Local Development Planning in the Philippines

at the Bounded Akin A report by: Sheryl I. Fernando “Local governments do not accept the affluence d of time to adjournment the development of their de own capabilities whic will acquiesce them to ch accomplish their cherishe objectives. ed They should advice them mselves and not constipate while the blow of the apple go by. st Bounded governments he elping themselves is the aspect of the home ru It is additionally the ule. cornerstone of democr ratic and aloof institutions. “ ?? LOGODEF, 1993 Bounded governments in the Philippines accept th roots in the colonial administering of Spain, beneficiary which lasted in the Philippines for some 32 years. These three centuries beneath Spanish 27 government were characterized by a awful ce entralized regime. The Spanish Governor General in Manila absolutely absolute the ambit and cities in the accomplished country. Afterwards Spain, the US d came in the aboriginal 1900s and Filippinized bounded government administration. The aftermost 50 years of the present aeon saw several developments appear decentralization. The Bounded Autonomy Act of 1959, the admission of the Barrio Charter and the Decentralization Act o of 1967 were all incremental civic legisla ations in acknowledgment to the clamour for a self? aphorism concept. The Philippine Constitutions of 1972 and 1987 additionally decidedly afflicted the movement for political devolution. The best cogent built-in accoutrement (Article 10 on Bounded Government) are the following: s The Congress shall achieve a bounded government cipher which shall accommodate for a added acknowledging and answerable bounded government anatomy instituted through a adjustment of s decentralization with able mechanisms of recall, activity n and acclamation admeasure amid the altered bounded government m, units their powers, responsibilities and assets and accommodate for the qualificati ions, election, appointment, removal, terms, salaries, ability functions and duties of bounded admiral and all rs, alternative diplomacy apropos to the alignment and operation of the r bounded units". The aldermanic activity announcement bounded auto onomy was acerb accurate by academics and accessible agents who spearheaded the nec cessary reforms in alteration the anatomy and alignment of bounded governments and includ new functions to accredit bounded governments to ded abode a alteration environment. The strugg for decentralization that lasted added than 50 gle years culminated in the admission of the Loca Government Cipher in October 1991. The Bounded al Government Cipher is a best comprehensiv certificate on bounded government affecting on ve structures, functions and powers, including tax xation and intergovernmental relations. ” ?? unescap. org According to Panadero (2008) the dece entralization of governance was influenced  by local  and international events (see Figure e 1). He also added that at the International Internat tional Events POSITIVE ? Abstruse Advances ? Globalization crisis ? Trade/Investment liberalization ? Abjection focus flu) Political • 3 changes in  administering • EDSA II & III • Increase Insurgency • Agitation • Charter Change • Political Uncertainty NEGATIVE ? Episodes of apple bread-and-butter Slowdown & bread-and-butter ? Rising oil prices ? Agitation ? Heath problems (e. g. SARS, Eco onomic • Boom bu ust economic  growth/cr rises • Liberaliza ation/  Deregular rization  Behavior • Rising Ur rbanization • OFW Deployment • Fiscal & d debt problems DECENT TRALIZATION Amusing • Persistent poverty • Lower budget  allocation For social services • Rising inequality • Disasters Figure 1. Economic, Social & Political Environme ent in the Last Years of Decentralization level, globalization has the best common admission on the decentralization, which was hastened by barter and advance liberalization and abstruse advances. On the Amusing Sector, there was a focus on the abridgement of poverty; on the Bread-and-butter Sector, the new all-embracing issues such as agitation had absolute and abrogating impacts at the bounded level, while the bread-and-butter book at the civic akin decidedly shaped bounded development. The civic government in the 1990 accustomed to advancement bounded government by 0s delegating some bound admiral to bounded su ubdivisions and by auspicious bodies to participate in association affairs. Bounded auto onomy was balanced, however, adjoin the allegation to ensure able political and admin nistrative ascendancy from Manila, abnormally in those areas breadth antipathetic or Muslim ins surgents were active. During Marcos's absolute years (1 1972? 86), a Ministry of Bounded Government was instituted to activate provincial, mu unicipal, and barangay governments. But, Marcos's absolute purpose was to authorize lin of ascendancy that bypassed bigoted nes governments and ran beeline to Malacanang. All bounded admiral were bound to Marcos, who could accredit or abolish any bigoted governor or boondocks mayor. Those administrators who delivered the votes Marcos asked for were adored with association development funds to absorb any way they liked. y Afterwards the People's Ability Revolution, the new Aquino government absitively to alter all the bounded admiral who had served Marcos. Corazon Aquino delegated this assignment to her political ally, Aquilino Pimentel. Pimentel called admiral in allegation of bounded governments all beyond the nation. They served until the aboriginal bounded elections were captivated beneath the new architecture on January 18, 1988. Local admiral adopted in 1988 were to serve until June 1992, beneath the concise clauses of the new constitution. Thereafter, agreement of appointment were to be three years, with a three? appellation limit. Bounded government units (LGUs) are territo orial political subdivisions of the Philippines that accommodate provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays (the aboriginal political assemblage in the country). Because bounded government admiral ar voted into ability by the people, their primary re role is people's welfare. Their offices are the aloft institutions amenable for the e coordination, administering and ecology of dev velopment projects at the bounded level. The corruption of cogent admiral and functions aforetime captivated by civic band agencies mmunity development and abjection advancement in to LGUs fabricated them able conduits for com the countryside. Amid the responsibilities tr ransferred to the LGUs were agriculture, health, amusing services, ambiance and accustomed resources, aliment of bounded basement accessories (such as farm? to? bazaar roads, bridges and irri igation) and others. Bounded aldermanic admiral such as decision? making, ability allocation, rule? m authoritative and administration of laws accompanying to these admiral were additionally delegated to LGUs. Governor Lilia G. Pineda meets with barangay officials of flooded? municipalities in the province as she instructs them to further  intensify their efforts in ensuring the welfare and safety of their r respective constituents. Board Member Cris Garbo, Provincial  Social Welfare and Development Officer (PSWDO) Elizabeth Bayb bayan and Agriculture Consultant Roy Imperial join the meeting of  the local officials. (Photo by Jun Jaso,Pampanga PIO) The planning activity in starts at the barangay level. Affairs are able by the Barangay Council, and afresh adopted by the Barangay Development Council, composed of barangay y admiral adopted by the bodies (Figure 2). Gene erally, barangay admiral accept completed alone the elementary levels of schooling, and accept little or no training in development? accompanying activities. Hence, barangay development affairs usually abide alone of lists of projects that focus mainly c on the basement accessories that are the best accessible and easiest to identify. Some communities do accept bigger planning processe but these are rare. es, Akin Civic Planning Institutions National Economic Development  Authority (NEDA), Central Office Bounded NEDA,  Regional Office Bigoted Provincial Planning and  Development Office (PPDO) Borough Municipal Planning and  Development Office (MPDO) Barangay Figure 2. Planning process and institutions in the Philippines Barangay Council/ Sangguniag Barangay Barangay development affairs are abide tted to the Borough Planning and Development Appointment (MPDO), which comes beneath the administration of the Appointment of the Mayor. The MPDO is in allegation of planning activities at the municipa level. Generally, the MPDO consolidates the al “shopping lists” of projects and prioritizes them in accordance with the affairs of the municipality. Afore this circumscribed plan bec comes the official Borough Development Plan, it charge aboriginal be adopted by the Borough Develo opment Council. From the borough level, affairs are forwarded to the Bigoted Planning and Development Appointment (PPDO) breadth they are afresh D circumscribed and prioritized on the base of the province's own accurate plans. e The bigoted development affairs are additionally advised by the Bigoted Development Councils afore adoption. They are afresh sub bmitted to the Civic Bread-and-butter Development Ascendancy (NEDA) Bounded Office, which cons solidates all the bigoted affairs and prioritizes them, based on bounded importance. The affairs should additionally be advised by the Bounded p Development Councils afore adoption. The affairs are afresh forwarded to the NEDA Axial Appointment Inter? Cabinet Coordinating Committee for consideration, calm with the priorities of f the assorted government band agencies. Based on the civic thrusts and priorities, the projects o that are called are afresh circumscribed and included in the Civic Medium? Appellation Development Plan. The Bounded Government Cipher (LGC) man ndates the LGUs with cogent bounded planning functions. In particular, Breadth 106 of the Cipher provides that “each LGU shall accept e absolute multi? sectoral development pla to be accomplished by its development board and an accustomed by its Sanggunian. The institutional responsibilities for plan formulation, e costs and accomplishing are additionally acutely g, appoint by the Code: ed ? The Loc Development Plan (LDP) shall be able by the cal Bounded Development Board (LDC); P ? The LDP will be accustomed by the Sanggunian; ? Funds for the development plan shall be allocated by the Bounded Fin nance Committee (LCF); and ? The Loc Chief Controlling (LCE), calm with the controlling cal departm ments, will apparatus the development plan. This case abstraction highlights the acquaintance of adventure a Antecedence e Accomplishing Affiliation on accumulation adversity accident appulse assessments into the architecture of new anchorage in the Philippines, implemented by the Civic Disa aster Coordinating Board (NDCC) and Department of Accessible Works and Highways (DPWH) with abutment from Asian Adversity Preparedness Cent (ADPC), UN All-embracing Strategy ter for Adversity Abridgement (UN/I ISDR) and Swedish All-embracing Development Cooperation Bureau (SIDA). ” Appear Mainstreaming Adversity Accident Abridgement into the Planning Activity of Alley Architecture Safer Anchorage A Antecedence Accomplishing Affiliation amid the Civic Adversity Coordinating Board and the Department of Accessible Works and Highways, Philippines Beneath the Bounded Consultative Committee on Adversity Administration (RCC) Affairs on Mainstreaming Adversity Accident Abridgement into Development in Asia Alley Breadth a antecedence for mainstreaming adversity accident reduction BACKGROUND The Bounded Consultative Committee (RCC) on Adversity Administration beneath its affairs on Mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement into development (MDRD) accept articular Anchorage and Infrastructure, Agriculture, Education, Health, Housing and Banking Casework as antecedence sectors to admit mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement . With the massive basement development in Asia underpinned by the advance in highways, anchorage and bridges, prioritizing the Alley Breadth is absolutely a necessity. In the RCC which comprises of active of the Civic Adversity Administration Offices of 26 Asian Countries, associates had submitted announcement of absorption (EoI) to boilerplate of adversity accident abridgement into accurate sectors depending on the development priorities of their country. The Civic Adversity Coordinating Board (NDCC) of the Philippines which is a affiliate of the RCC bidding absorption in taking-up MDRD into alley breadth in affiliation with the Department of Accessible Works and Highways (DPWH), the bureau amenable for civic alley architecture in the country. Appropriately in the aboriginal assay of 2006, the Antecedence Accomplishing Affiliation for mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement into the planning activity of alley architecture in the Philippines was started by NDCC and DPWH. The affiliation was technically accurate by the Asian Adversity Preparedness Center (ADPC) with banking abutment from UN All-embracing Strategy for Adversity Abridgement (UN/ISDR) through Swedish All-embracing Development Cooperation Bureau (SIDA). ource: Mapping Philippine Vulnerability to Ecology Disasters - Manila Observatory/Department of Ambiance and Accustomed Assets (DENR) Floods and earthquakes accomplish the alley adjustment in the Philippines decumbent to landslides, alley slips, beach scouring and alternative bits accompanying disasters. Anchorage are generally bankrupt for several canicule back hit by such disasters causing disruption in busline casework that affects the admission of passengers, appurtenances and services. The appulse of calamity and typhoons in creating calamity to the country’s abridgement as able-bodied as to accident to acreage is accustomed in the Medium Appellation Philippine Development Plan of 2001-2004 and appropriately the DPWH has additionally accumbent its behavior and strategies. Priority Accomplishing Affiliation (PIP) – a Activity appear mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement Agnate to alternative countries, the Alley breadth in the Philippines additionally works in abutting accord with assorted government departments like Planning, Finance, Ambiance and Bounded Government. While the development of civic anchorage (30,000 km of length) is beneath the administration of DPWH, the actual alley adjustment (172,000 km of length) avalanche beneath the affair of bounded government units. In addition, alley projects are based on breadth development affairs produced by the Civic Bread-and-butter Development Bureau (NEDA) and the Bounded Development Councils (RDC). Similarly the achievability letters able for anniversary alley activity undergoes an ecology and a amusing appulse appraisal led by the Department of Ambiance and Accustomed Assets (DENR). In adjustment to boilerplate adversity accident reduction, added accord is adapted with NDCC and abstruse agencies amenable for bearing hazard advice accompanying to accustomed disasters like the Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Casework Administering (PAGASA). A MULTI-AGENCY TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TAKES THE LEAD With this understanding, the PIP formed a abstruse alive accumulation of the NDCC at the alpha with multi-agency associates to beacon the activity of accomplishing of mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement into the planning activity of alley construction. activity of alley planning and anecdotic the windows of befalling to acquaint adversity accident reduction. Accordingly the ambit of activities was abundant as follows: • Documentation of absolute activity for development of alley projects with account to hazards; Documentation of capacity of pre feasibility/ achievability abode of alley projects in the country over the accomplished 20 years; Assay of accomplished accident to alley infrastructure; Identification of specific accomplish that can be taken for accumulation hazard considerations in activity development and approval process; List of approaching antecedence projects for architecture of anchorage in the Philippines. • PIP Abstruse Alive Accumulation comprises: • • • • • • • • • Chairperson; Planning service, DPWH Co-chairperson; Planning division, NDCC Associates Bureau of assay and standard, DPWH Bureau of architecture and arch division, DPWH Philippines Institute of Civil Engineer Department of Ambiance and Accustomed Assets Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Philippines Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Casework Administering Asian Adversity Preparedness Center • • • The abstruse alive accumulation met frequently over the PIP accomplishing aeon to attending at the mentioned activities aloft and developed the final abode which capacity recommendations for amalgam DRR into the planning activity of new alley architecture in the Philippines. BROADER CONSULTATION PIP LOOKED INTO The abstruse alive accumulation affianced in appointment and absitively on the afterward activities for initiating mainstreaming. Back it was accomplished that the ultimate aim of mainstreaming could alone be accomplished by bringing change in the absolute system, which alley projects are developed, designed, complete and maintained. Hence this accurate affiliation would accent on compassionate the absolute The allegation of the PIP were aggregate during a civic workshopheld in February 2007, in which a advanced ambit of stakeholders particpated including the Government, abstruse agencies, UN agencies and the Asian Development Bank. The recommendations were discussed in detail and approaching accomplish were identified. The Activity Development of a archetypal basement activity in DPWH follows a circadian activity consisting of four phases: Activity identification, Activity preparation, Activity accomplishing and Activity operation and evaluation. circumscribed form, with bound admission to abundant abode on amercement and their agnate costs. Additionally of according accent is to criterion hazard intensities with their Acknowledgment periods/Damages. This is decidedly difficult due to: abridgement of adapted topographic maps at 1:5,000 or college resolution, a dispersed adjustment of hazard ecology stations (seismic and flood) as able-bodied as abbreviate ecology aeon and bound candy abstracts on hazards. The afterward key abstracts were calm during the activity to conduct the analysis: • Accepted Agreement of Reference for Strategic Ambiance Appraisal for Affairs and Programmes Accepted Abode Architecture for Strategic Ambiance Appraisal for Affairs and Programmes Sample of Accident Abode DPWH Commune Appointment Sample of Circumscribed Accident Abode by NDCC Sample of Arch activity Inspection Anatomy Sample of Pre- Achievability and Achievability Letters of Alley projects starting 1984 List of approaching projects of DPWH After the projects are identified, achievability studies are conducted which includes investigations and assay to actuate the admeasurement and amount of agreeableness of a activity adjoin technical, economic, social, environmental, banking and operational aspects. As allotment of this project, sample achievability letters over aftermost 20 years were analysed in agreement of agreeable and it was accomplished that the anatomy of the abode abundantly depends on the antecedent of allotment of the project. Typically due to abridgement of allotment for architecture of civic alley projects, DPWH administers a basal achievability study, but for foreign-assisted projects the appraisal activity is added all-embracing and extensive. However, it was acclaimed that column 2000, the achievability letters do tend to accommodate a breadth on “Review of hazard specific threats on alley sections” admitting it is primarily bound to attention the alley segments from geological hazards such as landslides and bits fall. In addition, DPWH achievability abstraction includes an Ecology Appulse Appraisal (EIA). The EIA abode anatomy considers the appulse of hazards by defining an “environmentally analytical area” of the activity armpit breadth it is frequently visited by the accustomed hazards. However, it does not absolutely accommodate capacity on how to abode accustomed hazard vulnerability and risks to basement and the consistent appulse from its accident or failure. Similarly, Cost-benefit assay awning alone the planned use of the ability and does not bureau in alternative costs (risk based cost) arising from abeyant accident or accessible abortion of the anatomy to activity to a assertive event. Appraisal of amercement to anchorage afflicted by a accustomed adversity is carried-out by DPWH at the commune level. There is no anchored architecture followed for accession advice bare for the appraisal and the letters are anon beatific to NDCC for the alertness of an all-embracing adversity appraisal report. Hence, it becomes difficult to trace these annal at the bounded or axial offices of the DPWH. Similarly the accident advice of accomplished disasters accessible from NDCC is in a • • • • • • It is additionally accomplished that back mainstreaming of adversity accident abridgement involves a ample ambit of stakeholders, commutual affairs and programs, adversity accident abridgement apropos allegation to be affiliated with advancing projects of DPWH such as: • • • • The convulsion rehabilitation affairs and agnate seismic vulnerability assessments DPWH civic anchorage advance and administration program, Appearance II DPWH alley aliment advance programs The abstraction on the civic flood accident appraisal and the flood acknowledgment plan for the called areas in the Philippines Abstruse Assistance for accident appraisal and administration Benefit ecology and appraisal of called roads, Appearance II, ADB Capacity Architecture Abstraction on accident administration for bits accompanying adversity on called civic highways Similarly abutting bond needs to be accustomed with the advancing activity of NDCC in affiliation with UNDP on Hazard Mapping and Appraisal for able community-based adversity accident administration (READY). • • • • KEY FINDINGS • DPWH adopts a basal “one admeasurement fits all” architecture for achievability studies of alley projects that does not accurately crave appraisal of adversity risks. During abundant design, adversity accident abridgement aspects are congenital into the activity if required. Mostly civic budgets do not accommodate funds for surveys and investigations at the achievability abstraction stage, and it is accordingly abnormal for adversity accident abridgement measures to be congenital at aboriginal stages of activity preparation. Evidently adjourned projects are able to college standards, decidedly in affiliation to ecology assessments (where adversity accident aspects are declared if adapted by the accurate agency) and resettlement planning. There is asperous appliance of architecture codes and architecture standards amid civic and bounded roads. Absence of one anchored architecture for accession advice on accident to anchorage and bridges from accustomed hazards able by district-level offices. Hydrological abstracts are accessible for aloft river basins in the Philippines but these advice accept not analogously been candy to accommodate flow/stage relationships for altered acknowledgment periods, which could be acclimated for alley design. Learning The key to acknowledged affiliation of adversity accident abridgement on alley projects lies in the planning appearance of the activity aeon which includes activity identification and alertness of the achievability study. Assessing the accessible appulse on the activity of accustomed disasters or alternative hazards at this date agency that the adapted accident abridgement measures can be included in the scope, blueprint and adjustment of the project’s aloft components—and that these measures will be accustomed for in the amount estimate. If such measures are not included at the planning phase, their admittance at the afterwards stages is unlikely, or could be cher and annoying (i. e. possibly acute a added budget). Attempting to accommodate accident abridgement measures at the architecture date (after aloft elements of the activity accept been absitively and the account has been allocated) cannot abundantly amuse the allegation for adversity accident reduction. • • • • • Recommendations DPWH needs to accept a accepted on activity identification and alertness procedures to annihilate affection discrepancies amid nationally and evidently adjourned projects and to pave the way for mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement in alley projects. Achievability letters should accommodate assessments of the appulse of abeyant disasters. An added accustomed hazard/impact appraisal basic should be included in the EIA for nationally-funded and foreign-assisted projects The absolute adjustment for ecology alley needs to be bigger to acquiesce for the recording of accident acquired by accustomed disasters. Accepted formats and advertisement standards should be alien for ecology and for accession accident abstracts from the appulse of accustomed disasters on roads. Capacity of agents to appraise the appulse of accustomed disasters needs to be increased, decidedly at the bounded and commune levels. The key to acknowledged affiliation of adversity accident abridgement on alley projects lies in the planning phase... • • • • • Abutting Accomplish for mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement into alley breadth in the Philippines In adjustment to booty advanced the drive acquired beneath the PIP, the abstruse alive accumulation has articular the afterward abutting accomplish to apprehend the recommendations: • Anecdotic two activity alley projects in a hazard decumbent breadth of the Philippines. The two projects would be at altered stages namely a activity activity after a achievability abstraction and a activity activity with a achievability abstraction completed. Integrating adversity accident abridgement (DRR) into the planning activity of two articular activity project. Capacity architecture of admiral from DPWH amenable for administering achievability studies on how to accommodate DRR. Acquaintance of PIP congenital in the RCC Guideline on mainstreaming adversity accident abridgement into Basement • To allotment the acquaintance acquired during the activity of accomplishing of the PIP with the actual RCC affiliate countries, the abstruse alive accumulation represented by DPWH and NDCC alternate in a bounded abstruse branch on developing the RCC Guideline on accumulation adversity accident assessments as allotment of planning activity afore architecture of new roads. The acquaint abstruse from the PIP acted as the allegorical approaches for initiating mainstreaming adversity accident reduction. • • Bounded Consultative Committee on Adversity Administration (RCC) The RCC comprises of associates who are alive in key Government positions in the Civic Adversity Administration Offices of countries of the Asian region. To date, 26 countries are represented by 30 RCC Associates from the Asia and Pacific regions, namely, Afghanistan, Bangladesh Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste and Vietnam. RCC Affairs on Mainstreaming Adversity Accident Abridgement into Development Policy, Planning and Accomplishing in Asia (RCC MDRD) A key antecedence articular by the RCC is the affiliation of adversity accident considerations into development planning. To admit activity on this agreed direction, the RCC Affairs on Mainstreaming Adversity Accident Abridgement into Development Policy, Planning and Accomplishing (MDRD) was launched at the 4th RCC affair in Bangladesh in March 2004. The RCC 5 adopted the Hanoi RCC 5 account on Mainstreaming Adversity Accident Abridgement into Development in Asian Countries which prioritizes mainstreaming of DRR to be accomplished in Civic development planning activity as able-bodied as Sectoral development. It articular six antecedence sectors namely Agriculture, Education, Health, Housing, Urban Planning and Basement and Banking casework for mainstreaming of DRR. The affairs has bristles apparatus for implementation: • • Basic 1: Developing Guidelines and Tools for MDRD Basic 2: Adventure Antecedence Accomplishing Partnerships (PIP) in MDRD in RCC Affiliate Countries Basic 3: Showcasing acceptable convenance on MDRD and Ecology Progress Basic 4: Advocacy for Architecture acquaintance and Political Abutment to MDRD Basic 5: Mobilizing Partnerships for advancing and acceptable accomplishing Lay-out and clear architecture by: Philipp Danao • • • The Hanoi RCC 5 account articular the afterward sub capacity aural the Urban Planning and Basement to admit mainstreaming of adversity accident reduction: For added information, amuse contact: • Aloysius Rego, Director and Team Leader Email: [email protected] net • Arghya Sinha Roy, Activity Manager Email: [email protected] net Adversity Administration Systems Team Asian Adversity Preparedness Center (ADPC) P. O. Box 4 Klong Luang Pathumthani 12120 Thailand Tel: (66 2) 516 5900-10 Fax: (66 2) 524-5350, 5360 Email: [email protected] net website: www. adpc. net Introducing Adversity Accident Appulse Assessments into the architecture of new anchorage and bridges; Announcement the use of hazard accident advice in land-use planning and zoning programs This case abstraction highlights the acquaintance of adventure a Antecedence Accomplishing Affiliation on accumulation adversity accident appulse assessments into the architecture of new anchorage in the Philippines, implemented by the Civic Adversity Coordinating Board (NDCC) and Department of Accessible Works and Highways (DPWH) with abutment from Asian Adversity Preparedness Center (ADPC), UN All-embracing Strategy for Adversity Abridgement (UN/ ISDR) and Swedish All-embracing Development Cooperation Bureau (SIDA). References:   ONLINE :  Guide to Comprehensive Development Plan  http://www. mongabay. com/reference/country_studies/philippines/GOVERNMENT. html  Accessed: June 26, 2012 Local Government Code. http://www. chanrobles. com/localgov1. htm  Accessed: June 26, 2012  Local Government in Asia and the Pacific: A Comparative Study. Country paper: Philippines  http://www. unescap. org/huset/lgstudy/country/philippines/philippines. tml                   Accessed: June 26, 2012  Luz Seno? Ani. Participatory territorial planning: the farming systems development approach in  community planning in the Philippines, 1995–2002. http://www. fao. org/docrep/005/Y8999T/y8999t06. htm    Accessed: June 26, 2012    Philippines? Government  http://www. mongabay. com/reference/country_studies/philippines/GOVERNMENT. html  Accessed: June 26, 2012    Rationalizing the Local Planning System  http://www. dilg. gov. ph/PDF_File/reports/DILG? Reports? 2011712? ea7ba5859e. pdf    e? BOOK/BOOK:    Panadero, Austere A. (2008). Strategy to Further Decentralization in the Philippines. LOGODEF  Journal on  Local Governance. Towards Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into the Planning Process of Road Construction      PHOTOS:  Gov. meets with brgy officials:  http://pampangacapitol. ph/2011/10/06/gov? meets? with? barangay? officials/    cory caricature??? from the Filipino mind: Bobby Tuazon  http://thefilipinomind. blogspot. com/2009/08/cora? aquino? how? politics? of? reform? lost. html    Cover photo by Sheryl Fernando, documentor, Executive management course for  PSWDOs and  MSWDOs in Mindanao A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in  Development Management in n Development Organizations Abide tted to: Dr. Jedida L. Aquino Profe essor Submitted by: Sheryl I. F Fernando MD DM

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