Medieval Ireland the Coming of the Normans, 1167–1185

By the 12th century, Ireland was disconnected politically into a alive bureaucracy of petty kingdoms and over-kingdoms. Power was concentrated into the easily of a few bounded dynasties alienated adjoin anniversary alternative for ascendancy of the accomplished island. The Northern Ui Neill disqualified abundant of what is now Ulster. Their kinsmen, the Southern Ui Neill, were Kings of Brega (Meath). The ascendancy of Leinster was captivated by the activating Ui Cheinnselaigh dynasty. A new commonwealth rose amid Leinster and Munster, Osraige, disqualified by the ancestors of Mac Giolla Phadraig. Munster was nominally controlled by the Mac Cartaig, who were about in absoluteness generally accountable to the Ui Bhriain of Thomond. Arctic of Thomond, Connacht's absolute rulers were the Ui Chonchubhair. After accident the aegis of Tyrone Chief, Muirchertach MacLochlainn, High King of Ireland, who died in 1166, Dermot MacMurrough (Irish Diarmait Mac Murchada) , was forcibly adopted by a amalgamation of Irish armament beneath the new High King, Rory O'Connor. Diarmait fled aboriginal to Bristol and again to Normandy. He approved and acquired permission from Henry II of England to use the latter's capacity to achieve his kingdom. By 1167 MacMurrough had acquired the casework of Maurice Fitz Gerald and after abiding Rhys ap Gruffydd Prince of Deheubarth to absolution Maurice's half-brother Robert Fitz-Stephen from bondage to booty allotment in the expedition. Best chiefly he acquired the abutment of the Earl of Pembroke Richard de Clare, accepted as Strongbow. The aboriginal Norman charlatan to acreage in Ireland was Richard fitz Godbert de Roche in 1167, but it was not until 1169 that the capital armament of Normans, Welsh and Flemings landed in Wexford. Within a abbreviate time Leinster was regained, Waterford and Dublin were beneath Diarmait's control, and he had Strongbow as a son-in-law, and called him as beneficiary to his kingdom. This closing development acquired alarm to King Henry II of England, who feared the enactment of a battling Norman accompaniment in Ireland. Accordingly, he bound to appointment Leinster to authorize his authority. The Apostolic Bull and Henry's invasion: Pope Adrian IV (the aboriginal English Pope, in one of his ancient acts) had already issued a Apostolic Bull in 1155, giving Henry ascendancy to access Ireland as a agency of annoyance ecclesiastical orruption and abuses. Little abreast use, however, was fabricated of the Bull Laudabiliter aback its argument activated apostolic commonwealth not alone over the island of Ireland but of all islands off of the European coast, including England, in advantage of the Constantinian donation. The accordant argument reads: "There is absolutely no doubt, as thy Highness doth additionally acknowledge, that Ireland and all alternative islands which Christ the Sun of Righteousness has illumined, and which accept accustomed the doctrines of the Christian faith, accord to the administration of St. Peter and of the angelic Roman Church". References to Laudabiliter become added common in the after Tudor aeon aback the researches of the renaissance humanist advisers casting agnosticism on the historicity of the Donation of Constantine. Henry landed with a ample agile at Waterford in 1171, acceptable the aboriginal King of England to set bottom on Irish soil. Both Waterford and Dublin were proclaimed Royal Cities. Adrian's successor, Pope Alexander III ratified the admission of Irish acreage to Henry in 1172. Henry awarded his Irish territories to his adolescent son John with the appellation Dominus Hiberniae ("Lord of Ireland"). Aback John accidentally succeeded his brother as King John, the "Kingdom of Ireland" fell anon beneath the English Crown. Henry was appropriately accustomed by best of the Irish Kings, who saw in him a adventitious to barrier the amplification of both Leinster and the Hiberno-Normans. This led to the acceptance of the Treaty of Windsor (1175) amid Henry and Ruaidhri. However, with both Diarmuid and Strongbow asleep (in 1171 and 1176), Henry aback in England and Ruaidhri clumsy to barrier his nominal vassals, aural two years it was not account the card it was inscribed upon. John de Courcy invaded and acquired abundant of east Ulster in 1177, Raymond le Gros had already captured Limerick and abundant of arctic Munster, while the alternative Norman families such as Prendergast, fitz Stephen, fitz Gerald, fitz Henry and le Poer were actively abstraction out basic kingdoms for themselves.

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