Malaysian Legal System Introduction to Law

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA-FAKULTI FILEM TEATER & ANIMASI-ZOOM NOTES MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM+INTRODUCTION TO LAW Sources of Law: statutes, law reports, argument books, religious beliefs, bounded customs, assessment of attorneys ? Law & Morality:Overlaps/Differs from Society e. g-gayism/illicit samsu-S’wak/P’sular ? Law & Justice:Uphold amends & depends on belt e. g bluff ? Federal Constitution (lex locci)/ Written Constitution ? Highest Law of the acreage ?  Malaysian/human rights/liberty ?  Any laws adjoin the Federal Constitution-null & abandoned ? e. : attendant chastening provision/trial by the aforementioned offence/represented by a           legal practitioner – 24hrs MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM-MAXIM:CHECK & BALANCE/MONTESQIEU ?  JUDICIARY ?  EXECUTIVE ?  LEGISTLATIVE TYPES OF LAW: ?  Written Law-e. g. acts/Unwritten Law- e. g. courts decicion ? Attainable Law e. g. bent law / Private Law e. g. arrangement law ? Bounden Precedent:Higher Court binds the lower ?  PersuasivePrecedent:Courts of the aforementioned level: actuating LAW OF CONTRACT ELEMENTS:- 1. Offer To be acclaimed from ‘invitation to treat’:Advertisement 2. Acceptance 3. Intention to actualize acknowledged accord Mere affiance for cafeteria amusement is NOT bounden 4. Consideration Except: Natural Love & Affection:e. g. Father to Son 5. Certainty 6. Capacity-Sound Mind MINOR General assumption is not bounden & belted to the followings: ? affairs for necessaries –eg: affairs to accept food, clothes & purpose of education. ?    contracts for scholarship – a scholarship agreement  is valid. ?    contracts for allowance – under the Allowance Act,1963, an baby over the age of 10 may access into a arrangement of insurance. H/e, if he is beneath 16, he can alone do so with the accounting accord of his parents or guardian. CONTRACT: VALID:             SAH VOID:               BATAL VODABLE:         BOLEH BATAL; VOIDABLE:If accurate the actuality of these elements: ?    COERCION (paksaan) ?    UNDUE INFLUENCE (tidak sewajar atau sepatutnya) ?    FRAUD (penipuan) ?    MISREPRESENTATION (gambaran yang salah) ?    MISTAKE (kesilapan) LAW OF TORTS ELEMENTS:DUTY OF CARE- NOT TO BREACHED/TO ACT REASONABLY 1. NEGLIGENCE 2. TRESPASS Trespass to person/trespass to acreage / goods. Trespass to bodies : ? Assault; ?  battery;   false imprisonment. “TRESSPASSERS SHALL BE LIABLE NOT PROSECUTED” 3. NUISANCE i. attainable nuisance ii. clandestine nuisance. 4. DEFAMATION ?  LIBEL- advertisement ?  SLANDER-words ? GENERAL DEFENCES (EXCEPTIONS) NEGATING LIABILITY IN TORT  : 1)  VOLENTI NON FIT INJURIA   - 2)   MISTAKE 3)   INEVITABLE ACCIDENT                                          4)   ACT OF GOD 5)   PRIVATE DEFENCE     . 6)   NECESSITY 7)   STATUTORY CONTRACT| TORT| 2 sides/ parties| Maybe More than 2parties| Written/Unwritten| No accounting aggreement required| Remedy: Damages| Remedy: Damages| Duty: Contractual Duty| Duty: Duty of Care| COMPANY,PARTNERSHIP & SOLE PROPRIETOR SOLE PROPRIETOR •         SOLE PROPRIETOR-ENTERPRISE •         REGISTRATION-LOW FEES •         EASY TO OPERATE •         MOST COMMON •         BUSINESS/INDIVIDUAL/ENTERPRISE= SAME ENTITY •         RESOURCES:OWN/FRIENDS/FAMILY •         1 MAN SHOW •         FAST ON DECISION-START/CEASE •         OPERATE FROM HOME/NO OFFICE PARTNERSHIP •         PARTNERSHIP-TEAM UP;RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE •         BIGGER SCALE •         RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE •         POPULAR AMONG PROFESSIONALS •         LIABILITY/PROFIT SHARED          PARTNERSHIP- NO AGREEMENT-PRESUMPTION=EQUALLY LIABLE •         PARTNERSHIP-WITH AGREEMENT-ACCORDING TO AGREEMENT •         PARTNER ACTING ON BEHALF OF PARTNERSHIP-BINDING •         PERSONAL ASSET=LIABLE COMPANY •         COMPANY-SEPARATE ENTITY •         RESOURCES-CAPITAL-PAID UP/AUTHORISED •         DOCUMENTATIONS:MEMORANDUM/ARTICLE •         REGISTERED OFFICE •         COSTLY •         COMPANY SECRETARY •         RESOLUTIONS-LOANS? FINANCING? •         PERSONAL ASSET/COMPANY ASSET •         AUDITED /ANNUAL MEETING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY * REAL PRORERTY- Building/chattels/land/house=tangible PERSONAL PROPERTY-Jewelleries,laptops,handphones/cars=tangible * INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY-the intangible product of one person’s assignment by hand/brain adjoin crooked use or corruption by addition ? Berne Copyright Convention 1886:135  countries PROTECTION-INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:e. g. to be adequate ?  PATENT ?  TRADEMARK ?  INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ?  CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ?  TRADE SECRET ?  COPYRIGHT ?  GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATOR ?  INTERGRATED CIRCUIT ?  INDUSTRIAL  DESIGN Section 7 of the Act, Copyright Act includes: ?  literary works ?  musical works ?  artistic works ?  films ?  sound recordings   broadcasts PRE REQUISITE FOR PROTECTION: •      Sec 7 (3)      ORIGINAL/GENUINE •      Sec 8 (3)       MATERIAL FORM •      Sec 17           DURATION:  50 YRS AFTER DEATH MULTIMEDIA LAW Technology * “A anatomy of ability acclimated to actualize tools, advance abilities & abstract or aggregate materials” * “An change of idea” * “Impacting the world-creating new wealth, about-face abridgement & amusing policy” General-New  Media * Email * Amusing arrangement * Video appointment * Digitalisation -Nothing can alter face to face advice -Cost effective-travel/ attainable ample accumulation -New abilities appropriate Aforementioned effect-“on line” & “off line” -Virtual -No barrier Privacy ‘The appropriate to be larboard alone’ Tresspass to:- * Personal Data-biological/genetics : DNA /banks * Freedom-human rights * Privacy-private activity Remedy ?         Federal Constitution ?         Civil Proceedings ?         Penal Code ?         Personal Data Protection Act ?         Communication & Multimedia Act Malaysian Regulatory  Body “Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Multimedia”-THE AUTHORITY e. g. All cellular buzz accounts charge to be registered JURISDICTION: -          Post/courier -          Energy -          Telecoms -          Digital acceptance authorities

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