KM Tutorial Ans
208KM Tutorial 5 Ans Catechism 1 Ans Show why R&D administration is abased on automated context. Answer: This catechism explores the admeasurement to which acceptance accept the accent of automated context. R&D operations in the automated actinic industry will be absolutely altered from those in the aliment industry. For example, R&D managers in automated chemicals companies may not accept to accord with cast managers, admitting in the aliment industry cast managers will be actual influential. Similarly, customer analysis scientists will accept a cogent access on accommodation authoritative in customer markets but not in automated markets.
Question 2 Discuss the ambit of operational R&D activities. Answer: Amount 8. 1 illustrates the R&D operations frequently begin in about every above analysis and development department. They may accept altered labels, but aural Siemens, Nokia, BMW and Shell such operations are able-bodied documented. In abate organisations the activities are beneath assorted and may accommodate alone a few of these operations. This breadth explains what activities one would apprehend to acquisition aural anniversary blazon of R&D operation. To advice put these activities in context, Amount 9. shows how they chronicle to the artefact life-cycle framework. They are: Basic Analysis Applied Analysis Artefact Development Abstruse Service Catechism 3 What was the acceptable appearance of R&D? Answer: After the Second World War, analysis and development played an important role in accouterment firms with aggressive advantage. Abstruse developments in industries such as chemicals, electronics, automotive and pharmaceuticals led to the development of abounding new products, which produced accelerated growth. For a while it seemed that technology was able of about anything.
The acceptable appearance of R&D has accordingly been advantageous 18-carat abstruse roblems, which after leads to business opportunities and a aggressive advantage over one's competitors. Catechism 4 Not all firms advance in R;D. What should be the akin of amount on R;D for a firm? Answer: One of the best advantageous guides is to attending at industry boilerplate expenditure. This will accommodate a adviser to what a close in a accurate industry apparently an anniversary bread-and-butter basis. It requires a longer-term access enabling ability to be acquired and congenital up over time.
This generally leads to tensions with alternative functions that are planning projects and activities. It is abnormal for absolute funds o be available, and appropriately business functions usually attempt with alternative departments for funds. A abundant accord depends on the ability of the organisation and the industry aural which it is operating (see Chapters 3 and 6). Pilkington, for example, spends proportionally ample sums on R;D -many say too abundant - abnormally back one considers its added contempo achievement (Financial Times, 1998). Alternative companies absorb actual little on R;D but huge amounts on sales and marketing.
This is the case for the banking casework industry. So, one of the best difficult decisions adverse chief administration is how abundant to absorb on R;D. Abounding companies now address R;D amount in their anniversary reports. It is now almost accessible to establish, for example, that Rubbermaid spent 14 per cent of sales on R;D in 1994; however, absolutely how the aggregation accustomed at this amount is beneath clear. Catechism 5 What are the capital cardinal activities of R;D? Answer: The administration of analysis and development needs to be absolutely chip with the cardinal administration action of the business.
This will enhance and abutment the articles that business and sales action and accommodate the aggregation with a abstruse anatomy of ability that can be acclimated for approaching development. Too abounding usinesses abort to accommodate the administration of analysis and technology absolutely into the all-embracing business action action (Adler et al. (1992)). A address by the European Automated Administration Association (EIRMA, 1985) recognises R;D as accepting three audible areas, anniversary acute investment: R;D for absolute businesses, R;D for new businesses and R;D for basic analysis (see Amount 8. ). These three cardinal areas can be burst bottomward into operational activities: 00 defend, abutment and aggrandize absolute businesses; drive new businesses; and augment and deepen abstruse capability. Discuss some of the cardinal pressures on R;D. Answer: In around all R;D functions there is a accommodation amid apperception assets in the following of a cardinal ability adequacy and overextension assets over a added breadth to acquiesce for the architecture of a added accepted ability base. Amount 8. 5 shows the demands on abstruse resources.
The advance of accurate and abstruse areas of absorption to the close pressurises analysis administration to armamentarium a added cardinal of areas, represented by the advancement curve. The charge for cardinal accession armament the accommodation to focus assets and body cardinal ability competencies, represented by the bottomward curve. Catechism 7 What is meant by technology leverage? Answer: While it is appetizing to say that technology influences the aggressive achievement of all businesses, in absoluteness some businesses are added heavily afflicted than others.
In abounding complete and accustomed industries, the amount of raw abstracts is abundant added of an access on the aggressive achievement of the business than are technology developments. For example,the amount paid for bolt like coffee, amber and amoroso can badly access profits in abounding aliment industries. Even if the business was to essentially access the akin of R;D nvestment, its aggressive position would still be bent by raw actual prices.
Several attempts accept been fabricated by industry to quantify this agency back because the akin of R;D advance required. Scholefield (1993) developed a archetypal application the abstraction of technology leverage. This is the admeasurement of access that a business's technology and technology abject accept on its aggressive position. In general, technology advantage will be low back the access of raw actual and administration costs and bread-and-butter advance is high. High-volume, aggregate article articles would abatement aural this scenario.
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