupe formation and basis advance (El-Temsah and Joner, 2010). The abatement in the bulk of formation allotment and formation basis of the drupe acquired by the added bulk of brownish admixture indicates that at a lower concentration, the contaminant airish little or no abuse on the drupe activity but in college level, formation is backward (Jaja and Odoemena, 2004). In the attendance of abundant metals at assertive concentrations, the abolitionist of Arabidopsis thaliana protruded from testa, but the antecedent advance was arrested above the point (Li et al. 2005). Although the drupe covering provides some aegis from metal accent above-mentioned to germination, it will eventually 11 able or become added absorbent aloft germination. The accepted abstract suggests that drupe formation is afflicted by metals in two ways. Firstly, by their accepted toxicity, and secondly are by their inhibition of baptize uptake (Kranner and Colville, 2011). The drupe abrasion acquired by amoebic mercurials to cereals was characterized by aberrant germination. The primary aftereffect of mercury could possibly be on the antecedent itself, and furnishings on the endosperm were of accessory accent (Patra and Sharma, 2000). . 3 Ecology aftereffect Salinity bargain formation allotment and additionally delayed the formation amount as the alkali akin was increased. The formation rate, formation basis and accessory of acceleration of formation of beat sorghums decreased below salinity treatments. The formation allotment was a best in distilled water, but decreased with accretion salinity (Siti Aishah et al. , 2010). The pH of clay plays a abundant role in the speciation and bio-availability of abundant metals thus; the best acceptable con centrations in clay alter with clay (Luo et al. , 2011).
The allotment formation was low at acerb as able-bodied as acrid altitude in both the sets of scarified and unscarified Solanum nigrum seeds. It was empiric that aloof pH plays in an important role in accretion formation (Suthar et al. , 2009). 12 Erica australis had added drupe formation in acknowledgment to factors accompanying to access of blaze and low pH (Vera et al. , 2010). Caperonia palustris drupe formation was below than 32% at pH 4 and 10. Aerial drupe formation over a ample pH ambit adumbrated that pH may not be a attached agency for formation in best soils (Koger et al. , 2004).
The accession of adhesive acquired a cogent access in clay pH accouterment an acrid buffering accommodation adjoin abundant metal availability for the acerbic abundant clay while afterwards liming the acerb clay may account a blurred of the alkalinity of carrion consistent in a college availability of abundant metals (Wong et al. , 2001). 13 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Location of the abstraction This abstraction was conducted at Class A603, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor. 3. 2 Assay actual Capsicum annuum absolutely accomplished fruits were purchased from bounded bazaar and a absolute of 600 seeds were extracted from the fruits.
The seeds were bankrupt with active tap water, pat broiled with cardboard anhydrate and air broiled for two canicule above-mentioned to experimentation. 3. 3 Agreement action 3. 3. 1 Sterilization of drupe Seeds were rinsed with 10% Chlorox followed by 3 times rinsing with distilled water. 3. 3. 2 Assay Seeds were germinated in amid Petri dishes on cardboard anhydrate absolute HgCl2 solutions at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/l respectively. The cardboard anhydrate was aqueous with 2 ml of the corresponding HgCl 2 band-aid afore the seeds were placed on the cardboard anhydrate for formation test. The cardboard anhydrate was activated with 2 ml of the 14 espective mercury band-aid at alternating canicule unless the cardboard anhydrate was still begin clammy with the antecedent appliance of solution. 3. 4 Abstracts accumulating The germination/emergence of the bulb (radical and plumule) was recorded for a aeon of 10 days. Then, the breadth of the abolitionist (primary root) and calamus (primary shoot) was abstinent at two canicule afterwards germination. The alternative aberrant morphology, advance and development of seedlings were additionally recorded. 3. 5 Experimental architecture The agreement was based on absolutely randomized architecture (CRD) as it is the best frequently acclimated architecture for class research.
This agreement was abiding in a CRD as a distinct agency agreement with 5 replicates. There were 20 seeds in anniversary replicate. 3. 6 Statistical assay Assay of about-face (ANOVA) was agitated out and assay agency were compared appliance Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. Formation allotment was adapted to arc-sine bulk afore ANOVA. 3. 7 Assignment agenda This abstraction was conducted starting from January 2011 until July 2011 (Table 3. 1). It complex abstraction and charwoman of seeds, air dehydration of seeds, sterilization procedure, and assay with HgCl2, abstracts accumulating and abstracts 15 analysis.
At the end of this study, action address was presented orally and the accounting final address was submitted. Table 3. 1: Assignment agenda for the abstraction on formation and advance of C. annuum afterwards appliance of HgCl2 at assorted concentrations Weeks activities 2 Accumulating of actual / / 8 10 / 12 14 / / / Abstracts accumulating 6 / Assay 4 Abstracts assay Oral presentation / Submission of address / 16 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Figure 4. 1 indicates the formation of C. annuum seeds advised with capricious concentrations of HgCl2. Capsicum annuum drupe formation was decidedly afflicted by assay with HgCl2 up to 100 mg/l (Figures 4. and 4. 2; Table 4. 1; Appendices A and B). Seeds advised ? 50 mg/l HgCl 2 showed decidedly lower formation allotment and formation basis as compared to the ascendancy seeds advised with distilled baptize and those advised with lower HgCl 2 at 25 mg/l. This trend was arresting from 4 canicule afterwards formation advanced until end of the abstraction aeon of 10 days. Figure 4. 1: Formation of C. annuum seeds afterwards assay with HgCl2 17 Figure 4. 2: Drupe formation at the 10th day with HgCl2 assay at 25mg/l Table 4. 1: Formation and advance of C. annuum afterwards assay withHgCl2 HgCl2 mg/l) Formation % Formation basis Breadth of abolitionist (cm) Breadth of calamus (cm) 0 100±0 a 5. 41±0. 84 a 1. 75±0. 11 a 0. 77±0. 07 a 25 95±6. 12 a 5. 38±0. 59 a 1. 23±0. 07 b 0. 70±0. 06 ab 50 56±9. 62 b 3. 08±0. 73 b 0. 95±0. 08 c 0. 58±0. 11 b 75 49±6. 52 b 3. 16±0. 66 b 0. 61±0. 02 d 0. 36±0. 01 c 100 28±9. 08 c 1. 90±0. 54 b 0. 47±0. 02 e 0. 33±0. 11 c Agency with the aforementioned letter aural the aforementioned cavalcade are not decidedly altered at 5% akin of acceptation All HgCl2 treatments alignment from 25 – 100 mg/l as advised resulted in cogent inhibition of abolitionist advance (Table 4. ; Appendi ces B and C). Advance inhibition of 18 abolitionist added decidedly and accompanying with accretion HgCl 2 assimilation advertence that abolitionist was actual acute to this abundant metal. Based on Table 4. 1, calamus advance of C. annuum seeds was additionally afflicted decidedly by the HgCl2 assay (Appendices B and D). Calamus advance was below acute to this abundant metal; alone those advised at college ante of 75 and 100 mg/l showed decidedly the greatest inhibition effects. Abundant metal of mercury was begin to affect the formation and advance of C. nnuum seeds. Based on the results, mercury at 50 mg/l was begin to arrest drupe formation in agreement of formation allotment and formation index. This assimilation of mercury additionally afflicted development of abolitionist and calamus in agreement of breadth of the organs. Toxicity acquired by the below abstraction abundant metal at assimilation of 50 mg/l was accepted to aftereffect in accessible bargain drupe formation and inhibition of advance of seedlings of C. annuum. 19 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Drupe formation and advance of C. annuum seedlings were afflicted with HgCl2 at 50 mg/l.
Reduced drupe formation and inhibition of bulb advance were recorded with this assay and college assimilation of HgCl2. The seeds of this bake-apple vegetable can be assured to be acute to mercury contamination. 20 CITED REFERENCES Anonymous. (2012a). Chili peppers diet facts. Retrieved 20 May 2012, from http://www. nutrition-and-you. com/chili-peppers. html Anonymous. (2012b). PLANTS Profile Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum cayenne pepper Retrieved 20 May 2012, from http://plants. usda. gov/java/profile? symbol=CAAN4 Anonymous. (2011a). Drupe technology.
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S. & Fang, M. (2001). Availability of abundant metals for Brassica chinensis developed in an acerb abundant clay adapted with calm and automated carrion sludge. Water, Air and Clay Abuse 128:339-353. Yilmaz, D. D. , & Aksoy, A. (2007). Physiological furnishings of altered ecology altitude on the drupe formation of Rumex scutatus L. (Polygonaceae). Erciyes Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 23(1-2): 24-29. 23 APPENDIX A Formation of C. annuum seeds HgCl2 (mg/l) 0 25 50 75 100 Carbon 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 7 5 8 6 7 4 5 7 5 2 3 3 2 6 3 4 5 2 3 3 2 2 1 24 4 7 8 5 9 6 6 6 5 5 4 2 6 4 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 4 1 4 Aeon (days) 6 5 6 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 3 5 2 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 8 4 2 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 5 3 2 10 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 APPENDIX B ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square formation Amid Groups Aural Groups G. I Breadth of abolitionist Breadth of calamus Absolute Amid Groups Aural Groups Absolute Amid Groups Aural Groups Absolute Amid Groups Aural Groups Absolute 12408. 834 4 3102. 208 707. 247 20 F Sig. 35. 362 13116. 081 48. 100 9. 246 57. 346 5. 203 .091 5. 294 .758 .130 .888 25 24 4 20 24 4 20 24 4 20 24 12. 025 .462 87. 726 . 000 26. 011 . 000 1. 301 286. 374 . 000 .005 .190 .007 29. 159 . 00 Multiple Comparisons Tukey HSD Abased Variable (I) assay (J) assay formation 0 25 50 75 100 25 0 50 75 100 50 0 25 75 100 75 0 25 50 100 100 0 25 50 75 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 9. 72566 3. 76098 . 111 Lower Bound Upper Bound -1. 5286 20. 9799 3. 76098 . 000 30. 2341 52. 7426 3. 76098 . 000 34. 3137 56. 8222 3. 76098 . 000 47. 0576 69. 5661 -9. 72566 3. 76098 . 111 -20. 9799 1. 5286 41. 48839 * 45. 56795 * 58. 31190 * 31. 76273 * 3. 76098 . 000 20. 5085 43. 0170 35. 84229 * 3. 76098 . 000 24. 5880 47. 0965 48. 58623 * 3. 76098 . 000 37. 3320 59. 8405 -41. 48839 * . 76098 . 000 -52. 7426 -30. 2341 -31. 76273 * 3. 76098 . 000 -43. 0170 -20. 5085 4. 07956 3. 76098 . 812 -7. 1747 15. 3338 16. 82351 * 3. 76098 . 002 5. 5693 28. 0778 -45. 56795 * 3. 76098 . 000 -56. 8222 -34. 3137 -35. 84229 * 3. 76098 . 000 -47. 0965 -24. 5880 -4. 07956 3. 76098 . 812 -15. 3338 7. 1747 12. 74395 * 3. 76098 . 022 1. 4897 23. 9982 -58. 31190 * 3. 76098 . 000 -69. 5661 -47. 0576 -48. 58623 * 3. 76098 . 000 -59. 8405 -37. 3320 -16. 82351 * 3. 76098 . 002 -28. 0778 -5. 5693 -12. 74395 * 3. 76098 . 022 -23. 9982 -1. 4897 26 Multiple Comparisons Tukey HSD 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference (I-J)
Dependent Variable (I) assay (J) assay G. I 0 25 .03500 .43003 1. 000 -1. 2518 1. 3218 50 2. 33000 * .43003 . 000 1. 0432 3. 6168 2. 25333 * .43003 . 000 .9665 3. 5401 3. 51167 * .43003 . 000 2. 2249 4. 7985 0 -. 03500 .43003 1. 000 -1. 3218 1. 2518 50 2. 29500* .43003 . 000 1. 0082 3. 5818 75 2. 21833 * .43003 . 000 .9315 3. 5051 3. 47667 * .43003 . 000 2. 1899 4. 7635 -2. 33000 * .43003 . 000 -3. 6168 -1. 0432 -2. 29500 * .43003 . 000 -3. 5818 -1. 0082 75 -. 07667 .43003 1. 000 -1. 3635 1. 2101 100 1. 18167 .43003 . 082 -. 1051 2. 4685 0 -2. 25333 * .43003 . 000 -3. 5401 -. 9665 25 -2. 21833* .43003 . 000
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