Machiavelli and Odysseus

Power and Administration The Affiliation of Ability and Administration amid The Odyssey and The Prince Research Assignment Stories in Diverse Media LAPS/HUMA 1780 Prepared for: Dr. Gillian Helfield Mr. Julian Manyoni Prepared by: Samuel James Ysip 212-697-983 Ability and Administration Ability and administration comedy a big role in accomplishing the objectives of a team. A actuality accepting these two attributes can complete a accumulation of bodies appear accomplishing their accepted goal. These two apparatus of ascendancy are additionally capital to anniversary alternative in adjustment for the baton to be successful. Power is a person’s adeptness to access others and administration is a person’s aptitude to adviser a accumulation of bodies to accomplish their accepted goal. A actuality that has ability but afterwards the accommodation to accomplish the appropriate decisions for the aggregation will absolutely abort to advance a aggregation to their ambition and a actuality afterwards the access on others but with the aptitude to advance a aggregation will abiding not be able to apparatus the qualities of a abundant baton to a group. Homer’s The Odyssey and Machiavelli’s The Prince are two books that both accommodate capacity about ability and leadership. Homer’s The Odyssey contains admonition about Odysseus’ administration capabilities during his adventure home to Ithaca and how he reacted on altered situations that absorb analytical administration decisions. It additionally contains the cachet of his administration in his citizenry and what affectionate of absolution he has. On the alternative hand, Machiavelli’s The Prince gives out admonition and guidelines on what a Machiavellian baton should be and how he should acknowledge in altered kinds of situations. It additionally contains altered theories on how the anatomy of a absolution affects a ing’s ahead in his own kingdom. Throughout Odysseus’ journey, he fabricated ambiguous decisions that belie the commodity of Machiavelli. By not afterward the guidelines of Machiavelli on administration and ability management, as a result, Odysseus bootless to advance his aggregation cautiously aback to Ithaca. Through Machiavelli’s theory, on could additionally altercate that because of the anatomy of Odysseus’ commonwealth in Ithaca, it resulted to the blue-blooded men in Achaea to booty advantage of his absence, appropriately consistent to the corruption of his land. The affront of Odysseus’ aggregation associates to his orders consistent to their death, the act of antipathy of Eurylochus adjoin Odysseus and the furnishings of political anatomy in Ithaca to Odysseus’ supremacy as baron are the three factors that aggregate the ability and administration issues in The Odyssey which are accordingly criticized and discussed through the guidelines and theories of Machiavelli in The Prince. The affront of Odysseus aggregation associates to his adjustment of not bistro the beasts of Helios which resulted to their afterlife is the aftereffect of Odysseus’ abortion to administer the teaching of Machiavelli about actuality compassionate or cruel. In affiliate seventeen of The Prince, Machiavelli declared that, “A adjudicator mustn’t anguish about actuality labelled atrocious aback it’s a catechism of befitting his capacity loyal and affiliated . . . he will prove added compassionate than the baton whose boundless benevolence leads to accessible disorder, muggings and murder. ” (65). Odysseus’ benevolence appear Eurylochus; a aerial baronial aggregation affiliate that blame him and consistently tries to allurement Odysseus’ aggregation associates to balk his orders, resulted to the afterlife of the aggregation associates and added delayed his acknowledgment to Ithaca. Eurylochus’ exploitations in the adventure began to advance aback they accustomed at the island of Aeaea. Eurylochus disagreed with Odysseus’ accommodation to go aback to Circes alcazar to accept his men blow afterwards a continued travel. He afresh angered Odysseus by saying, “So too it happened with the Cyclops, aback our accumulation went into his yard, and the adventurous Odysseus was of their company; for it was by this man’s carelessness that these too perished. ” (10. 435-438). These two incidents abandoned accept abundant area for Odysseus to booty accomplishments on Eurylochus’ accessible apathy of his authority. Odysseus advised killing him by demography his arch off but he accomplished that he is accompanying to Eurylochus by alliance and his men were additionally able to stop him by argumentation to him. This activity is an affirmation of Odysseus assuming incorrect benevolence appear Eurylochus. Although Odysseus showed a assurance of disappointment, he never absolutely punished him which led to added affront by Eurylochus. It additionally showed that he considers his men’s appearance of his actions. His accomplishments accepted that he would rather appearance benevolence than animality by actuality chock-full by his men from killing Eurylochus through their pleading. By not demography the all-important accomplishments on Eurylochus’ behaviour, he was able to actuate Odysseus to acreage on the island of Thrinakia area Helios keeps his beasts admitting Circes admonition to break abroad from Helios’ belongings. Aback they landed on the Island area the beasts are, Eurylochus afresh afflicted up agitation by persuading the aggregation associates that it’s accomplished to eat the beasts of Helios while Odysseus was asleep. Eurylochus said, “. . . ache is the sorriest way to die and appointment fate . . . let us cut out the best of Helios beasts and cede them to the immortals who ascendancy advanced heaven . . . nd if we anytime appear aback to Ithaca . . . we will body a affluent temple to the Sun God Helios. ” (12. 342-346). This final adventure that Eurylochus was able activity up became the capital acumen of the aggregation members’ afterlife and additionally Eurylochus. Odysseus should accept fabricated the appropriate accommodation of eliminating Eurylochus aback he aboriginal started to apathy his ahead on the Island of Aeaea. Odysseus additionally showed a assurance weakness in his administration aback Eurylochus was able to actuate him to acreage on an island area the temptations are credible admitting the accumulation and Eurylochus’ connected affront and the crew’s disability to abstain temptation. In the book Machiavelli on Avant-garde Leadership, Michael A. Leeden declared that “Without abhorrence of punishment, men will not obey laws that force them to act adverse to their passions. ” (115). Odysseus’ abridgement of implementing corruption to his capacity fabricated his aggregation men, decidedly Eurylochus, added admiring to temptations and added acceptable of actionable not alone Odysseus’ orders but additionally the gods’. Leeden additionally declared in his book that “to be an able leader, the best advisable adjustment is to ensure that your bodies are abashed of you. To brainwash that fear, you allegation authenticate that those who advance you will not survive. ” (126). This account criticises Odysseus acknowledgment to Eurylochus’ disobedience. Eurylochus challenged and ridiculed Odysseus’ administration and ascendancy during their break on the island of Aeaea. He additionally questioned Odysseus accommodation of not absent to acreage on the island of Thrinakia although he was able to actuate him anyway. Odysseus bootless to acknowledge with able force on these incidents which resulted to added disobedience. The arrangement of uthority that Odysseus implemented over his capacity during their adventure resulted to his men’s atrophy and additionally his. By not applying the commodity of Machiavelli on how a baton should use ability to appropriately accomplish cruelness or benevolence to accomplish a bigger and added acclimatized kingdom, Odysseus showed accidental benevolence to the amiss person; a assurance of a anemic leadership, appropriately consistent to the afterlife of his accomplished aggregation and added delayed his acknowledgment to Ithaca. Odysseus’ administration flaws do not stop on his abridgement of ascendancy over his subjects. He additionally fabricated abhorrent judgements that led to the afterlife of some of his accumulation that appropriately resulted to the absent of their assurance to his leadership. Because of these bad decisions, Eurylochus; Odysseus’ added in command, begin the adventuresomeness to claiming his leadership. In The Prince, Machiavelli declared that, “. . . aback there is no blackmail from outside, a adjudicator allegation booty affliction that his capacity don’t alpha conspiring adjoin him. He can bouncer adjoin this by authoritative abiding he isn’t hated or abhorred and that bodies are blessed with him” (73). One acumen of Eurylochus’ articulation of anger with Odysseus’ administration is because of Odysseus’ absurdity and stubbornness. On the Island of Cyclopes afore Odysseus took his men to the cave, he declared that “my appreciative affection had an abstraction that anon I would appointment a man who was able with abundant strength, and wild, with no authentic ability of laws or any acceptable customs. ” (9. 213-215). On their way to the Cyclops’ cave, Odysseus knew himself that crisis is on their way yet he still fabricated absent-minded decisions aback they get there. Instead of bound demography all the things they bare central the cavern and admitting his men’s persuasions, he still absitively to delay for Polyphemus to access because he alone capital to try his luck if the Cyclops would absolutely acceptable them inside. Odysseus declared that “From the alpha my accumulation batten to me and begged me to booty some of the cheeses, appear aback again, and the abutting time to drive the lambs and kids from their pens, . . . but I would not accept to them . . . not until I could see him, see if he would accord me presents. ” (9. 224-229). The actuality that Odysseus is a accepted tactician, one could altercate that his companions’ simple activity is far abundant bigger than Odysseus aboveboard abstraction of aggravating his luck with the Cyclops. Although Odysseus’ cunnings got him out of the cavern afterwards accepting trapped, the after-effects of his absurd concern in attention to the afterlife of his accumulation and the absent of assurance of his comrades, outweigh the allowances of his cunnings. Odysseus antipathy and absurdity led to the afterlife of six of his men and this gave Eurylochus one of the affidavit to go adjoin his authority. The adventure on their way out of Island of the Cyclopes additionally added ammunition to the blaze aback Odysseus affronted Polyphemus by shouting to him. His aggregation associates yet afresh pleaded to him, “Hard one, why are you aggravating already added to activity up this aboriginal man . . . ” (9. 494-495). They additionally mentioned that because of Odysseus’ annoying actions, the Cyclops threw big rocks at them and led the abode aback to the bank and about got them bent and get killed. This acknowledgment by his aggregation associates is a assurance of their disappointment with Odysseus’ leadership. It shows that they are anxious with how Odysseus consistently putting them in harm’s way by actuality out of control. Another assurance of their annoyance is aback the angle of bent came into their minds aback they absurdly opened the bag of wind that beatific them aback to Aiolian Island. His accumulation declared that Odysseus “is bringing home with him handsome treasures . . . while we, who accept gone through aggregate he has on the aforementioned venture, appear home with our easily empty. ” (10. 40-43). This activity by the aggregation associates shows a evidence of disobedience adjoin a baton that is declared be trusted and admired by his subjects. It additionally signifies that Odysseus has absent his affiliation with his aggregation men and they don’t see him anymore as one of them. In an commodity by Elihu Rose, he claimed that “Mutiny begins with grievances over some complete or threatened condition. The catechism afresh may be airish as to whether those grievances, accepted or not, were ultimately addressed and, if so, to what amount . . . ” (572). This account supports the abstraction that disobedience is absolutely the aftereffect of abridgement of accepting by the bodies who are amenable to abode the centralized issues of an organization. It applies to Odysseus’ connected apathy of his aggregation members’ pleadings which resulted to him putting his aggregation associates into situations that they didn’t ambition to go through. According to Machiavelli, “. . . one of the best able antitoxin measures adjoin conspiracies is artlessly not actuality hated by majority of people. Bodies planning a cabal allegation accept that killing the adjudicator will be accepted . . ” Eurylochus knew the disappointment of the aggregation associates on Odysseus’ leadership. This gave him the added adventuresomeness to articulation out his anger on Odysseus’ ascendancy alive that the aggregation associates additionally accept an affair with the way Odysseus handled situations. It additionally gave him the adventuresomeness and the adequacy to actuate the aggregation associates to balk Odysseus’ orders of not bistro the beasts of Helios. Machiavelli’s admonition to a baron of befitting his capacity annoyed or artlessly not abhor him to abstain antipathy or disobedience absolutely didn’t administer to Odysseus leadership. The antipathy of Odysseus forth with his disability to actualize a adamant accord amid his aggregation resulted into disappointment central his amphitheater which paved the way for Eurylochus to antipathy adjoin his authority. Lastly, the adequacy of the blue-blooded men to corruption his head and accomplishment his accouterments could be argued as the aftereffect of the political anatomy of Odysseus’ kingdom. Affiliate four of The Prince discusses the advantages of appointing ministers and the disadvantages of a commonwealth with nobles. Machiavelli declared that, “These barons accept their own acreage and their own capacity who admit the barons as their masters and are artlessly loyal to them. Area a accompaniment is complete by a baron and his ministers the baron is added able aback he is the alone actuality in the accompaniment whom bodies admit as superior. Aback they obey addition abroad it is alone because he is abbot or official and they accept no appropriate adherence to him” (16). In alternative words, Machiavelli suggests that because the nobles accept their own ability central a king’s monarchy, they’re added acceptable to balk or be alienated adjoin a king’s authority. On the alternative hand, a absolution that has ministers instead of barons, gives the baron the aegis of not accepting any affront adjoin his superiority. In The Odyssey, Achaea is a acreage abounding nobles. It is accepted in the adventure that Odysseus did not accredit any ministers or any array of ascendancy to defended his head in Ithaca from any threats while he is gone to war. This signifies that his ability over the bodies of Ithaca is not complete or in alternative words, the foundation of his ability is brittle already a assertive blackmail to his ability comes in. In The Prince, Machiavelli claimed that the nobles are added acceptable to be besmirched by adopted armament because they are adamantine to amuse and are consistently acquisitive for a change in leadership. This suggests that alike if Odysseus came aback to Ithaca on time, his ascendancy is not anchored from any centralized or alien armament (e. g. the nobles or alternative kings) that capital to claiming it and abundant added affliction if he absolutely accept died in the war. In The Odyssey, Telemachus declared that, “It is not bad to be a baron . . . in actuality there are abounding alternative Achaian princes, adolescent and old, in sea girt Ithaca, any of who ability ascendancy this position, now hat the abundant Odysseus has perished. ” (1. 393-396). This account by Telemachus; son of Odysseus, is a acceptance that Odysseus head is in actuality accessible for any centralized or alien armament (i. e. suitors Central or alfresco of Ithaca) to absorb afterwards any prohibition. According to Machiavelli, “. . . there will consistently be barons accessible to accept ascendancy aback affairs beat their way . . . ” (18). Odysseus’ absence in Ithaca and the inexistence of ascendancy gave the noblemen the adventitious to do whatever they appetite in his land, appropriately giving the blue-blooded men their adventitious to assuredly absorb his throne. An archetype of this is the chain of the Achaean blue-blooded men to booty his head by marrying his wife; Penelope, admitting her accessible intension of not absent to marry. Another aftereffect of abridgement of ascendancy in Ithaca is the connected corruption of his acreage in the easily of the blue-blooded men by berserk blaze his livestock and wine. Although Telemachus approved to address to the suitors by captivation an accumulation with all the suitors and the Achean elders, it was not abundant to get the suitors out of his land. Telemachus declared that “We accept no man actuality such as Odysseus was, to drive this anathema from the household. We ourselves are not the men to do it . . . not men able-bodied acclimatized in battle. ” (2. 58-61). Although Telemachus has the appropriate to be aggravated with the suitors’ accident of his belongings, there is no ascendancy or ability in his commonwealth above his adequacy that could appeal the suitors out of his land. Afterwards Odysseus, the noblemen ascendancy the ability on the acreage and are appealing abundant advantaged to accomplish their own rules. In the book Greek Political Anticipation by Ryan Balot, he declared that, “Odysseus was like a ancestor to his bodies who adequate them from adopted enemies, from beneath aseptic aristocrats . . Aback Odysseus larboard Ithaca, aggregate went downhill, because of the acquisitiveness and airs of affluent aloof men afterwards a faculty of appropriateness . . . Meanwhile, the political association could administer some – admitting not abundant – burden on these aristocrats to alter their behaviour. . . as continued as Odysseus was gone, those who would commonly accept been in allegation were larboard with pious hopes that the gods would accomplishment them. Accordingly . . . the able-bodied actuality of Ithaca depended on Odysseus acknowledgment and his active reassertion of his power. ” (32). This account by Balot supports the altercation that the inexistence of ministers who comedy as the added in command of the baron makes the absolution accessible not alone from the nobles but additionally from alien threats. Afterwards the ascendancy of appointed ministers who comedy as the added in command of the king, it makes the blue-blooded suitors consecutive to Odysseus in the bureaucracy of ability in Ithaca. With the little gap amid the admiral of a baron and noblemen, it makes it easier for the noblemen to accomplish their ascendancy in a commonwealth aback the ability of a baron is inexistent. Balot’s appearance of the bearings in Ithaca additionally supports the abstraction that Odysseus’ ascendancy in his commonwealth is not absolute amidst all the bodies beneath his ascendancy and it is aloof a amount of adventitious afore the noblemen baffle him. Machiavelli’s approach about the advantages of ministers and the disadvantages of accepting noblemen in a absolution absolutely applies to the anatomy of Odysseus’ monarchy. With the affectionate of absolution that Ithaca has, Odysseus’ ahead in his acreage is acutely accessible from the affront of the aggressive and adept noblemen. The inexistence of accepted authorities like the ministers who comedy as the added in command of the baron to accommodate babyminding all over the acreage and additionally as the king’s aegis from any disobedience makes the supremacy of Odysseus as a baron of Ithaca questionable. A leader’s appliance of both ability and administration is the sole acumen for an alignment to accomplish or fail. A baton that lacks either one of these elements is best acceptable to abort on administering a accumulation to accomplish the group’s accepted cold including the leader’s own claimed goal. The issues of ability and administration throughout Odysseus adventure in The Odyssey are affiliated to the ideologies and guidelines of Machiavelli’s The Prince on how a baron can calmly administer his ability and administration to advance a able and acknowledged absolution and what kinds of affairs can affect a king’s supremacy to his own kingdom. Throughout Odysseus journey, he showed amenities of administration that contradicted the guidelines of Machiavelli of how a baron should acknowledge in altered situations that absorb a analytical administration decisions. Odysseus’ too abundant benevolence appear his aggregation associates contradicts the admonition of Machiavelli on why it is bigger for the baton to be feared than loved. His inappropriate benevolence appear his aggregation associates led to their apostasy adjoin his ascendancy which appropriately led to their own destruction. Odysseus conceivably capital to be beheld as a compassionate leader, accordingly admired by his people, instead of actuality beheld as a atrocious but able dictator. But according to Leeden “Indeed, if you are feared, your followers will consistently acquisition affidavit to adulation you. ”(128). Odysseus carelessness additionally resulted to the antipathy of his added in command, Eurylochus. Machiavelli declared that a baron should accept the characteristics of both fox and bobcat to abstain accessories and alarm out enemies. Although there is no agnosticism that Odysseus is a adventuresome warrior and at the aforementioned time cunning, he showed at times that he alone utilizes the qualities of a bobcat but lacks or disregards the qualities of a fox, appropriately consistent to his aggregation associates annoyance of his actions. An archetype is aback he courageously waited for Polyphemus admitting alive the actuality that he’s an actionable monster. Machiavelli declared that those kings that alone await on qualities of a bobcat accept no abstraction what they’re doing. The anatomy of Odysseus’ absolution is additionally discussed in Machiavelli’s The Prince. Machiavelli’s appearance on why a baron is bigger off with a absolution with appointed ministers than a absolution with cardinal noblemen can absolutely be activated to the attempt of ability in his land, Ithaca. The bearings in Ithaca proves that Machiavelli’s appearance on the accent of ministers and the disadvantages of accepting blue-blooded ancestors in a absolution is accurate. These issues of ability and administration in The Odyssey created the after-effects that bedeviled Odysseus, his crewmen and his wife and son throughout the story. The apostasy of his crewmembers is the aftereffect of Odysseus’ abortion to administer an able administration forth with his power, appropriately consistent to his ascendancy over his men to abate as well. The aftereffect of the political anatomy to Odysseus’ supremacy in Ithaca is unchangeable, appropriately authoritative him an assured victim of an certain circumstance. However, If Odysseus followed the guidelines of Machiavelli on how an ideal baron should lead, Odysseus could accept adored some of his aggregation associates and accomplished their ultimate accepted ambition and that is abiding to Ithaca safe and sound. Bibliography Balot, Ryan. Greek Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. 32. Print. This altercation contains a absolute history of age-old Greek political thought. It examines altered kinds of age-old altercation (e. g. The Odyssey) in adjustment to acutely authenticate the political anticipation and anatomy of age-old Greece during its time. It additionally studies the affiliation amid backroom and belief in age-old Greece. Part of this altercation studies the tendencies of the noblemen to defection adjoin a ruler. Balot declared that the aristocrats generally approved for political affiliation alfresco a king’s absolution to accretion added political affiliation that could possibly advice them advance their own government. It additionally contains Balot’s appearance of the bearings in Ithaca aback Odysseus ability is inexistent. Balot declared that Odysseus actuality as a baron is the alone affair that hinders the “less-restrained” aristocrats from accomplishing what they ambition to do in his land. Homer. The Odyssey of Homer. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. , 1967. Print. The composition The Odyssey tells the adventure of Odysseus’ adventure aback to his commonwealth afterwards the Trojan War. It describes the trials and the after-effects that Odysseus had to go through canal out his journey. This altercation relates to my commodity about “Power and Leadership” because it exhibits Odysseus’ administration capabilities on altered kinds of situations (e. g. Odysseus administration in the island of the Cyclops) throughout his travel. This altercation is accordant to my altercation because it contains incidents that appropriate Odysseus to accomplish administration decisions. An archetype of these incidents is aback he absitively to delay for the Cyclops admitting his aggregation members’ appeal of abrogation the cave. By application these incidents in The Odyssey, it will advice me administer the guidelines of Machiavelli on how a baron should acknowledge in altered kinds of situations that appropriate analytical administration decisions. Ledeen, Michael. Machiavelli on Avant-garde Leadership. New York: Truman Talley Books and St. Martin's Griffin, 1999. 112-149. Print. This book studies the acquaint of Machiavelli on administration and how they can be activated to avant-garde politics. Michael A. Ledeen’s claimed appearance on the accent of Machiavellian administration will be acclimated as a apparatus to aback up my claims on why the after-effects that Odysseus suffered throughout his adventure were the after-effects of his administration decisions that contradicted the guidelines of Machiavelli. In one case in the book that indicates the accent of inserting abhorrence in the bodies beneath one’s leadership, Leeden uses George Washington as an archetype by illustrating how the above U. S. admiral acclimated his army to ascendancy the citizens who were adjoin the abstraction of advantageous customs tax on their liquor. Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Trans. Tim Parks. Abundant Britain: Penguin Books Ltd, 2009. Print. This book by Machiavelli instructs the readers of the guidelines of how a “Prince” should advance and affected adversaries or conflicts the Machiavellian way. It relates to my affair of “Power and Leadership” because it contains ideologies of how leaders should acknowledge or authenticate ability aback threatened by centralized or adopted forces. This altercation additionally discusses altered affairs that could affect a king’s ahead in his kingdom. The aftereffect of the political anatomy of a king’s commonwealth is an archetype of the capacity that are discussed in this altercation that could be activated to the accident of Odysseus kingdom, Ithaca. This altercation will be the base of my judgement on the rights and wrongs of Odysseus’ leadership. It will additionally be the base of my appraisal on what Odysseus should accept and should accept not done on altered situations throughout his travel. Rose, Elihu. "The Anatomy of Mutiny. " Sage. (1982): 572. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. ;http://afs. sagepub. com/content/8/4/561. full. pdf;. This commodity by Rose studies the affidavit of disobedience in the military. It additionally explains the altered kinds of mutinies, how the activity of disobedience starts and how to end it. It additionally contains examples of anesthetized mutinies from sixteenth aeon French monarchy. This commodity is capital to the altercation of why Odysseus’ inappropriate accomplishments in the acreage of the Cyclopes accept fabricated his crewmen aghast which led to the act of antipathy of Eurylochus adjoin him. Its account of how disobedience starts supports the altercation that Odysseus’ activity adjoin the will of his crewmen is the primary acumen why his subordinates insubordinate adjoin his ascendancy in their journey.

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