Marketing Strategies of Mcdonalds in India

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Business is a activity of alluring -to-be barter and consumers in your articles and services. However the acute chat in the aloft book is “procedure ", appropriately business incorporates researching, advertising, selling, and distributing your articles or services. Appropriately we planned to focus on one of the best accepted brands worldwide, McDonald’s Corporation. The afterward controlling arbitrary presents the key business aspects of McDonald’s Corporation and should be apprehend as a accompaniment to the capacity of this report. Summarized agreeable Page No. • Key facts about the firm. Alien ambiance armament and chump behaviour. • The abstraction of Business mix and its assorted aspects. • Accommodation authoritative activity and cast image. 2 2 3 • The Artefact Activity aeon and what accomplish the aggregation is demography to revitalise its absolute products. • The altered advice strategies acclimated by the aggregation in announcement its articles and the capricious styles of television announcement agitated out aback McDonald’s barrage in India. • The administration and the accumulation alternation arrangement of the close in India. • The SWOT assay of the close forth with inference and some recommendations. 8 9 10 1. 0 INTRODUCTION Business is accepted by majority of business groups as artlessly to beggarly artlessly to promote, acquaint and advertise. But this is not absolutely accurate as business incorporates all techniques from animal behaviour and cultures through research, new artefact launch, artefact activity cycle, advertising, accessible relations and assuredly the sales function. The Chartered Institute of Business (CIM) describes business as ‘the administration adjustment answerable for discovering, anticipating, and acceptable chump claim valuably. ’ Hence the best cogent abstraction of business lies in alive and compassionate your customer. This address aims at investigating how McDonald’s Corporation, a all-around restaurant has accomplished this astronomic success in all-embracing advance and challenges due to its business strategies. 2. 0 BACKGROUND AND DISCUSSION Out of the astronomic bazaar of fast aliment industry, McDonald's Corporation is the globe's fastest growing firm, with added than 20,000 restaurants in 100 countries (Vignali, 2001). In the UK, McDonald's operates a amazing 900 restaurants (www. bc. co. uk ). Initially it was started as a hot dog angle by Dick and Mac McDonald at California, USA in 1937. The business began in 1955 aback Ray Kroc and the McDonald’s brothers opened a restaurant to the arctic of Chicago. From afresh on, McDonald's grew rapidly and today is accepted as an all-embracing brand. However, the cuisine card has been afflicted to accommodated the address and lifestyles of the customers. India has been a difficult bazaar for any beyond close to do business because its assortment and cultural differences. However McDonald’s accustomed its aboriginal Indian aperture in Vasant Vihar, New Delhi in October 1996. McDonald's India has a 50-50 collective adventure involving McDonald's Corporation, US and 2 Indian business men, Amit Jatia’s (Hard alcazar Restaurants Private Limited) and Vikram Bakshi (Connaught Plaza Restaurants Private Limited). About aloft percent of the card accessible in McDonald’s in India is Indianized and alone advised to allure Indian consumers (Dash, 2005). But the success accept not appear at ease, the close had to accommodated a lot of obstacles and problems in attaining its aerial standards. . 0 EXTERNAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES McDonald’s faces abounding alien business ecology forces, which the close has to accustom with and accord accordingly. With account to ambiance forces, the close has to acclimate awful burst aliment barter and developing transportation. Because the actuality that India’s aliment amount is on the rise, McDonald’s additionally has to attempt with the millions of alley ancillary stalls, dhabas (Regional Aliment Stalls) and carts which activity accepted aliment beyond India (Dash, 2005). Hence the aggregation has appear up with a array of reasonable articles at reasonable prices. In appearance of the cultural force, the close has to beat the aloft bounded languages and the educational barrier amid the people. Appropriately McDonald’s adapts to the bounded accent and uses signs as a able affectation of firm’s affirmation to the localities (Chauhan, 2008). On the political front, the close additionally has to assay on the government activity and burden from assorted bounded environmentalists and bloom camps (check http://www. hinduonnet. com ). Even on the economical front, some burden exists as swadeshi (regional) mindset exists. The aggregation additionally has to focus on the assorted administration of assets beyond the country. According to Mr Jatia, M. D, South and West Region, India, Indian bodies are accretion their visits to McDonald's as it has become added than an break meal abnormally to the average class. (http://online. wsj. com ). Appropriately attractive at the success, the actuality can be fatigued that both bounded administration admiral (Mr. Bakshi and Mr. Jatia) accept played important roles in abstraction McDonald’s to the affairs of the Indian market. . 0 MARKETING MIX The abstraction of Business Mix consisting of the 4P’ was formulated by McCarthy in 1975. This was acclimated as arch foundation for abounding years. In the year 1996 Fifield and Gilligan added 3P’s (People, Activity and Physical) to the absolute 4P’s of Business Mix. These 3P’s are an basic allotment of casework marketing. The 7P’s acclimated to analyse the Business Mix of McDonalds in India are: 1) Artefact (Features, Quality, Quantity): McDonalds aims to actualize connected set of items, that aftertaste aforementioned everywhere. But forth with this it concentrates on localization by adapting to bounded tastes, customs, chump preferences etc. For example, McDonalds afflicted the capacity of its ‘French Fries’ afterwards it protested that it was fabricated out of the oil from beef. This was done as Cow is advised angelic amid Hindus in India. McDonalds has a array of articles distinctively fabricated for the Indian market. Some of them are Vegetable McNuggets, Mutton based Maharaja Mac (as Hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pork). Afar from all these its card includes beverages, arctic desserts and breakfasts combos. ) Abode (Location, Cardinal of Outlets): McDonalds follows abstraction of acclimation in basic of abode also. The ambient and angle all restaurants are the same. The affidavit why best of its outlets in India are in Malls, arcade complexes, acclaimed artery markets is its assay strategies. It has over 130 outlets in 34 cities all over India. 3) Amount (Strategy, Determinants, Levels): In India McDonalds has set prices on the base of the prices of its abutting organized competitors. For example, initially it set amount in New Delhi on the base of the amount of Nirula’s, its bigger adversary in that area. Vignali, 2001) This way it admiring the customers, as they were accepting an all-embracing cast at the amount of a bounded brand. The appraisement activity of McDonalds with account to antagonism is explained in the afterwards stages of the report. 4) Advance (Advertising, Sales Promotion, Accessible Relation): “Brand globally, acquaint locally” is McDonald’s advance strategy. (Vignali, 2001; Sander & Shani, 1991). For years it has maintained all-encompassing advance strategy. It focuses on children, all-embracing bistro acquaintance and portrays itself as a ‘Family Restaurant’. Its all-around tag band is “I’m Lovin’ It”. Tag band to allure Indian barter is “Aap Ke Zamaane Mein Baap Ke Zamaane Ke Daam”, which agency buy at a price, which your ancestor acclimated to buy in his days” 5) Bodies (Quantity, Quality, Training, and Promotion): “The Aggregation is acerb committed to staffing locally and announcement from within. This agency that McDonald’s has managers who accept both the accumulated and the bounded cultures” (Vignali, 2001). Particularly in India it is important to accept bounded people, as accent differs from accompaniment to accompaniment and agents from some another accompaniment ability not be able to accept the bounded people’s language. ) Activity (Blueprinting, Automation, Control Procedures): In McDonalds the activity for authoritative aliment is identical everywhere. For example, one out of two chips charge admeasurement 75mm, meat for Big Mac’s weighs 45g and is 20 per cent fat. (Vignali, 2001). The afterward is the activity in McDonalds: 7) Physical (Cleanliness, Decor, and Ambient of the Service): This is one of the best important apparatus of the Business Mix. If the abode area the aliment is served is not apple-pie and aseptic afresh there will be no aftereffect from the components. Keeping this in mind, McDonalds aims at cleanliness, speed, amore and accuracy of process. Strict standards of cleanliness are maintained at all times. 5. 0 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR In agreement of chump behaviour, McDonald’s assembly its articles with accepted acknowledgment behaviour and in some cases bound accommodation authoritative for some classes. For example, adequate a blessed meal for some bodies may aloof be a case of ache while some for some bistro at McDonald's may be affluence and appropriately they may alone about-face up on occasions. Majority of the accommodation starts with beginning buying. Personal factors which affect the close in affiliation to the chump are demographic factors like age, gender and race. However the close can additionally aftermath some situational factors like alms chargeless activity coupons and alms 2 commons at one amount (Deng, 2009). McDonald's additionally enhances the alone akin of captivation by alms advantageous meal bales for adults and toys for children. Bearing in apperception the amusing factors, the close has accepted assorted cultures and classes beyond India. As altered bodies accept altered bounded tastes, the close produces articles with a mix of bounded aftertaste (Dash, 2005). In agreement of assessment leaders, celebrities are actuality added acclimated in business advice by marketers to accommodate personality to their products. 5. 1 UNDERSTANDING THE INDIAN CONSUMER Compassionate an Indian chump was acutely important for advantageous the challenges of amplification in India. Some facts of Indian chump are that they accept a aerial amount of ancestors orientation. In band-aid to this? In India, McDonald’s has placed itself as a ancestors restaurant. The foundation of its access is to allure families and accompany (Dash, 2005). Secondly Indian chump is afflicted by discounts and freebies. Appropriately the close has consistently broadcast chargeless schemes on its articles with its appraisement strategies. Notable actuality is that Indian consumers accept big-ticket articles as they feel that amount is an indicator of amore and they are acceptable to buy environmentally amenable articles and packs as the ecology acquaintance has started affecting India. In acknowledgment to this McDonald's attracts the consumers with acceptable amore articles and its ethical and ecological amenable articles and packaging advice in apple-pie environment. . 2 DECISION MAKING PROCESS Afterwards investigating the behaviour of Indian Consumer, McDonald’s has produced an able accommodation authoritative activity which involves bristles stages. The close initially tries to admit the adapted charge of the chump with its assay on bounded consumers. Secondly McDonald’s provides advice of the articles through internet, reports, media and campaigns which helps the client to differentiate and accept the artefact better. Advice accompanying to pricing, offers and bloom are provided to the consumer. Thirdly McDonald’s provides a ambit of another articles and its allowances to altered consumers and helps them to appraise accordingly. In the fourth date the aggregation uses its amount activity and benefits; the aggregation aims to allure barter and their decisions to acquirement their products. And finally, through amore and service, McDonald’s tries to advance its account with barter accouterment Post-purchase evaluation. 6. 0 BRANDING In agreement of cast experience, McDonald’s is not aloof a artefact but a fast, apple-pie and accessible way for families to adore together. In appearance of the firm’s branding, McDonald's emphasizes on Chump apprenticed and ambition aggressive techniques. According to Arvind Singhal, Head of Business at McDonald's India, McDonald's chooses to accustom the chump with the cast in agreement of a business communications. Aback the cast angel symbolizes how barter appearance the organisation, the aggregation launched a antic alleged Ronald. Sitting on the Ronald McDonald bank and pumping booze from the booze apparatus became cast rituals for children. Appropriately the aggregation ensured that it as to be acquainted of axiological needs by identifying, admiration and confined their consumers rather than aloof affairs the artefact (http://www. businessweek. com ). Appropriately the close concentrates not alone on carrying articles for the burning address but additionally arresting the continued appellation cast status. Ancestors ethics actuality important in India, McDonald’s advance assured that it’s is not aloof a fast-food collective but a quick, advantageous and accessible way for families to appetite together. Thus McDonald's focuses not alone on carrying sales for the absolute present but additionally attention the continued appellation cast reputation. . 0 COMPETITION AND RECESSION In agreement of appraisement strategies, which is a allotment of marketing, McDonald’s faces boxy antagonism on several fronts. Traditional rivals such as Pizza Hut, KFC and best chiefly the bounded dhabas and alley ancillary stalls are bistro reasonable margins of McDonald’s sales. Because the prices, a blessed meal in Pizza Hut which consists of 2 pizzas would about amount ? 4. 5 (Rs 350) and analogously a burger and alcohol at a KFC aperture would amount about ? 1. 5 (Rs 120). But with its chump amount strategies, McDonald’s offers a blessed meal at alone (Rs 90) ? 1. 12 (www. businessworld. in ) Recession may affect organisations to change their business behavior because as recession occurs, the chump spends beneath money on the artefact or switches to alternatives of low cost. But recession seems to be an advantage for McDonald’s as Consumers will cut aback on high-end dining, and McDonald's is the almsman as they accommodate aliment at reasonable prices. (www. europe. wsj. com ). The aggregation additionally introduces new offers appropriately to the situation. McDonald's has benefiting from its common actuality during the present recession, by the barrage of new articles like McAloo Tikki (prepared with potato and vegetables) and the Maharaja Mac in India (http://money. cnn. com/2009 ). According to Vikram Bakshi, M. D of McDonald's operations in India, McDonald's will be doubling-up its allotment in three years, and tripling our restaurants in the abutting bristles years. Currently the fast-food alternation has 123 outlets in India (http://in. reuters. com ). 8. 0 PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Underpinning the artefact activity aeon abstraction is the acceptance that articles move through a sequential, agreed arrangement of development agnate to the biological aisle that activity forms follow. This alleyway is accepted as the Artefact Activity Aeon (PLC)” (Baines et al. , 2008). According to Kotler & Keller (2009), a company’s accession and adverse activity charge change as the product, bazaar and the competitors change over its PLC. [pic] Amount 1 As it can be apparent from the aloft amount a artefact basically has bristles stages, with four of them anon accompanying to the consumers who in abounding agreement behest altered aspects or the accomplished of product. Thus all articles accept a bound activity for the chump as able-bodied as the product. Aback McDonald’s is a aggregation that deals in aliment items, its articles will accept a absolute aeon aural which they accept to get acquainted to the barter tastes, abound in amount and acquire profits for the company. Additionally aback the McDonald’s articles are decaying they accept a abbreviate activity aeon (see www. bbc. co. uk). Thus approved addition of the aliment items is appropriate by McDonald’s. For instance, McDonald’s French Chips accept been an important allotment of the company’s card worldwide. But in India, at one date their sales were on decline. To adverse this botheration the administration approved to apparatus assertive steps. They alien the chips with a mix of assertive Indian spices. The artefact came to be accepted as Shake Shake Fries. This was able-bodied accustomed by the consumers and it already afresh revitalised the sales of the fries. Thus afterwards cannibalising the absolute artefact a new artefact was created by the close to adjournment the abatement of a able-bodied accustomed artefact which had the abeyant to accomplish assets (Ghosh et al. , 2009). 9. 0 MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS The authoritative arrangement that ensures appropriate and absolute ascribe to the accumulated advice and the accommodation authoritative activity and aftereffect assembly and announcement of credible, actuating representations of benign barter opportunities with absolute and -to-be barter and another pale holders. (Varey, 2002). On a added a simple agreement it is the adjustment of communicating the appropriate message, through the appropriate medium, to the actual admirers (see www. thetimes. biz). If a close fails to appreciate these steps, it may aftereffect in its artefact failure. The advice methods adopted by McDonald’s in India are as follows, Newspapers, Journals and another forms of Print Media • Television advertisements • Point of Sale Affectation • Merchandising • Direct Mail • Door drops • Demonstrations • Tele-Marketing(see www. thetimes. biz) Thus able advice is, aback the aggregation develops a attack which makes use of the aloft methods to get the adapted results. Because alone the Television Advertisements of McDonald’s in India, these were not on the company’s alarm until the about-face of the aeon (see www. thetimes. biz). This was admitting its access into the Indian bazaar in the closing allotment of 1996. This footfall was undertaken by the aggregation so that it could apply added on the development of its stores, advance the amore of its articles and clothier its all-around card to clothing the Indian tastes. It was alone afterwards 2000 that the aboriginal advert of the close was telecast. “The aboriginal advert of the close featured a adolescent who suffers date alarm and is clumsy to recite a poem. On entering McDonald's, he calmly recites it in the store's accustomed environment. ” This advert of the aggregation basically focussed on McDonald’s actuality a adequate and a accustomed abode (Chaturvedi, 2008). The abutting ad was based on a ancestors affective to a new place. The kid in the ancestors feels abandoned in the new ambience until he finds a McDonald’s. This ad was basically the affability of the McDonald’s personnel. Additionally the administration of the close in India acclaimed that the bounded bodies were amount sensitive. Thus they took out and ad with a tag of ‘Yesteryear’s Prices’. “It appearance Bollywood stars from accomplished decades calm with their sons and a bulletin that prices accept not risen in band with the access of time” (Chaturvedi, 2008). Thus McDonald’s with a bright calendar timed their ads to accomplishment which gave them acceptable returns. McDonald’s additionally with its advertisements gave its tagline absolute importance. This is axiomatic from the actuality that its antecedent ads were delivered with a bite band “McDonald’s Mein Hai Kuch Baat” which translates to ‘There is article appropriate in McDonald’s’. Aback McDonald’s had been auspiciously established, its tagline afflicted to “To Aaj McDonald’s Ho Jaye” which agency ‘Why not bless with McDonald’s today…’ (Vikram Bakshi, MD, McDonald’s India). He additionally adds that the capital focus of the aggregation with its advertisements was to change the acumen of the Indians that McDonald’s was an ‘American cast with archetypal American values’. As Arvind Singhal, Head of Business at McDonald's India says "From a business communications standpoint, we chose to focus on familiarizing the chump with the brand. ” Presently all of the McDonald’s advice strategies are focused to move the consumers to some affectionate of action. This may either be to appointment the restaurant, buy the artefact or acclaim it to a friend. It is additionally affected so that the consumers bethink the product. Thus the mantra of the close is that the added it knows about the bodies it is confined the added it will be able to acquaint letters that address to them. 0. 0 DISTRUBUTION AND SUPPLY CHAIN McDonald’s uses an outsourcing archetypal al all its markets, in some places it actively imports but in India gets abstracts from altered places in India (Dash, 2005) it has suppliers all over India, bartering altered inputs. This is done on adjustment to annex best amore of ascribe at the best accessible price. Selecting a supplier involves a four footfall process. In anniversary footfall the -to-be supplier is evaluated carefully. Alone account alien is the accessories to bowl out burgers. The aloft suppliers in India are: Ascribe Artefact |Supplier Aggregation |Location | |Iceburg Lettuce |Trikaya Agriculture |Talegacon(Maharashtra) | | |Ooty Farms |Ooty | | |Meena Argitech |Delhi | |Cheese |Dynamix Dairy |Baramati (Maharashtra) | |Milk & Milk Articles for Arctic Desserts |Amrit Aliment |Delhi and Mumbai | |Buns & Sauces |1)Cremica Industries |Philluar (Punjab) | | |2) Shah Bector and Sons |Khopoli ( Maharashtra) | | | | | |Patties, Pies & Pizza puffs |Vista Processed Foods |Taloja | (Dash, 2005) The absolute administration activity is agitated on by AFL Acumen Ltd, McDonald’s official accomplice in acumen and accumulation chain. 10. 1 DISTRIBUTION McDonalds in India uses what is alleged as a ‘Cold Chain’. This agency that the vegetables are stored in algid accumulator from the moment it is harvested. These are afresh transported to restaurants in air-conditioned vans. Semi – accomplished articles are additionally stored a accurate temperature. This ensures bloom and maintains the damp akin of the food. In the restaurant additionally the articles are refrigerated. In the restaurant the deliveries are fabricated to the chump aural 60 abnormal and the access of account is cocky service. This is done to advance accelerated and quick service. 11. 0 SWOT ANALYSIS McDonald’s in India has been for about for about 13 years. Till now it has complimented the ethics and the cultures of the locals in an acutely ethical way. But still it has some weaknesses and threats, which if not countered, may able-bodied become grave. Thus the SWOT assay shows the areas area the close can body up on its absolute able image. ? Strengths • Able Cast – The McDonald’s Corporation in India has been able to alive up to its all-around angel of actuality able to handle any blazon of market. It has apparent that by adopting the appropriate access and methods, any bazaar can crop absolute results. This has not alone circumscribed its able angel and able cast ethics but additionally has fabricated the job difficult for the new entrants. Chump Intimacy – The close in India with its actual mix of advice has been able to tap majority of the admirers it focused on and has additionally developed amore from the ample accouchement association of the country with its Accouchement Centric ads. • Artefact Addition – the Aggregation with its appropriate artefact addition has consistently kept the consumers absorbed in its card which caters to their tastes. • Array in Menu, Reasonable Prices and Abundant Account – Additionally with advanced options in the card McDonald’s additionally offers abundant prices with burgers starting from Rs20 ( About 15p) additional with ‘1 Minute Service’ barter do not acknowledgment aghast from the place. ? Weakness • Artefact on the calibration of Bloom – McDonald’s in India is still not affairs articles which are acceptable for bloom or which are fabricated befitting consumers fitness. They are aggravating to accomplished tune their card by abacus added broiled articles rather than absurd patties, but afar from McCurry Pan (launched 2003) it has not been able to acquaint added advantageous articles (Dash, 2005). This actuality armament abounding bloom acquainted bodies to abstain the abode altogether. ? Opportunities • Expanding in Tier 2 and Tier 3 Cities – Admitting the firm’s success in the burghal and the city cities of India, McDonald’s has still not explored the accomplished of the country. This is due to the actuality that the abate cities in India are added absorbed appear the home adapted aliment and bistro fast aliment out is about bound to bounded aliment joints that specialize in Indian cuisine. This presents a acceptable anticipation for the aggregation to agreement with its menu, as McDonald’s has already localized its card to a actual abundant admeasurement in the country. Access into Breakfast Category – One of the another things that the aggregation has still not fabricated a complete attack into is the ‘Breakfast Menu’. McDonald’s accept started alone a brace of outlets in Mumbai and Delhi on beginning base that serve Breakfast card in December 2008. The options in this card are accessible from 7 am to 11am in the morning. But the aggregation is still to accomplish it on a ample scale. • Able Cooler Cast – McDonald’s in India accept till now alone concentrated on to the aliment items they serve. The beverages they activity are aloof apparent Coke accessible in baby and ample and coffee, tea and hot amber with no able advertising. But it still has the befalling to acquaint and accompany in its own cast of cooler as compared to article like Star Bucks’ The cooler may hot or algid and would accord McDonald’s its own character in the bazaar which is bedeviled by Coke and Pepsi. ? Threats • Alteration Chump Lifestyle – Today, India has afflicted appreciably as compared to 10 years back. Simultaneously the chump tastes are alteration at a actual fast pace. McDonald’s needs to accumulate this affair in apperception aback the chump aftertaste for a accurate artefact in today’s ambiance is actual short-lived. • Added Antagonism – Today with the accretion cardinal of malls and arcade centers in India, the cardinal of fast aliment joints and restaurants has added decidedly that activity agnate affectionate of aliment at commensurable prices. This can about-face out to be a disadvantage to the aggregation aback it mainly concentrates on aperture its franchises in these malls. 12. 0 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS From the aloft address it is bright that McDonald’s business strategies in India accept been successful. With complete compassionate of the chump and because the assorted business environments, active actual reasonable prices to appropriate artefact addition and after acutely able advice techniques accept included India in their continued account of acknowledged countries. The alone affair that the aggregation needs to focus on is to try and add added card best and array to advance convalescent lifestyles. Additionally it should contemplate its already absolute operations afore continuing amplification in rder to access their accumulation allowance and aback India is a developing country the close should try and apply on penetrating, at appropriate intervals, into added beginning cities. 13. 0 REFERENCES Baines, P. , Fill, C. , Page, K. (2008) Business Oxford University Press, New York. Chaturvedi, P. (2008) Super-localize me: how McDonald's acquired its business in India, Warc Exclusive. Chauhan, G. (2008) Accent in India, Languages Group, Vol 8, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, India. Deng, T. (2009) McDonald’s New Advice Activity on Alteration Attitudes and Lifestyle, All-embracing Journal Of Business studies, Vol 1, SolBridge All-embracing School of Business, South Korea. Fifield, P. and Gilligan, C. 1996) Strategic Business Management, Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford. Ghosh, R. , Balaji, D. , Shah, J. , Sherlekar, N. , Sidana, D. , (2009) McDonald’s: Behind Golden Arches. Kotler, P. & Keller, K. L. (2009) Business Management, 13th Edn, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA. McCarthy. (1975) Basic Marketing: A Administration Approach, Irwin, Homewood, pg – 98. Media Trust, The Institute For Volunteering Assay (1997) Introduction To Marketing, Volunteering England and the Centre for Institutional Studies at the University of East London, UK. Prof. Dash, K. (2005) McDonald’s in India, The Garvin School of All-embracing Management, USA. Sander. D. M. & Shani. D (1991) “Brand Globally but Acquaint Locally? An Empirical Investigation, All-embracing Business Review, Vol – 9, No – 4, pg – 18 – 29. Varey, R. J. (2002) Business Communication: Principles and Practice, Route ledge, London,pp 127-129. Vignali. C (2001) McDonalds: Think Global, Act Bounded – The Business Mix, British Aliment Journal, Vol – 103, No -2, pg – 97 – 111. INTERNET REFERENCES http://www. bbc. co. uk/dna/h2g2/A593525 - beheld on November 16, 2009 http://www. bbc. co. uk/dna/h2g2/A3816740 - beheld on November 16, 2009 http://www. hinduonnet. com/2001/05/06/stories/01060003. htm - beheld on November 16, 2009 http://online. wsj. com/article/SB124628377100868055. html - beheld on November 16, 2009 http://www. businessweek. om/innovate/content/may2006/id20060508_952455. htm - beheld on November 16, 2009 http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/business/marketing/productlifecyclerev1. shtml - beheld on November 23, 2009. http://in. reuters. com/article/businessNews/idINIndia-29999520071015 - beheld on November 23, 2009. http://money. cnn. com/2009/07/10/news/companies/mcdonalds_global_international_menu. fortune/index. htm - beheld on November 23, 2009. http://www. businessworld. in/bw/2009_10_10_Quickening_Service. html - beheld on November 23, 2009. ----------------------- DELIVERY UNIVERSAL HOLDING CABINET ASSEMBLER INITIATOR FROZEN FOOD MATERIAL

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