Mandatory HIV/AIDS testing for Pregnant Woman
Today, anti retroviral therapies are actuality developed by several manufacturers, in a bid to assuredly be able to abate the cardinal of instances of the manual of HIV from mother to child. The biologic AZT, for example, has been acknowledged at bringing the amount of such absolute transmissions down, and this has accustomed acceleration to a boundless activity that if testing of abundant women for the attendance of the alarming AIDS virus were to be fabricated mandatory, again conceivably abounding lives could be saved. It charge be remembered that afore the year 1994, back AIDS became acclaimed for its appulse on the animal body, not abundant was accepted about the disease, about referred to as ‘the affliction of avant-garde man’, and annihilation at all was accepted about the manual of this ache from a mother to her approaching child.
It was in backward 1994 that an American analytic balloon accepted as ‘ACTG 076’ was able to prove the acceptance that back a biologic AZT was administered to a HIV absolute abundant woman, and additionally to her adolescent anon afterwards its birth, it was able to lower the amount of manual from a aerial of 25 % to a low of 8 %. The balloon was based on the actuality that the abundant woman had to be accustomed the biologic during her pregnancy, during her labor, during her delivery, and for the bairn babyish during his aboriginal six weeks of life.
Immediately afterwards the after-effects of this balloon were published, the US Public Health Service recommended that all HIV absolute abundant women charge be accustomed the drug, abnormally to those women who approved a likelihood of developing the disease. This was to accommodate women who had never taken drugs of any affectionate adjoin HIV AIDS. The administering of the drug, of course, complex an aggression of the woman’s basal privacy, and this was article that created a activity at the time. Such aggression of aloofness was not to be tolerated. (Yovetich)
As declared earlier, authoritative HIV testing binding for a abundant woman, in the achievement that the woman’s approaching adolescent could be accustomed a bigger and added advantageous and ache chargeless activity was not as simple an affair as it may accept articulate at the time. There was abundant action from several altered quarters. The capital acumen for the action was that the woman’s clandestine activity would be exposed, as HIV was a ache that was clothed in abundant secrecy, and it still is today. Defenders of aloofness of a animal actuality fought a continued war to argue binding testing of all abundant women for the alarming AIDS/HIV virus.
To analysis a woman adjoin her will, and again acquaint her that she had AIDS, and that she charge booty the biologic so that her approaching adolescent would not advance the ache would be a rather advancing adjustment to follow, acquainted aloofness defenders, alike if such testing meant that the accident of manual to others would be reduced, and abounding lives could be adored in the future. However, the several advances in science through the years until today accept prompted abounding individuals to amend the affair today.
Several bodies ask themselves today, are the abeyant allowances of binding testing for AIDS/HIV in some contexts ascendant the aloofness interests? Or, on the alternative hand, is such an aggression of aloofness actually justified if the approaching adolescent could be adored from a activity of ache and closing death?
It charge be acclaimed that several abstracts and trials accept been able to prove above a reasonable agnosticism that back a abundant woman is activated for AIDS, and it is begin that she is HIV positive, and she is again offered the biologic that would action the manual of the ache to her approaching child, and she takes up the offer, again the diplomacy of the approaching fetus actuality built-in with abounding absolute AIDS would be bargain dramatically.
Statistics accept appear that such analysis would acknowledged accompany bottomward the amount of manual from a aerial of a one on four chance, to a one in fifty chance. Such affirmation has prompted a adventurous of proposals on the allotment of the governments to accomplish the testing of HIV/AIDS binding for a abundant woman. To date, it charge be acclaimed that alone the legislatures of New York and Connecticut accept been able to sanction binding programs that would appoint HIV tests on a abundant woman, afterwards her consent, wherein she would be able to about-face bottomward the ‘offer of testing’ put alternating to her.
Although it may be accurate that at aboriginal glance, one would not be able to accept why anyone would ambition to about-face bottomward an action to save their approaching child, it is actually a actuality that science today has not yet avant-garde so far as to actually agreement that the adolescent abundant woman would not canyon on the ache to her child, like for example, statistics are able to prove that alike if a abundant woman has no medication at all for her AIDS, she still has alone a one in four adventitious of transmitting the virus to her approaching child.
This is because of the simple actuality that a mother transmits the ache to her adolescent during the action of delivery, which is the time back the babyish would be apparent to the claret of his mother, afterwards the aegis of the umbilical bond that has affiliated him to his mother all the nine months. In alternative words, statistics prove that intra-uterine transmission, that is, transference of the virus afore delivery, of AIDS to the approaching babyish is absolutely rare, and it does not booty abode in one out of four cases. AIDS and HIV can additionally be transmitted to the adolescent afterwards its birth, through breast feeding.
Furthermore, it is important to bethink that back an babyish is built-in to an HIV-positive mother, HIV-antibody tests agitated out on the bairn will consistently about-face out to be positive, for the simple acumen that the babyish has would accept affiliated the HIV antibodies of its mother automatically during the bearing and commitment processes, and this cannot be taken to beggarly that the bairn is adulterated with AIDS and HIV. In these cases, the antibodies that the babyish has affiliated would break in his anatomy for the aboriginal few months of his life, afterwards which it would be replaced with his own. If the HIV testing is done on the babyish at this stage, it would acknowledge the absolute cachet of the child, rather than if it were to be done anon afterwards birth, which would about mislead the bodies involved. (The ACLU on HIV testing of abundant women and newborns 2001)
It is a sad actuality actually that the abstracts on AIDS in America and in Canada adumbrated that about 766 out of 824 abundant and HIV adulterated women from twenty bristles states of the United States of America were acquainted of their HIV cachet abundant afore their deliveries, yet there are about 280 to 370 peri-natal HIV transmissions in the country, every year. Researchers and scientists accompaniment again that the alone way in which to ascendancy this afflictive accompaniment of diplomacy would be to accomplish HIV/AIDS testing binding for abundant woman, admitting action from several quarters.
In Canada, for example, three altered HIV testing approaches accept been assayed, and medical annal and accordant abstracts accept apparent afterwards agnosticism that the so alleged ‘opt-in’ or autonomous testing approach, in which a abundant woman is offered pre-HIV analysis counseling, and charge accord her accord voluntarily to an HIV analysis is about accompanying with lower testing ante than the ‘opt-out’ autonomous testing approach, in which the woman, who has had HIV/AIDS counseling, may accept to debris HIV testing. As a amount of fact, alike the binding bairn HIV testing access accepted to be ineffective, and the testing ante were abundant lower than expected, although they were bigger than the ‘opt-in’ testing method. (HIV testing amid abundant women, United States and Canada 1998 to 2001 2002)
Today, with the governments beyond the world, abnormally in developed countries responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, women assume to be at the centermost of all the attention, and increasingly, all-around efforts at AIDS blockage assume to centermost on women, abnormally abundant women who may address the alarming AIDS virus to their approaching child, either afore or afterwards delivery. Most governments are demography advantage of the actuality that medicines and drugs are accessible today, which would be able to finer block the manual of the virus to an infant, and these governments are application the drugs to accomplish abiding that the AIDS virus would not advance far and wide. One such government action is the ‘PMTCT Program’, or the ‘Prevention of Mother to Adolescent Manual Program’.
It charge be declared actuality that although the allowances of this and alternative agnate programs may be tremendous, it is actual important that the government takes into application the adventures of a abundant woman who lives with AIDS, and the agony that she undergoes as a absolute result. The government charge additionally apprentice to accept a animal rights angle back it deals with a abundant woman, and issues that affair her privacy. As a amount of fact, several governments assume to accept forgotten, accompaniment animal rights personnel, about the woman with AIDS, so agog are they on the blockage of the manual of AIDS to the approaching child.
Herein lies the body of the issue: if the woman were to be advised as a patient, who is adversity from a alarming and baleful disease, who needs analysis for the disease, and who has animal rights as an individual, again it would be always easier to accord with the issue. In alternative words, if the governments were to account the woman who is harboring the AIDS virus, and amusement her with basal animal address and respect, it would ensure that her approaching adolescent who is the approaching aborigine of the country, and the approaching of his ancestors would be bigger served.
When this is taken in ablaze of the actuality that women are three times as acceptable as men to advance HIV/AIDS, and that a woman is physiologically added affected than a man to developing the infection through vaginal intercourse, it would assume that according a woman the acquiescence that she deserves would be the best access to the problem. In assertive beneath developed countries, women accept been appear to say that back they were diagnosed with AIDS, they were asked to arrest their approaching fetuses, as they allegedly ‘had no appropriate to canyon on the infection to their approaching baby’. In such cases, it is axiomatic that the animosity and the rights of the woman were not advised in any way, and this is by no agency uncommon.
Although PMTCT Programs accept today acquired in popularity, and it is actuality accustomed beyond the apple as actuality the one answerable adjustment to ascendancy AIDS, these programs do accuse a assertive aggression of the aloofness and address of the woman concerned, abnormally in countries area the woman is denied the appropriate to accord abreast accord to HIV/AIDS testing and treatment, apparently because of a abridgement of education, and she is additionally denied her appropriate to confidentiality. Back this is taken in ambience of the stigma associated with AIDS in several countries, it is accessible that the affairs charge be aesthetic and restated, if it were to be a success. (Pregnant woman active with HIV n.d)
To conclude, it charge be said that although binding testing for HIV/AIDS may be an accomplished abstraction and that it would advice anticipate the manual of the virus to a woman’s approaching child, the affairs charge be implemented while befitting in apperception the animal rights, the appropriate to confidentiality, and the basal animal rights of the woman adversity anatomy the disease. If this were to be done, again one can attending advanced to a apple in which the abominable HIV/AIDS virus would be eliminated, and the apple would be a safe abode already more.
Yovetich, Tasha “Making it mandatory, should HIV tests be appropriate for abundant women?” The Canadian Women’s Health Network (1999) 13 December 2007
“The ACLU on HIV testing of abundant women and newborns” HIV testing of abundant women and newborns (2001) 13 December 2007
“HIV testing amid abundant women, United States and Canada 1998 to 2001” MMWR Weekly (2002) 13 December 2007
“Pregnant woman active with HIV” Reproductive Right.org 13 December 2007 (n.d)
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