Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction:
Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing RESEARCH ARTICLE JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND JOB SATISFACTION: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION1 By: Michael G. Morris McIntire School of Commerce University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 U. S. A. [email protected] edu Viswanath Venkatesh Walton College of Business University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 U. S. A. [email protected] us Keywords: ERP systems, job characteristics, job satisfaction, technology adoption, arrangement accomplishing Introduction
One of the best accepted authoritative change activities in the aftermost decade or so has been the accomplishing of enterprise-wide advice technologies, such as action adeptness planning (ERP) systems, that annual for 30 percent of all aloft change activities in organizations today (Davenport 2000; Jarvenpaa and Stoddard 1998; see additionally Herold et al. 2007). Some estimates advance that ERP accepting is as aerial as 75 percent amid boilerplate to ample accomplishment companies, 60 percent amid account companies, and up to 80 percent amid Fortune 500 firms (META Accumulation 2004).
ERP arrangement implementations about absorb an all-encompassing redesign of business processes and the deployment of new software to abutment those new business processes (Robey et al. 2002; Ross and Vitale 2000). Compared to the accomplishing of simpler technologies generally advised in above-mentioned individual-level assay (for a review, see Venkatesh et al. 2003), the accomplishing of ERP systems account greater change with broader impacts on employees, fundamentally alteration the attributes of tasks, workflows, and, by extension, the jobs themselves (Davenport et al. 996; Liang et al. 2007; Mullarkey et al. 1997). The accent of compassionate ERP-initiated authoritative change is credible by abstracts advertence that the allotment of ERP failures is over 60 percent (Devadoss and Pan 2007; Langenwalter 2000) as able-bodied as barter columnist letters assuming that bisected of the top-10 IT failures of all time are ERP systems from market-leading vendors, with losses alignment from $6 actor to able-bodied over Abstract
Little assay has advised the impacts of action adeptness planning (ERP) systems accomplishing on job satisfaction. Based on a 12-month abstraction of 2,794 advisers in a telecommunications firm, we activate that ERP arrangement accomplishing chastened the relationships amid three job characteristics (skill variety, autonomy, and feedback) and job satisfaction. Our allegation highlight the key role that ERP arrangement accomplishing can acquire in altering wellestablished relationships in the ambience of technology-enabled authoritative change situations.
This assignment additionally extends assay on technology circulation by affective aloft a focus on technology-centric outcomes, such as arrangement use, to compassionate broader job outcomes. 1 Carol Saunders was the accepting chief editor for this paper. MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 143-161/March 2010 143 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing $100 actor (e. g. , Nash 2000). The accent of the ERP industry to the able advice systems association is added underscored by projections advertence that it will be a $47. billion industry by 2011 (Jacobsen et al. 2007). Thus, afflicted adjoin calls in the bookish abstract to conjecture abundantly about specific contexts of change (Herold et al. 2007; see additionally Johns 2006), there is little agnosticism that ERP arrangement accomplishing represents an important ambience aces of abstraction in IS assay (e. g. , Estevez and Bohorquez 2005; Gattiker and Goodhue 2005; Liang et al. 2007).
Although underutilized systems abide to be a problem, there has been arresting advance in anecdotic the cerebral mechanisms arch to antecedent accepting and connected use decisions by advisers (for a review, see Venkatesh et al. 2003). However, acclimatized the adeptness of assay on technology adoption, some acquire adapted that we may be extensive the abstract banned of our adeptness to adumbrate individual-level technology use and acquire alleged for assay that moves aloft alleviative technology use as the ultimate abased capricious (Venkatesh 2006).
Consistent with the charge to move aloft technology-centric constructs as the primary abased variables of absorption (Markus and Robey 1988), contempo perspectives on authoritative after-effects constant from new systems acquire accent the appearing attributes of technology accomplishing and use (Boudreau and Robey 2005; Devadoss and Pan 2007). As a cardinal of ERP advisers acquire suggested, the success or abortion of an ERP arrangement accomplishing is rarely angry to the appearance of the technology itself, but rather, is generally affiliated to the job and/or action reengineering that about accompany such systems (e. . , Davenport 2000; Peppard and Ward 2005; Scheer and Habermann 2000). Thus, although the focus on outcomes, such as technology use, is important, use is not an end unto itself, but rather is best positioned as a agency to attain alternative authoritative and alone allowances (DeLone and McLean 1992, 2003; Martin and Huq 2007; Seddon 1997). Added than alternative systems, ERP systems acquire the abeyant to badly acclimate jobs and business processes.
Moreover, the amount of shock to the alignment constant from such systems is acceptable to acclimate above accomplishing stages. Extant above-mentioned assay on IT circulation has characterized the technology accomplishing action as advance in phases, from the antecedent planning and accretion phases through a final beverage stage, area the technology is absolutely chip and activated in atypical or avant-garde means aural the alignment (e. g. , Cooper and Zmud 1980).
More contempo assignment on ERP arrangement accomplishing has conceptualized the phases associated with ERP deployment and assimilation aural the alignment as “chartering,” “project,” “shakedown,” and “onward and upward” (Markus and Tanis 2000). Aural this framework, there is acceding that best of the changes and shock that aftereffect from the accomplishing action can be accepted during the attack appearance (Alvarez 2008; Gattiker and Goodhue 2005; Hakkinen and Hilmola 2007, 2008; Peppard and Ward 2005).
The attack appearance is conceptualized as abiding from the point the arrangement is anatomic and attainable by users until acclimatized use is accomplished (Markus and Tanis 2000; Nah and Delgado 2006). There is affirmation that the furnishings of ERP arrangement accomplishing are generally abrogating during the attack appearance and that these aboriginal abrogating furnishings frequently aftereffect in aloft losses and/or dereliction of the arrangement until the longer-term allowances associated with ERP arrangement accomplishing and use can be accomplished (Alvarez 2008; Gattiker and Goodhue 2005; Hakkinen and Hilmola 2008; Staehr et al. 002). Although the changes anchored in the technology generally accompany benign abiding furnishings for the alignment (and for the advisers themselves), they can additionally accommodate adverse concise effects. Therefore, it is important to acquire this new context—the attack appearance of ERP arrangement implementation—and its role in abstraction agent perceptions and alternative job outcomes (e. g. , Boudreau and Robey 2005; Brynjolfsson and Hitt 1998; Davenport 2000; Davis and Hufnagel 2007; Galliers and Baetz 1998; Josefek and Kaufmann 2003; Orlikowski 1991, 1993; Parker et al. 001; Sauer and Yetton 1997; Zuboff 1988). Absorption on the attack phase, we use the job characteristics archetypal (JCM; Hackman and Oldham 1980) as the abstract lens to acquire the impacts of an ERP arrangement accomplishing on employees’ jobs. The basal apriorism of the JCM is that assorted job characteristics calm admission job satisfaction. Clearly, job achievement is an important aftereffect in its own adapted and has been affiliated to alternative key job outcomes, such as authoritative commitment, about-face intentions, and job achievement (e. g. , Couger et al. 979; Goldstein 1989; Griffeth et al. 2000; Singh et al. 1996; Tett and Meyer 1993; Thatcher et al. 2002). There is empiric abutment for the angle that changes in one’s job are acceptable to acquire an admission on job attitudes (Ang and Slaughter 2000). Acclimatized that ERP arrangement implementations acquire the abeyant to acutely acclimate jobs, thereby alteration people’s reactions to their assignment situation, a axiological altercation that we accomplish is that job perceptions and the accomplishing of an ERP arrangement will collaborate to admission employees’ job satisfaction.
Although above-mentioned assay on job characteristics and job outcomes has abundantly accompanying these two sets of constructs, the role of technology accomplishing or the ambience in which the technology accomplishing occurs has not been absolutely modeled to acquire how and why assorted job characteristics admission job satisfaction. While IS assay has advised job characteristics and/or job achievement (e. g. , Goldstein 1989; Thatcher et al. 2002), the focus has added 144 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010
Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing generally been on compassionate technology accomplishing from the angle of how generally the technology is acclimated (see Venkatesh et al. 2003), and has acclimatized little application to how the accord amid job characteristics and job achievement may be acclimatized as a aftereffect of all-embracing technology implementations in organizations. Adjoin this backdrop, our ample cold is to ample this gap in the abstract by demography an commutual and holistic appearance of an ERP arrangement accomplishing and its impacts.
Building on the JCM, we advance a archetypal that proposes a abstinent aftereffect of ERP arrangement accomplishing on the accord amid job characteristics and job achievement (e. g. , Staw and CohenCharash 2005). This archetypal of job achievement advances above-mentioned assay in a few important ways. First, we claiming two central, acceptable assumptions of best above-mentioned job achievement research. One point of altercation is that, in ERP arrangement implementations, the relationships amid assorted job characteristics and job achievement are not as abiding as traditional, cross-sectional models, such as the JCM, tend to imply.
Instead, our archetypal suggests that some of the job characteristics will admission job achievement abnormally afterward an ERP arrangement implementation. Another point of altercation is that a absolutely cross-sectional appearance of job achievement is bereft to accretion a complete compassionate of job achievement in times of ERP-initiated change. Although cross-sectional models of job achievement are absolutely advantageous as a starting point, some IS advisers acquire acclaimed that they do not accommodate a complete or authentic compassionate of job achievement in times of authoritative change (e. g. Igbaria and Greenhaus 1992). Second, this assay will accord to the abstract on technology accomplishing in accepted and ERP arrangement accomplishing in particular. This assignment will additionally accord to the all-inclusive anatomy of assay on JCM by contextualizing it to the attack appearance of an ERP arrangement implementation. Although the change abstract is affluent at the macro (e. g. , organizational) level, assay on technology-based authoritative change initiatives at the alone akin is bound and this assignment will added our compassionate of the specific ambience of ERP arrangement accomplishing on employees.
Finally, by bringing calm IS assay on ERP systems and authoritative behavior assay on job characteristics, this assignment provides a multidisciplinary and holistic compassionate of both ERP arrangement implementations and authoritative change. Assemble Definitions The three amount sets of constructs in our archetypal are ERP arrangement implementation, job characteristics, and job satisfaction. ERP arrangement accomplishing captures the authoritative accepting of a firm-wide action arrangement and represents the preversus post-implementation phases.
Job characteristics are fatigued from JCM (Hackman and Oldham 1980) and comprise the afterward bristles constructs: assignment significance, authentic as the admeasurement to which a job has appulse on the lives of bodies in an alignment or association in general; assignment identity, authentic as the admeasurement to which a job involves commutual a accomplished identifiable outcome; accomplishment variety, authentic as the admeasurement to which a job requires the use of adapted talents; autonomy, authentic as the admeasurement to which a job provides the agent with acumen to acquire how the assignment is done and to set the agenda for commutual the assignment activities; and feedback, authentic as the admeasurement to which acclimatized out the assignment activities provides the agent with bright advice about his or her performance. Job achievement is authentic as the admeasurement of absolute affecting acknowledgment to the job constant from an employee’s appraisement of the job as accomplishing or coinciding with the individual’s ethics (see Janssen 2001). Archetypal Development Background and Description of the Archetypal Figure 1 presents the assay model. Constant with the admission of Ang and Slaughter (2001), we draw from Hackman and Oldham’s (1980) JCM.
Our archetypal extends JCM by suggesting that the ERP arrangement accomplishing moderates the relationships amid job characteristics and job satisfaction. The angle that job characteristics acquire an important admission on job achievement or alternative job outcomes is able-bodied acclimatized in administration and IS assay (e. g. , Ang and Slaughter 2001; Igbaria and Guimaraes 1993; Igbaria et al. 1994; Goldstein 1989; Thatcher et al. 2002; Wong et al. 1998). However, acclimatized that the deployment of new technology represents one of the best cogent authoritative change contest in today’s firms (Herold et al. 2007; Jarvenpaa and Stoddard 1998) and, likewise, because ERP systems can acquire such a abstruse appulse on the attributes of an alone employee’s assignment (e. g. Devadoss and Pan 2007), we argue that the accomplishing of an ERP arrangement will collaborate with job characteristics to admission job satisfaction. While studies analytical alone simple relationships (e. g. , the absolute admission of job characteristics on job satisfaction) are ambrosial for their parsimony, they are potentially problem- Admission In this section, we activate with the definitions of constructs and again present our assay archetypal and the absolution for our hypotheses. MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 145 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Job Characteristics Assignment Acceptation Assignment Character Accomplishment Array Job Achievement Abandon H2 H3 H4 H5 H1
Feedback ERP Arrangement Accomplishing (Pre vs. Post) Figure 1. Assay Archetypal atic as they can affectation deeper, added circuitous armament that are at assignment (Johns 2006; Singh 1998). Acclimatized that an ERP arrangement accomplishing has a affecting appulse on assignment breeze and employees’ jobs (e. g. , Kraemmerand et al. 2003; Peppard and Ward 2005), it is accessible that the changes brought about by an ERP arrangement accomplishing may acquire a activating accord with what was ahead believed to be a changeless admission on job satisfaction. Constant with the JCM, we acquire the job characteristicsjob achievement accord will be absolute afore an ERP arrangement implementation.
However, in adverse to JCM’s basal tenets, we accomplish the case that the adapted job characteristics will not acquire a absolute absolute admission afterward ERP implementation—in alternative words, we acquire that the job achievement relationships will all be moderated. Such a appearance is not absolutely aberrant because above-mentioned IS assay has suggested, or empirically demonstrated, that the accord amid job characteristics and job achievement may not be as abiding as already anticipation (Goldstein 1989; Igbaria et al. 1994; Thatcher et al. 2002). However, we are not acquainted of any studies that acquire looked at this systematically in the ambience of an ERP arrangement implementation. From a abstract perspective, above-mentioned to an ERP arrangement implementation, we apprehend anniversary of the job characteristics to acquire a absolute admission on job satisfaction, as predicted by the JCM.
The JCM has served as an important abstract base for assay on job design, redesign, and accessory and the accumulated adeptness suggests that job (re)design strategies should focus on influencing key job characteristics because of their absolute admission on job outcomes. For example, Ilgen and Hollenbeck (1991) argued that favorable perceptions of job characteristics can advance to absolute motivations that, in turn, can advance to added job achievement (see additionally Champoux 1978; Fried and Ferris 1987; Singh 1998; Singh et al. 1994; Tyagi and Wotruba 1993). Alternative abstract perspectives, such as sociotechnical systems theory, acquire additionally adapted that job (re)design initiatives can agreeably admission job outcomes (Campion and McClelland 1993; Parker and Wall 1998).
Summarizing this view, best empiric and meta-analytic affirmation on the JCM suggests that there is a able beeline accord amid an employee’s perceptions of assorted job characteristics and job outcomes such that added favorable perceptions of any accurate job adapted will advance to favorable outcomes, such 146 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing as added job achievement (Farias and Varma 2000; Fried and Ferris 1987; Griffeth 1985; Hackman and Lawler 1971; Ilgen and Hollenbeck 1991; Judge et al. 1997; Mathieu et al. 1993). Thus, above-mentioned to an ERP arrangement implementation, we acquire that the prevailing acumen embodied in the JCM will authority such that college levels of anniversary job adapted will advance to college levels of job satisfaction.
As adumbrated in our assay archetypal (see Figure 1), in situations of job change, the IS abstract suggests that cogent changes in job contexts, such as those imposed by ERP systems or alternative cogent authoritative change mechanisms, acquire the abeyant to acclimate the about admission of job characteristics on job achievement (Ang and Slaughter 2001; Boudreau and Robey 2005; Igbaria et al. 1994; Orlikowski 1993). Such a appearance is echoed in the job claiming literature, which suggests that job redesign constant from cogent authoritative changes may actualize cutting challenges for some advisers arch to lower job achievement (Cavanaugh et al. 2000; Champoux 1992; Singh 1998; van der Velde and Feij 1995; Xie and Johns 1995).
Building on apprehension disconfirmation theory, contempo models in the IS abstract acquire accustomed that antecedent behavior change with acquaintance and captivation (Bhattacherjee and Premkumar 2004; Igbaria et al. 1994). Furthermore, constant with adjustment akin admission (Helson 1964), advisers are acceptable to action new job demands and the technology adventures associated with them adapted from how they may acquire originally perceived the job (i. e. , pre-ERP arrangement in this context). Specifically, area our archetypal departs from the predictions of the JCM afterward an ERP arrangement accomplishing ambience is with the JCM hypotheses that anniversary of the job characteristics will absolutely admission job satisfaction.
We acquire the adverse will be accurate afterward an ERP arrangement accomplishing as advisers acclimate to the new arrangement and anchored processes that characterize the attack appearance (Peppard and Ward 2005). moderates anniversary of the relationships amid anniversary of the job characteristics and job satisfaction. Two of the job characteristics, assignment acceptation and assignment identity, allege accurately to the attributes of the assignment and the circadian tasks that advisers do as allotment of their all-embracing job. As ahead absolute tasks become added commutual (Gattiker and Goodhue 2005) and added elements of the job are off-loaded to the system, the ERP arrangement accomplishing is acceptable to be perceived as stripping out the acceptation and array of an employee’s assignment that was inherent in the (old) job.
Likewise, acclimatized that the adeptness of the workflow and business processes tends to be captivated by employees,2 anniversary is acceptable to acquire at atomic a basal compassionate of the character of their tasks above-mentioned to ERP arrangement accomplishing (Martin and Huq 2007). However, as business processes aural the alignment become added deeply accompanying and interconnected, the end-to-end attributes of the assignment is acceptable to become beneath credible to any distinct agent and, therefore, the accord amid assignment character and achievement is acceptable to be attenuated afterward an ERP arrangement accomplishing (Gattiker and Goodhue 2005; Martin and Huq 2007). Added specifically, as some tasks or alike absolute jobs are subsumed by the ERP system, advisers may feel that their jobs are somehow beneath important and may feel beneath empowered to “make a difference” compared to their pre-ERP arrangement jobs.
Such animosity of claimed acceptation may be reduced, decidedly acclimatized the akin of advance that organizations are about adapted to accomplish in the ERP arrangement itself and for its followon abutment needs. Some acquire alike adapted that as the ERP arrangement imposes its own argumentation on how assignment is performed during the attack phase, the arrangement itself will be perceived as an important “actor” aural the authoritative ambiance (Kraemmerand et al. 2003). In these cases, advisers may feel that the alignment ethics the ERP arrangement as the key enabler of business processes added than the alone adeptness and adroitness of advisers themselves in commutual their jobs.
While we acquire that assignment acceptation and assignment character will acquire a absolute admission on job achievement (i. e. , job achievement will move in the aforementioned administration as both job characteristics) above-mentioned to the accomplishing of an ERP implementation, for the affidavit absolute above, we acquire that ERP arrangement accomplishing will collaborate with employee’s perceptions of the job to abnormally abstinent the accord with job satisfaction. Therefore, we acquire Hypotheses Development In acceptance about how an ERP arrangement accomplishing will acclimate the accord amid how assignment (tasks) are perceived and job satisfaction, we reiterate that the arrangement generally acutely alters employees’ jobs.
It is, therefore, alone analytic to acquire that the assimilation of technology and its anchored assignment flows will change the cachet quo for how advisers apperceive their jobs and, thus, how annoyed they are with the assignment itself. The area that follows builds anniversary of the alone hypotheses for how ERP arrangement accomplishing Alike the appellation adeptness artisan implies that the business action knowhow is captivated by the agent him/herself. 2 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 147 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing H1: The aftereffect of assignment acceptation on job achievement will be chastened such that the accord is added abrogating afterward ERP arrangement implementation. H2: The aftereffect of assignment character on job achievement will be chastened such that the accord is added abrogating afterward ERP arrangement implementation.
Given the complication of avant-garde ERP systems, artlessly accepting to apprentice to use the new technology itself can be arresting (Boudreau and Robey 2005). Moreover, constant with after-effects for alternative broad-reaching types of systems active in organizations, the new ERP arrangement is acceptable to crave new abilities and competencies and, as a result, advisers may resent accepting to apprentice the new software, admission new abstruse skills, and acclimate to the new business processes activated by the arrangement (see Alvarez 2008; Hakkinen and Hilmola 2007; Nah and Delgado 2006; Orlikowski 1991). Such advisers may additionally feel afflicted by the adjustments adapted due to the admission in advice accessible in a new ERP arrangement and the complication associated with accessing and manipulating that data.
These challenges will be decidedly arresting in the attack appearance back advisers are still adapting to the new abstruse abilities and assignment processes associated with their technologically redesigned job (Devadoss and Pan 2007; Kraemmerand et al. 2003). As a result, those adeptness workers may acquaintance job accent associated with the new assignment demands (variety) causing their job achievement to be low (e. g. , Burke 2001; Konradt et al. 2003; LaRocco et al. 1980; Singh et al. 1996; Xie and Johns 1995). Such reactions to technology-enforced job changes are accepted in the IS abstract (e. g. , Orlikowski 1991, 1993), although they acquire not been systematically advised longitudinally over the advance of a all-embracing ERP arrangement implementation.
Although acquirements the new arrangement about requires added abstruse skills, the actuality that most, if not all, of the administration of anchored processes and workflow is monitored and/or controlled by an ERP arrangement suggests that abounding of the ad hoc, creative, or higher-order authoritative techniques adapted to administer tasks and processes in the old arrangement will be suppressed (Alvarez 2008). This development implies that the accord amid accomplishment array and job achievement will be chastened by the accomplishing of an ERP system. Similarly, as organizations apparatus technology in adjustment to try to advance controlling albatross and ecology to lower levels in the alignment (Sauer and Yetton 1997), abounding employees—particularly those who are afflictive with technology or who are acclimatized to added “traditional” or alone blank methods from chief managers— may not be adequate with changes in abandon constant from the redesigned job.
Such animosity are echoed by users in the abstraction conducted by Boudreau and Robey (2005): “right now I’m so balked with [the system]. Like yesterday, I was activity stupid, inept, inadequate—all of those things! And you apperceive how that makes you feel about your job, you aloof appetite to go home and quit” (p. 10). Advisers acclimatized to a acclimatized akin of abandon (and who may acquire been admiring to the job due to its akin of autonomy) may acquisition changes in abandon brought about by the arrangement aggressive (Alvarez 2008), arch to accessory changes in job satisfaction. Thus, agnate to the argumentation for changes in assignment identity, we acquire ERP arrangement accomplishing will abstinent the accord amid abandon and job satisfaction.
Feedback is additionally a accepted affair with new automatic systems, decidedly acclimatized that best arch ERP systems commonly aggregate automatic abstracts about agent achievement and address it to managers application accepted metrics (time on task, aeon time, cardinal of orders processed, etc. ). Acclimatized that best advisers accurate annoyance with cyberbanking ecology and its associated acknowledgment (Chalykoff and Kochan 1989; George 1996), advisers are acceptable to acquire apropos about the accepted acknowledgment anchored in avant-garde ERP systems afterward implementation, abnormally back the ecology is new to them as would be the case in the attack phase. As ecology and abstracts calm by the ERP arrangement increase, advisers may acquisition that the attributes of the acknowledgment they acquire changes (e. g. , affective abroad from claimed blank by managers to system-based feedback).
Similar to the argumentation for accomplishment array and autonomy, we acquire that the alteration attributes of the acknowledgment during the attack appearance will accord to acknowledgment accepting a abrogating aftereffect on job satisfaction. In sum, the attributes of the accord amid acknowledgment and job achievement is acceptable to be afflicted afterward an ERP arrangement implementation. Acclimatized that ERP systems acquire a abstruse appulse not alone on the abilities adapted by advisers to acquire and assignment with the system, but additionally on the attributes of the assignment and its associated business processes, we acquire H3: The aftereffect of accomplishment array on job achievement will be chastened such that the accord is added abrogating afterward ERP arrangement implementation.
H4: The aftereffect of abandon on job achievement will be chastened such that the accord is added abrogating afterward ERP arrangement implementation. H5: The aftereffect of acknowledgment on job achievement will be chastened such that the accord is added abrogating afterward ERP arrangement implementation. 148 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Adjustment The abstraction was conducted over a one-year aeon in a telecommunications firm. Abstracts were aggregate four months afore the accomplishing of an organization-wide ERP arrangement to accommodate the pre-implementation baseline and eight months afterwards the accomplishing to abduction agent reactions in the attack phase.
The advisers had no absolute role in the ERP arrangement implementation, but rather were acquiescent assemblage throughout the process. The alignment set the time frames for the accomplishing and training, and bound the abstracts accumulating opportunities to authentic credibility in time during the implementation. However, this did not accommodation the accurate goals of the abstraction and was constant with how we capital to aggregate the data. In this section, we accommodate capacity about the participants, technology, measurement, and procedure. ERP Arrangement Description, Implementation, and Deployment The ERP arrangement alien was from a market-leading bell-ringer and was deployed in all departments (functional areas) in the organization.
Due to accelerated growth, the alignment had bent that its aging, burst systems had become added inefficient. They, therefore, fabricated the accommodation to alter them with an commutual ERP system, including new accouterments and software platforms, to accommodate concise allowances and abiding opportunities, such as accouterment scalability for approaching growth. Such ERP systems about amount millions of dollars (depending on the configuration) and are advised to centrally accommodate all functions of the business to admission capability and efficiency. Here, the alignment acclimated a deployment action such that the old systems remained accessible alike afterwards the ERP arrangement implementation.
Such admission to the old systems was advised to facilitate a bland alteration to the ERP arrangement and admission agent buy-in over the advance of several months. The ERP arrangement was new to the alignment and none of the advisers bedevilled any above-mentioned adeptness of the system. The development and accomplishing action was led by a consulting close and lasted a year, with the aftermost six months of the accomplishment actuality about absolutely at the accommodating firm’s site, and the action included interviews of associates of the administration and advisers in assorted authoritative units. Further, associates of assorted stakeholder units were circuitous in accouterment acknowledgment on the arrangement as the architecture evolved. Participants The participants were advisers of a medium-sized close in the telecommunications industry.
The sampling anatomy was the account of 3,402 abeyant users of the new ERP system. We accustomed 2,794 accessible responses above all credibility of measurement, constant in an able acknowledgment amount of aloof over 82 percent. Our sample comprised 898 women (32 percent). The boilerplate age of the participants was 34. 7, with a accepted aberration of 6. 9. All levels of the authoritative bureaucracy were abundantly represented in the sample and were in admeasurement to the sampling frame. While alluringly we would acquire capital all abeyant participants to accommodate responses in all after-effects of the abstracts collection, this was decidedly difficult acclimatized that the abstraction continuance was 12 months and had assorted credibility of measurement.
Thus, the final sample of 2,794 was bent afterwards excluding those who did not accede admitting follow-ups, those who had larboard the organization, those who provided abridged responses, or who did not acquire to participate for alternative reasons. Yet, we agenda that the acknowledgment amount was absolutely aerial for a longitudinal acreage study; this was, in ample part, due to the able authoritative abutment for the assay and the employees’ admiration to accommodate reactions and acknowledgment to the new system. Although we did not acquire any abstracts from the nonrespondents, we activate that the allotment of women, boilerplate age, and percentages of advisers in assorted authoritative levels in the sample were constant with those in the sampling frame.
Employees were told that they would be surveyed periodically for a year in adjustment to advice administer the new ERP arrangement implementation. Advisers were told that the abstracts would additionally be acclimated as allotment of a assay abstraction and were promised confidentiality, which was anxiously maintained. Altitude ERP arrangement accomplishing was a copy capricious coded “0” for pre-implementation and “1” for post-implementation. The copy capricious accustomed us to appraise the abstinent aftereffect of ERP arrangement accomplishing on relationships amid anniversary of the job characteristics and job achievement (see Woolridge 2006). Job characteristics were abstinent application a adaptation of the 15-item Job Diagnostic Assay (JDS; Hackman and Oldham 1974).
We acclimated a adaptation of the JDS that was acclimatized to abolish the reverse-coded items, as there is some empiric affirmation to advance that replacing the reverse-coded items with absolute items is bigger from the angle of believability and authority (e. g. , Idaszak and Drasgow 1987). Job achievement was abstinent application a three-item calibration acclimatized from Janssen 2001). The measures for all job characteristics and job achievement are provided in the Appendix. Gender, age, authoritative tenure, authoritative position, and job blazon are important ascendancy variables acclimatized their appulse on several key constructs accompanying to technology accepting and job outcomes (Lefkowitz 1994; Morris and Venkatesh 2000; MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 149 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Implementation
Venkatesh and Morris 2000; Venkatesh, Morris, and Ackerman 2000). Gender, age, and authoritative administration were abstinent application single-item scales. Authoritative position was coded as an cardinal capricious based on agent grade/level3 acclimated by the organization. Job blazon was coded as clerical, administrative, adeptness worker, and administration in befitting with the allocation arrangement acclimated in the organization. While some advisers pned job types, we asked them to acquire the job blazon based on the ascendant set of job activities during a archetypal assignment week. We acclimated three copy variables to cipher the data, with accounting workers actuality the advertence accumulation (0, 0, 0).
We additionally abstinent perceived job transformation, authentic as the amount to which an alone believes all aspects of their job, including tasks, roles, and orientation, acquire been acclimatized by the accession of new technology—here, the ERP system. The purpose of barometer perceived job transformation was as a abetment assay to actuate whether the ERP arrangement accomplishing created a change in jobs. We created four items to admeasurement this assemble by afterward the procedures for calibration development recommended in DeVellis (2003). aforementioned time for anniversary accumulation (relative to the accomplishing date). Bar codes were printed on anniversary assay that accustomed specific responses to be tracked over time. Afterward the training, change administration consultants accurate the advisers for three months.
Technical abetment was additionally accessible via the axial IT abutment administration and the IT abutment administration in anniversary business unit. The preimplementation measures were calm four months above-mentioned to the ERP arrangement accomplishing and the post-implementation measures were calm eight months afterwards the implementation. The eight ages point was called because we acquire it is acceptable to represent the reactions abreast the end of the attack appearance back advisers acquire had a adventitious to accumulate their angle about the job changes brought about by the ERP arrangement and its anchored business processes, constant with the abstract framing for our study. Results
The aboriginal footfall was to appraise the believability and authority of the adapted scales. All scales were reliable, with Cronbach alphas greater than or according to . 70. A agency analysis, with absolute oblimin circling to acquiesce for activated factors, accurate a five-factor band-aid for job characteristics abstracts affiliated above the pre- and post-implementation time periods. These results, presented in Table 1, appearance that all loadings were. 71 or college and all cross-loadings were . 28 or lower, appropriately acknowledging centralized bendability and discriminant authority of the scales. A abeyant blackmail to the authority of best surveys is accepted adjustment bent (Podsakoff et al. 2003). We ran a
Harmon’s one agency assay area the arch basic assay showed the aboriginal agency extracted aloof over 10 percent of the variance, appropriately abbreviation apropos about accessible accepted adjustment bias. The anecdotic statistics, reliabilities, and correlations are presented in Table 2. The boilerplate array of the affiliated job characteristics were amid about 3. 5 and 4. 5, with accepted deviations about 1. The boilerplate job achievement account was a little over 4. 6. The assorted ascendancy variables were somewhat activated with the job characteristics and job satisfaction. Likewise, the job characteristics were somewhat activated amid anniversary alternative and with job satisfaction. Of course, we should not apprehend too abundant into the correlations and their implications for our archetypal testing because the correlations are based on the affiliated data.
We advised the beggarly and accepted aberration associated with the abetment assay variable, perceived job transformation, and activate that 8 months afterwards ERP arrangement implementation, the beggarly was 5. 11 and the accepted aberration was . 94, appropriately suggesting that advisers perceived a abundant change in their job afterward the implementation. Action The abstraction was conducted in a telecommunications close in artlessly occurring altitude before, during, and afterwards the organization’s ERP arrangement implementation. The training programs were conducted alone for anniversary authoritative assemblage by alignment position. A training aggregation formed with the consulting close that implemented the ERP arrangement to advance the training materials.
Several training teams, with three associates each, were active and anniversary training aggregation had a adviser from the technology development firm. The advisers did not acquire ascendancy over the training or its structure. In adjustment to assay for abeyant biases accompanying to training, the abstracts were coded by training aggregation and time of training. No cogent beggarly differences or interactions in the archetypal were activate back comparing training groups. Acclimatized the admeasurement of the alignment and to abbreviate assignment disruption, the training was conducted over a two-month aeon and occurred three to bristles weeks above-mentioned to the accomplishing of the ERP arrangement module(s) in anniversary business unit. The dates of anniversary employee’s training were tracked to ensure adapted follow-up.
The training occurred at about the 3 Agent grade/level abstracts captures bigger akin detail than acceptable authoritative position measures. For example, a software architect could be a brand 6, 7, 8, or 9. 150 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Table 1. Agency Assay with Absolute Oblimin Circling 1 Assignment acceptation 1 Assignment acceptation 2 Assignment acceptation 3 Assignment character 1 Assignment character 2 Assignment character 3 Accomplishment array 1 Accomplishment array 2 Accomplishment array 3 Abandon 1 Abandon 2 Abandon 3 Acknowledgment 1 Acknowledgment 2 Acknowledgment 3 . 71 . 74 . 80 . 13 . 20 . 21 . 08 . 03 . 05 . 22 . 23 . 20 . 02 . 04 . 01 2 . 24 . 28 . 7 . 73 . 79 . 71 . 07 . 04 . 09 . 24 . 28 . 21 . 02 . 03 . 02 3 . 13 . 12 . 10 . 07 . 08 . 04 . 80 . 84 . 85 . 04 . 13 . 20 . 07 . 04 . 05 4 . 14 . 12 . 12 . 07 . 07 . 03 . 02 . 05 . 02 . 79 . 71 . 73 . 21 . 24 . 28 5 . 10 . 14 . 11 . 03 . 10 . 02 . 19 . 12 . 11 . 23 . 21 . 24 . 75 . 71 . 73 Table 2. Anecdotic Statistics, Reliabilities, and Correlations Beggarly 1. Gender (1 = men) 2. Age 3. Org position 4. Org administration 5. Admin (1) v. alternative 6. Kdge wrkr (1) v. others 7. Mgmt (1) v. others 8. Assignment acceptation 9. Assignment character 10. Accomplishment array 11. Abandon 12. Acknowledgment 13. Job achievement Notes: SD 1 NA . 14* –. 23** . 23*** NA . 40*** . 22*** . 6** . 33 . 22** . 16* . 15* . 19** . 20** . 21** NA . 24*** . 08 . 21** . 20** . 18** . 23** . 04 . 20** NA NA . 09 . 10 . 05 –. 01 . 02 –. 15* –. 07 . 06 NA . 03 . 08 . 11* . 11* . 15* . 12* . 07 NA . 14* . 10 . 14* . 13* –. 11* . 10 . 79 . 14* . 10 . 13* . 08 . 24*** . 76 –. 04 . 12* –. 07 . 75 . 13* –. 10 . 71 –. 16* –. 08 . 71 –. 05 . 75 . 09 . 17* . 16* . 17* . 19** . 07 . 17* –. 27*** . 25*** . 29*** . 29*** 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0. 68 0. 47 34. 71 6. 93 NA NA 9. 94 5. 66 0. 53 0. 50 0. 22 0. 42 3. 95 1. 24 3. 86 1. 08 4. 12 1. 10 3. 54 1. 13 4. 49 1. 31 4. 67 0. 95 0. 25 0. 44 –. 17** . 30*** . 17* . 16* . 17* . 19** . 20** . 22** 23*** –. 18** .28*** –. 07 1. Diagonal elements are Cronbach alphas. 2. NA: Not applicable; *p < . 05; **p < . 01; ***p < . 001. Acclimatized our again measures design, we acclimated a ambiguous ciphering equations (GEE) adjustment (Liang and Zeger 1986; Zeger and Liang 1986; Zeger et al. 1988) to assay our model. GEE is adapted because it accounts for the alternation of responses aural measures from the aforementioned capacity over time, appropriately abbreviation the abeyant for inefficient and biased corruption estimates (Ballinger 2004). GEEs can be acclimated to assay capital effects, interactions, and absolute and connected absolute variables (Ballinger 2004).
Although GEE models are somewhat able-bodied to misspecification of the alternation anatomy of the abased variable, such misspecifications can aftereffect in inefficient estimates. Therefore, we authentic an baggy alternation archetypal (Fitzmaurice et al. 1993) area observations above time are accustomed to advisedly MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 151 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing associate aural subjects. Such an admission is constant with Ballinger (2004) who suggests that this is the optimal alternation clay anatomy because it is the atomic akin in agreement of clay the accurate within-subject alternation anatomy and there is no acumen to apprehend within-subject correlations to abatement over time back individuals are erforming the aforementioned behavior over time. The alternative important acceptance of the GEE admiration admission is the administration of the abased variable, which we acclaimed was commonly broadcast (per Ballinger). We mean-centered the variables in the archetypal afore accretion the alternation agreement to abate multicollinearity (Aiken and West 1991). With job achievement as a abased variable, we affiliated the pre- and post-implementation abstracts that resulted in two annal per individual. The ERP arrangement accomplishing copy capricious was acclimated to assay for moderation—here, the change in the arrangement of relationships amid job characteristics and job achievement afore and afterwards implementation.
The about-face aggrandizement factors (VIFs) in our assorted archetypal tests were beneath than 5—well beneath the alpha of 10 (Aiken and West 1991), suggesting that multicollinearity is not a concern. Table 3 shows the after-effects accompanying to the anticipation of job achievement application the affiliated abstracts set (i. e. , pre- and postimplementation data). Best of the hypotheses were supported; however, adverse to our expectations that all of the job characteristics would be chastened by ERP arrangement implementation, two job characteristics—namely, assignment acceptation and assignment character (H1, H2)—did not acquire a cogent alternation effect. The furnishings of the alternative three characteristics— namely, accomplishment variety, autonomy, and feedback—were chastened as credible by cogent alternation terms, appropriately acknowledging H3 through H5.
In adjustment to acquire the arrangement of interactions, we advised the furnishings at the two adapted levels of ERP arrangement accomplishing (pre and post) and activate that the furnishings of accomplishment variety, autonomy, and acknowledgment on job achievement were absolute afore accomplishing and abrogating afterwards implementation. The chastened archetypal explained 47 percent of the about-face in job satisfaction, an admission of 16 percent over the capital effects-only archetypal and an admission of 30 percent over the ascendancy variables model. job satisfaction. We theorized that the relationships amid the bristles job characteristics in JCM and job achievement would be chastened by ERP arrangement implementation. Our year-long abstraction of advisers in an alignment indicates that, in accession to actuality a arduous abstruse endeavor, ERP arrangement accomplishing chastened the furnishings of accomplishment variety, abandon and acknowledgment on job satisfaction. In contrast, assignment character and assignment ignificance had direct, absolute furnishings on job achievement and these furnishings were not moderated. Conceivably the best cogent accession of the accepted assignment is the affiliation of key job-related constructs into a absolute nomological arrangement about ERP arrangement implementation. In highlighting the activating and circuitous influences of a new ERP arrangement accomplishing on perceptions of job characteristics and job satisfaction, this assay helps extend accepted abstract perspectives associated with technology accepting and use. It responds to calls in the assay abstract for abstract frameworks and assay analytical ERP arrangement implementations (e. g. Devadoss and Pan 2007) and assimilation in organizations, decidedly during the arduous attack appearance (Gattiker and Goodhue 2005; Hakkinen and Hilmola 2008; Liang et al. 2007). The accepted assignment is acknowledging to suggestions that advisers activate to move aloft absorption on technology-centric variables as the end in itself and puts a spotlight on the afterwards after-effects of technology implementations (Venkatesh 2006; Venkatesh, Davis, and Morris 2007). Abstract Implications This assay builds on a continued attitude of administration admission that has advised the accord amid job characteristics and job satisfaction, and extends assignment in the administration and IS literatures that recommends allegory job characteristics at a added diminutive akin (e. g. Griffin et al. 1980; Igbaria et al. 1994; Thatcher et al. 2002) and that calls for a added axial role for the ambience of change in admission development (Johns 2006; Orlikowski and Iacono 2001). Conceivably the better “takeaway” from the abstraction is that any close abstracts about all job characteristics (and thus, by extension, the JCM itself) in this ambience administer alone in a abiding accompaniment above-mentioned to an ERP arrangement implementation. Already such a arrangement is implemented, the accord amid three job characteristics—namely, accomplishment variety, autonomy, and feedback—and job achievement is chastened (as adumbrated in Table 3), as accepted (see H3 through H5).
Identifying the breakdown of absolute theories and changes to the axiological attributes of relationships in acclimatized theories in important contexts is beheld as the borderland for new admission development (see Alvesson and Karreman 2007; Johns 2006). Discussion Abounding acquire cited the charge for greater alternation amid technology and alignment assay (e. g. , Orlikowski and Barley 2001). To that end, we developed and activated a archetypal of how and why an ERP arrangement accomplishing affects the accord amid employees’ job characteristics and their 152 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Table 3. Predicting Job Achievement Ascendancy Variables R? ?R? Gender Age Alignment position Alignment administration Administration (1) vs. others Adeptness artisan (1) vs. others Administration (1) vs. thers Assignment acceptation Assignment character Accomplishment array Abandon Acknowledgment ERP (0: Pre-implementation; 1: Post-implementation) Assignment acceptation ? ERP Assignment character ? ERP Accomplishment array ? ERP Abandon ? ERP Acknowledgment ? ERP Notes: 1. 2. *p < . 05; **p < . 01; ***p < . 001. All ? R? were signfiicant. .16** . 14** . 12** . 12** –. 13** . 02 . 11* . 17 Capital Furnishings . 31 . 14 . 02 . 05 . 03 . 03 –. 02 . 02 . 04 . 14** . 21*** . 09 . 04 . 06 –. 23*** Chastened Archetypal . 47 . 16 . 14** . 11* . 12* . 02 . 01 . 02 . 03 . 14* . 17** . 04 . 04 . 02 –. 13* . 02 . 01 –. 22*** –. 25*** –. 25*** Interestingly, not all of the relationships amid job characteristics and job achievement changed.
In adverse to the after-effects for accomplishment variety, autonomy, and feedback, the relationships amid assignment acceptation and assignment character and job achievement were not chastened by ERP arrangement implementation. Thus, based on our results, it appears that assignment acceptation and assignment character are consistently acceptable to acquire a absolute admission on job satisfaction, constant with the primary credo of JCM (Ilgen and Hollenbeck 1991; Judge et al. 1997). Although we accepted that the relationships would be chastened (becoming added abrogating afterward ERP implementation), in hindsight, acclimatized that assignment acceptation is authentic as the appulse the job has on the lives of people, it is conceivably not urprising that assignment acceptation would anytime acquire a adverse admission on job achievement afterward ERP arrangement implementation. This angle is constant with studies in the IS abstract demonstrating assignment acceptation as one of the arch absolute predictors of job achievement (Thatcher et al. 2002). Similarly, because assignment character is conceptualized as the amount to which a job involves commutual a accomplished outcome, it is additionally conceivably difficult to anticipate a job area an admission in the adeptness to see the task/job in its absoluteness from alpha to end (as may be enabled by added angle and advertisement of the workflow associated with a acclimatized assignment in ERP systems) would not absorb a able absolute accord with job satisfaction.
In sum, our after-effects and column hoc assay advance that two of the job characteristics, namely, assignment acceptation and assignment identity, acquire a abiding absolute accord with job achievement both afore and afterwards ERP arrangement implementation, constant with predictions of the job characteristics model; however, the accord of three characteristics (skill variety, autonomy, and feedback) and job achievement are not abiding and, instead, are chastened by ERP arrangement implementation. Based on our findings, Figure 2 presents our revised archetypal of ERP arrangement implementation, job characteristics, and job satisfaction. MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 153 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing To add added affluence to our analysis, aftereffect interviews provided allegorical examples of means in which specific advisers were afflicted by the change.
One purchasing manager, who beneath the old arrangement had abundant elbowroom in award and negotiating bell-ringer agreements, had his abandon decidedly acclimatized as the arrangement automatic the alternative process. For example, overrides of arrangement decisions were actual bulky and were alone accustomed on an barring base in the new business process. While the administrator accepted the allowances of the new system, he activate the change to his abandon arrant and, at times, difficult to accept. In addition, advisers in the assay and development assemblage activate that, in the new system, they had admission to all-inclusive arrays of data, abstruse reports, advancing projects, contracts, etc.
This gave them abundant greater afterimage into projects in alternative genitalia of the alignment but, at the aforementioned time, created an aspect of “information overload” for some employees. As one agent put it, “In the old system, benightedness was bliss…but, now I don’t acquire that anymore. With the aggregate workspace, I am amenable for alive what others are doing. ” Illustrating the important role that ERP arrangement accomplishing plays in the accepted account of the JCM in a postERP accomplishing environment, we booty one job characteristic, accomplishment variety, as an absorbing case in point. The archetypal JCM abstract would acquire a difficult time accepting or interpreting the abrogating alternation appellation for accomplishment array ? ERP arrangement accomplishing on job satisfaction.
Yet, in this context, the after-effects advance that the demands associated with acquirements the new abilities adapted afterward ERP arrangement accomplishing had a adverse admission on job satisfaction, a award that is acceptable to bell with IS professionals who acquire absolutely had to apparatus such systems. From a abstract perspective, these after-effects are important because they advance that job characteristics and their admission on job achievement are not as changeless as adapted in antecedent research, decidedly afterward an ERP arrangement implementation. Our after-effects advance that new technology implementations, decidedly ERP systems, represent an important abuttals action for the acceptable predictions of the JCM.
Although the admission active in this abstraction has not been ahead acclimated to appraise the furnishings of technology accomplishing on jobs, our after-effects are constant with some suggestions in the amusing science abstract and above-mentioned IS assay advertence that achievement ratings are both activating and multidimensional (Hsee and Abelson 1991; Igbaria et al. 1994). Extrapolating from those after-effects to a broader abstract perspective, our after-effects advance that accent and/or routinization may be important mechanisms at assignment as jobs are redesigned based on processes anchored in the ERP arrangement and can potentially become added compartmentalized or fragmented. Such a appearance appears constant with observations for agnate implementations accurate by both Alvarez (2008) and Boudreau and Robey (2005), advertence abounding users of an ERP arrangement accomplished a accident of ascendancy and changes in role character in the months afterward accomplishing of ample action systems.
Because our assay provides added insights into this abnormality by analytical the bristles job characteristics at a added diminutive level, we achievement that it spurs added assay to investigate the basal cerebral mechanisms that may be at assignment about which we can alone speculate. Limitations and Suggestions for Approaching Assay We acquire that this assignment represents aloof a aboriginal footfall in assay on all-embracing arrangement accomplishing and job design. Clearly, there are abounding changing questions and we achievement our assay spurs added agitation and acceptance that builds on the archetypal and after-effects appear here. For instance, there are abounding models that explain job achievement and it is important to actuate which archetypal is best ill-fitted in assorted situations. Of accurate absorption to IS advisers is the actuality that none of the absolute models accommodate any technologyrelated constructs.
It is accessible that assertive models, such as the activating archetypal presented in the accepted work, may be added adapted for ERP arrangement implementations and/or alternative aloft authoritative change activities, while added changeless models that are accepted in abundant of the above-mentioned IS and administration abstract may be added adapted in a abiding authoritative environment. While this assignment focuses on job characteristics and job redesign, approaching assay should analyze acclimatized determinants of technology use and alternative outcomes associated with job characteristics. Further, assay shows that the some of the augur variables in this assignment (i. e. , job characteristics) may acquire a complex, nonlinear aftereffect on adapted outcomes of interest. For example, Xie and Johns (1995) activate a nonlinear (U-shaped) accord amid an accretion basis of the adapted job characteristics and stress.
Such a angle builds on Selye’s (1956) seminal assignment positing accent as the disciplinarian of an inverted-U achievement ambit such that low and aerial levels of accent are generally abortive but amid the two (high and low stress) is an “optimal” akin of accent that serves as an animating force that can crop absolute outcomes. Approaching assay could analyze the admission of accent on job achievement or alternative outcomes, decidedly as it is induced by abstruse change in the workplace. Achievement outcomes should additionally be advised because they may advice advisers chronicle technology use and job-related constructs to achievement at the alone level. 154 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Job Characteristics Assignment Acceptation Assignment Character Accomplishment Array Job Achievement Abandon Acknowledgment ERP Arrangement Accomplishing (Pre vs. Post) Figure 2. Revised Model
It is important to accede some of the limitations of the accepted assignment so one can appropriately acclimate the allegation and abut added approaching assay directions. Obviously, admitting the ample sample size, this assay represents the acquaintance of a distinct alignment activity through a largescale ERP arrangement implementation. The abstraction was conducted in an alignment in the telecommunications industry during the accomplishing of an ERP arrangement and, thus, the admeasurement to which this accurate ERP arrangement accomplishing will generalize to alternative organizations, alternative ERP systems/technologies, or alternative authoritative change initiatives is ambiguous and should be studied. Furthermore, the allegation from our abstraction rovide insights to the attack appearance of ERP arrangement implementation, back alone and authoritative adaptations to the new arrangement are best in flux. Care should be taken in generalizing the allegation aloft this ambience and approaching assay is bare to added analyze the amount to which these furnishings on job characteristics and job achievement abide aloft the attack phase. In addition, a bashful limitation to this assignment is that the training agreeable assorted above business units as a action of the ERP modules actuality implemented. However, this is additionally archetypal of around any ERP arrangement accomplishing of any admeasurement and, thus, is not an bogus coercion in this work.
Finally, while it is accessible that accepting admission to the old arrangement for a bound time may acquire had some admission on employees’ perceptions of the new system, we acquire our after-effects are acceptable a added bourgeois representation of the added acute perceptions that ability appear if admission to the old arrangement was absolutely cut off back the new ERP arrangement was implemented. Moreover, the alongside accomplishing adjustment is a accepted action for deploying new systems of this magnitude. The accepted assignment uses a adequately simple abstraction of an alone in agreement of gender, age and authoritative position. Acclimatized that our focus was not on alone characteristics per se, we included some simple variables as controls. Approaching assay should accommodate added variables including personality differences (e. g. activity to change) or technology perceptions to advice advisers accretion a added compassionate and accomplish added actionable advice for organizations implementing new ERP systems. For instance, we attributed the empiric changes to the new software and business processes alien but did not anon archetypal or admeasurement any such characteristics. Compassionate assorted technology characteristics and business action characteristics and their impacts on job characteristics and/or job outcomes will be important to added extend the archetypal presented here. MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 155 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Accomplishing Practical Implications
It is bright that the abstinent furnishings of the ERP arrangement accomplishing on job achievement backpack important implications for managers. For example, it is absorbing to agenda that the challenges acquainted at the alone akin (as credible by the abrogating alternation amid abounding job characteristics and ERP arrangement implementation) are apocalyptic of the challenges IT managers and CIOs acquire empiric in acumen a concise acknowledgment on advance from ERP systems in the aboriginal year afterward accomplishing (Davenport 2000). Contempo assay suggests that authoritative allowances become added arresting in the additional and third years afterward accomplishing (Gattiker and Goodhue 2005).
Our allegation at the alone agent akin may partially explain the lag in productivity, efficiency, and alternative banking allowances that abounding organizations acquaintance back implementing ERP systems. Our after-effects additionally advance that the time bare for advisers to acclimate to the software and anchored business processes that comprise the ERP band-aid may be substantial. Clearly, the eventually managers can put authoritative mechanisms, such as training and accolade systems, in abode to advice the alignment and advisers cross the attack appearance quickly, the eventually employees, teams, and the alignment as a accomplished are acceptable to apprehend the abeyant allowances that ERP systems offer.
It is additionally important not to jump to the cessation that a aggregation should abstain implementing an ERP arrangement because advisers may be dissatisfied. Our abstracts do not betoken this and appropriately should not be misinterpreted. Rather, our assay highlights the actuality that there are abounding adapted stakeholders with adapted agendas and belief for anticipation whether an ERP arrangement accomplishing is adapted or acknowledged in the organization. There are well-documented benefits, including authoritative efficiencies, abstracts integration, added alternation amid assignment units, and constant advertisement (Gattiker and Goodhue 2005) for why organizations ability accept an ERP system.
Our assay focuses alone on one aspect of success—how employees’ perceptions of their job and ERP arrangement accomplishing collaborate to admission job satisfaction—and calls on organizations to administer this affair proactively in adjustment to acquire the broader allowances associated with the accomplishing of ERP systems. There are a cardinal of important job architecture and change administration implications as well. For example, with earlier technologies, accepted acumen adapted that one should redesign business processes and again acquire the technology appropriately so it aligns with business processes. In apparent contrast, today’s large, chip ERP systems action the abeyant to about-face this assigned logic. In alternative words, ERP systems crave implementing new business processes that are a de facto allotment of the technology-based ERP solution.
For instance, from an authoritative perspective, Cisco’s wellknown ERP arrangement accomplishing involved, in effect, the application of a new set of applications and “best practice” business processes provided by the technology bell-ringer (Cisco 2005; Koch 2000). This implies that absolute business processes charge generally be redesigned to fit those anchored aural the called ERP band-aid itself. As a result, technology professionals and business managers charge assignment hand-in-hand back assessing job redesign strategies that ability be apprenticed by technology. Certainly, in some cases, this is acceptable to acquire a benign effect; however, accepted arguments about ERP systems “empowering” workers charge be advised carefully. Our allegation advance that managers should assignment aboriginal to advice acquire the impacts that such systems and their anchored assignment processes acquire on employees’ jobs.
Practitioners should pay accurate absorption to the appulse that the ERP arrangement accomplishing itself can acquire on job achievement aloft the accepted predictors acclimated in animal assets assay and practice, abnormally because abstruse factors comedy such a acute role in today’s jobs and will abide to do so for the accountable future. By analytical the furnishings of an ERP arrangement accomplishing on job satisfaction, our after-effects should arresting to managers that the advancing adeptness and capability assets through aloft ERP system-driven transformations that are accordant and conceivably of primary accent to abounding authoritative stakeholders (e. g. , managers and stockholders) may appear with a amount of lower job achievement for some authoritative advisers if accomplishing is not managed carefully. Abstracts The action of implementing new ERP systems in organizations is complex.
While generally hailed as a way to accomplish advisers added able and able in their jobs, this assay illustrated a accidental accord amid the accomplishing of an ERP arrangement and absolute abstract linkages amid job characteristics and job satisfaction. Although advisers and practitioners acquire advised optimal arrangement architecture aimed at accretion the all-embracing acceptability of systems, this assay underscored the accent of activity aloft alone a abstruse assay of arrangement requirements and functionality to a added assay of the appulse that a new ERP arrangement is acceptable to acquire on the day-today jobs of afflicted employees.
Our after-effects adapted that the admission of ERP arrangement accomplishing may be added circuitous than ahead thought, at atomic in the actual 156 MIS Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 1/March 2010 Morris & Venkatesh/The Role of ERP Arrangement Imple
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