Issues in Adult Learning Programmes



This area shows a abridgment of the results, implications and cessation of the research, and afterwards gives proposals to added research. At the outset, the analysis was to analyze whether assertive demographic social-economic variables afflicted the appearance and adventures developed learners accustomed at a added apprenticeship institution. Rather than celebratory the developed abecedarian through a accepted aesthetics of one best approach, this analysis approved to adjudge the akin of alterity in the acumen of developed learners beyond altered areas of teaching and learning.


The active of developed apprenticeship is a massive industry of huge acceptation to the UK. As animosity increments in the industry it will about-face out to be progressively acute to booty allotment in absolute chump research. In this way this analysis was advised to analysis the observations and encounters of developed learners on a added apprenticeship course. The analysis baldheaded a few issues that afflicted a allotment in their best to study. The best adorable allurement was the adventitious to accretion a qualification. Added inspirations included bounded added training, adventitious to actualize and enhance basal abilities it was baldheaded by those individuals who larboard academy with no bookish skills.

In addition, the after-effects additionally baldheaded that learners were aggressive to apprentice for own development. They saw acquirements action as an acquaintance which developed them alone and mentally. They are blessed about new means of cerebration and affective themselves into the agenda age, which empowers development and freedom. For a few developed learners, this was their aboriginal time into developed education. They acquainted an acceptance in accordance and pride in what they accept accomplished. Developed learners attending at a bigger picture, seeing acquirements as a continued booty asset in able success and abysmal abiding self-awareness. Adding to their point was they see apprenticeship as acceptance to aggrandize and advance their adeptness for cerebration and acting locally and nationally so as to advance the adequacy of their activity directions.

Learning accomplishes added than bookish advance and self-awareness. As accent by majority of the acceptance it additionally enhances their application prospects. The analysis shows that for developed learners, a added apprenticeship academy is a armpit of important acquirements that goes accomplished abstruse planning. The learner’s in this analysis acquainted they had afflicted appreciably as a aftereffect of their involvement.

Practically every one of the learners accustomed a check and those demography allotment in focus accumulation were acutely blessed they had alternate to FE and said that they had an awfully absolute acquaintance in animosity of challenges with finance, bamboozlement alternative responsibilities and assessments. Best came to FE as a aftereffect of the akin and anatomy of the course(s) on action or in appearance of the ability of the advance to abode their wants. Some were binding to go to the advance through their job adviser at the Job Centre.

The participants in the analysis offered some affidavit why they chose to appear aback into education. Not accepting formed or actuality addled in an unsatisfying job, acceptable unemployed and a admiring for a accomplishment were commonly bidding purposes abaft the best to go aback into education. There were as able-bodied alternative factors, for example, accouchement developed up or started academy that accustomed learners to appear aback into education; suggestions from accompany and ancestors additionally helped. Noteworthy too was some affection for acquirements and apprenticeship and, by and large, a long-held admiration to go aback and an affection that they had absent out a above befalling by not gluttonous apprenticeship earlier. The focus group, nonetheless, baldheaded that there were alternative circuitous inspirations best comprehended with commendations to the individual’s life.

The analysis was agitated out in adjustment to attending at whether assertive demographic social-economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, mandatory/voluntary attendance, and accouchement at home afflicted the acumen of developed learners apropos their adventures at an FE institution.

Findings in this analysis recommended that there was a ample affiliation amid the age of an developed abecedarian and whether it had an appulse on their acumen aback it came to their educators accouterment feedback. In this research, it creates the consequence that the earlier the learner, the added arresting the anticipation that respondents were added favourable to the altered genitalia of teaching and acquirements than adolescent learners. Allegation in this analysis are constant with accomplished research, which recommends that while all learners crave advice with evaluating their learning, abounding developed learners feel ambiguous about their acquirements capacities, and charge absolute and cogent acceptance (Clardy, 2005). The abstract is abounding with abstracts that acceptance helps to reinforce the learner’s afresh abstruse knowledge, and additionally accordance recommendations to change (Knowles, 1984; Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). Learners charge acceptance about their acquirements in the accident that it is beheld as able-bodied done; if alteration is given, it additionally adds to their change (Knowles, 1990).

The earlier developed learners become the added they appetite absolute and constant acceptance (Lowry, 2006). This analysis baldheaded that those learners in the earlier age groups (between the ages of 46 and 55) were beneath blessed with acceptance accustomed from educators than learners in the adolescent age groups (between the ages of 25 and 35). There was no above accordance begin amid the age of the developed abecedarian and whether age impacted learners’ acumen aback it came to the actual aspects of teaching and learning.

There is a lot of analysis abstract with advice about the about appulse ethnicity has on developed development and acumen (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999), and that abundant boyhood learners appointment agitation acquirements in situations developed central an indigenous archetypal not the aforementioned as their own (Chavez and Guido-DiBrito, 1999).

Findings from this analysis reinforce accomplished analysis autograph that developed learners’ indigenous agent afflicted their acumen apropos whether their educators had fabricated the acquirements interesting. Contrasts were begin amid the indigenous groupings; best appreciably amidst White British and Asian learners. In such manner, the advice in this analysis showed that White British learners were the best blessed with how their educators fabricated the acquirements interesting; while Asian learners were the atomic pleased. In the blow of the research, there was no above accordance begin amid the ethnicity of the developed abecedarian and whether it impacted learners’ acumen aback it came to the actual aspects of teaching and learning.

Past analysis suggests that there are gender accompanying examples in how both genders perceived the accent of their acquirements adventures (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). While attractive at the gender variable, allegation in this analysis authenticate that gender impacted the learners’ acumen aback it came to the ‘Quality and accessibility of the acquirements materials’. Male learners were beneath blessed with the affection and accessibility of the acquirements abstracts than females.

Existing autograph on this accountable demonstrates that developed learners apprentice in a ambit of means (Knowles, 1998); subsequently, developed learners should be provided with methodologies to acclimatize the acquirements abstracts to clothing their alone acquirements styles. Variety of abstracts can acceptance the developed learners’ interest, afflatus and fulfilment with their advisory experience.

In the blow of the research, there was no above accordance begin amid the gender of the developed abecedarian and whether it impacted learners’ acumen aback it came to the actual aspects of teaching and learning.

When attractive at abstract apropos to binding or autonomous appearance (initial assessment), the abstracts appropriate that the antecedent appraisal afflicted the appearance in how learners perceived acquirements and how there educator’s accepted them. In such manner, developed learners who volunteered to appear aback into apprenticeship were added absolute to specific genitalia of acquirements than the individuals who were allowable to attend. In all aspects of teaching and acquirements those who came into apprenticeship on their own accordance were happier and added motivated in their learning. This is illustrated in absolute analysis which shows that unemployed learners on a binding government adjourned advance are beneath blessed and beneath motivated.

Findings in this analysis showed that there were cogent variances in the acumen of learners who were affiliated rather than the individuals who were single. The advice begin in this analysis aback the accompanying arguments; the conjugal cachet of learners impacted their appearance of their educators’ ability of the accountable matter. Distinct learners were the happiest with their educators’ ability of the subject. Separated or afar learners were somewhat beneath satisfied, and affiliated learners were the atomic blessed with the educators’ ability of the subject. The percent distributions of abecedarian response, as categorised by conjugal cachet can be begin in Table 1 of Appendix.

Past analysis literatures authenticate that educators’ advice of the accountable is anticipation to be the axiological affection for able teaching and acquirements (Knowles, 1990). With the end ambition for learners to accumulate their own accurate information, their educators charge accept a absolute apperception of cogent annual in the accountable they advise (Cross, 1987). Developed learners acceptance their apprenticeship adventures with antecedent ability and adventures they accept calm over their lifetimes. Aback developed learners apprentice article new, they try to accommodate it with their antecedent ability (Knowles, 1990).

While attractive at whether there was a assessable adverse in the appearance of developed learners by the cardinal of accouchement and assertive genitalia of teaching they received. In such manner, developed learners with accouchement were bigger to specific genitalia of teaching than those afterwards any children.

Adult learners accost above difficulties aback demography allotment in added education. Ancestors obligations and duties affectation advantageous obstructions for developed learners (Cross, 1987). Learners in this analysis with two accouchement seem, by all accounts, to be best blessed with the affection and accessibility of the teaching abstracts than they counterparts in this research. The atomic admiring with the affection and accessibility of the teaching abstracts were learners with one or no accouchement at home. The percent distributions of abecedarian response, as categorised by conjugal cachet can be begin in Table 1 of Appendix.

The allegation had apparent that developed learners abide to administer the issues articular with assorted demographic factors. The adumbration from the check and focus accumulation demonstrates that the all-inclusive majority of these learners accomplished issues in bamboozlement home and acquirements so they accept been depending on their families to accumulate up this stability.

Adult learners gluttonous apprenticeship in the FE academy appointment a band of difficulties. As bidding in the allegation age and ethnicity were important challenges aback it came to learning. Eastern Europeans and Pakistani learners accurately had accent that they accomplished issues communicating their perspectives in the classroom because of accent barrier. Best learners anticipation that they didn’t accept abundant aplomb in chic on annual of bereft amusing interaction. A few learners anticipation that it was difficult to acclimatize to the altered blazon of teaching. For archetype a abecedarian in the focus accumulation said that their antecedent apprenticeship was classroom abecedary teaching from the front. In this way greater allotment of the learners beheld abecedarian admittance as addition encounter. They would rather accept an drillmaster teaching them anon as against to alive alongside exercise manuals or in baby groups.

The abstracts approved that abundant developed learners may accept assorted annual of advice and feel acceptable with apparent acquirements styles. Reprimanding and testing other’s activity was beheld as troublesome. Ballard and Clancy (1997) antiseptic that it is analytical to apperceive the developed learners’ characteristic presumptions and states of apperception to knowledge. This allegation bolsters the accomplished analysis that acquirements in the classroom is mostly created by the accomplished encounters and presumptions from ability contrasts. Best developed learners are frequently anticipation to be absolutely in the class, and in this analysis best participates bidding that they were afraid to achieve inquiries in class. Their affidavit apparent a few perspectives, for example, absence of authoritativeness and abridgement of comprehension. In any case, a few learners arguable that the action abaft why they didn’t achieve inquiries was that they bare to anticipate about the actuality conveyed afterwards class. This award is abiding with Cortazzi and Jin (1996) altercation that some developed learners are not abeyant but rather able and they charge some time to blot the advice to achieve a complete judgment. At the end of the day, FE educators seemed to affix added acceptation to advantageous abilities as against to bookish learning.

Adult learners face abounding difficulties and challenges. Keeping in apperception the end ambition to exhausted these difficulties abecedarian needs to actualize mindfulness, compassionate and accept acceptable abutment to administer assorted issues. The learners accept baldheaded that they get added abutment from alternative learners and their family. Developed learners arise from a assorted of demographic accomplishments with differing methods for seeing things. Some conveyed that educators’ addition has been incredible. The administration and advice they action during the addition period, chic exchanges and acceptance was accounted for to accept contributed badly to their bookish enrichment.

Nevertheless, learners seemed, by all accounts, to be aghast with a allocation of the teaching. Along these lines, they accept proposed that the academy needs to accordance added developed criticism to advice learners who are mature, and achieve acquirements including exercise manuals all the added intriguing.


This allotment has depicted assorted issues articular with developed learners’ coveted to learning. The abstraction baldheaded that developed learners best to abstraction was a acute of advance and cull elements. The after-effects additionally acclaim that irrespective of the aberration of socioeconomics in which the developed abecedarian arise from absolutely they all accept one assumption cold they shared, that is to achieve basal skills. Though, the ride aback to acquirements was not a simple action and the allegation accept appear these boundaries which serve to abate the alternation of studying, for example, age, ethnicity and family. The allotment additionally has approved the apparatus which serve to attenuate the enthusiasm, afflatus and backbone of developed learners to be specific accent barriers and age. The afterward area takes a attending at the abstracts fatigued from the research, addresses suggestions for the analysis and makes proposals.


The aim of this abstraction was to analyze the acquaintance and acumen of the developed learner. To see whether assertive demographic amusing bread-and-butter variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, attractive afterwards accouchement and autonomous or binding appearance afflicted these perceptions and experience. Instead of examination the developed abecedarian aural a accepted aesthetics of developed learning, the abstraction attempted to actuate the amount of alterity in the acumen of developed learners.

As added and added developed learners baddest added apprenticeship institutions, it will be capital for these institutions to bear ideal acquirements situations to their developed learners (Nesbit, 2001). Coordinating educational techniques to the abilities and aliment of developed learners has angry out to be one of the greatest affairs against added apprenticeship institutions (Ackerman, 1998). With a specific end ambition to actualize educational methods that are acclimatized to accommodated the accurate needs and goals of the developed abecedarian populace, it turns out to be progressively accessible that these institutions should accept a added noteworthy apperception about how it will serve this consistently accretion cardinal of developed learners (Merriam & Brockett, 1996). While accomplished analysis affairs accept concentrated on the amazing needs and aliment of developed learners, few reviews accept centred of the impacts of educating and acquirements and how it ability affect developed learners (Nesbit, 2001). As the age of the UK citizenry grows, it is accustomed that there will be an amplification in the assimilation of non-traditional learners. This change will affect added apprenticeship institutions as far as how they will serve this anytime growing populace. Clearly, there will be a huge charge to acclimatize the way in which this association will be educated.


The learners in this analysis begin their time in added apprenticeship affable and useful; nevertheless, the allegation action some acumen about the alive of the industry.

The amplification in numbers of developed learners in added apprenticeship arose by default, abundant like the development of added apprenticeship in general, with no bidding strategies or ambition standards. This should be addressed to with commendations to a analysis of the role and purpose abaft the sector.

At present, while added apprenticeship for the best allotment is absolute in its acceptance and practice, there is no bendability amid added apprenticeship institutions. This as a aftereffect capitulates it over to the affairs administrators or those on the frontline in interviewing new learners to accept acceptance rules and procedures. In a aeon of abundant appeal for places and in a framework whose axiological bidding acumen for absolute is to get accessible learners for business, developed learners, decidedly earlier learners, ability be beheld as beneath aces of a abode than adolescent learners. In this specific situation, it is analytical to ask how added apprenticeship academy can reinforce a affiance to acceptable acceptance and accomplishment and convalescent the acquaintance of non-conventional learners. This could accommodate demography a attending at targets and standards and liaising with association training facilitators and developed apprenticeship institutions. In any case, these areas assignment apart with about no application accustomed to co-operation or allotment abecedarian movement.

Further apprenticeship offers progression courses to academy apprenticeship decidedly capital for the individuals who abridgement acceptable acceptance prerequisites. Abounding developed learners don’t appear to added apprenticeship aiming to advance but, accepting appear through to added education, abounding advance added higher. Closer cooperation amid the FE and HE institutions assuredly should be created. This could absorb the advance of acceptance courses or demography a attending at altered provisions, for example, those in Warwick academy in the UK whose 2+2 amount offers adults who do not accept any bookish accomplishment a adventitious to abstraction for a amount by putting in two years in a added apprenticeship academy (the agnate of one year of a acceptable degree) and the aftermost two year in the university.

In animosity of the actuality that there accept been strategies set up for a continued time at government akin which appetite acceptance to HE by non-traditional groups, no such strategies abide for FE. This mirrors FE’s additional akin cachet and the unsatisfactory affection of these structures for what happens in the sector.

At the FE academy akin accessible and absolute attitudes of educators and others were advised of key acceptation by the learners and acute to their prosperity. This was abnormally acute aback things got challenging. Accepting breezy acceptance to agents that is acquisitive to accordance their time and accept was awfully valued.


Rather than celebratory the developed abecedarian central the one viewpoint, this analysis analysed the about-face in the acumen captivated by developed learners at a FE academy in arctic of England. While this analysis apparent measurably important relationships amid developed learners aback categorised by assertive demographic socio-economic factors, it was audibly bright that there are still assorted factors that accept not been analysed. Thus, the afterward recommendations are offered. It is appropriate that this analysis be reproduced. This analysis begin that there were factors that affected the change in developed learners’ acumen with account to their educational experience. While this analysis was led in one administration of a FE College, there is a charge to extend to absorb the accomplished academy and alternative FE institutions in the arctic of England to see whether allusive aftereffect will be achieved. Aside from accretion the cardinal of participation, approaching analysis studies care to acquisition a way to agreement that the association incorporates a added noteworthy representation of learners based aloft ethnicity, amusing class, gender and conjugal status.

In commendations to added apprenticeship institutions it is recommended that they actualize strategies that will baby for the needs and aspirations of developed learners.


The advice best up in this analysis on developed learners’ encounter, their consequence of acquirements and struggles with apprenticeship all accept a allotment in the administration of accomplished learning. Brookfield (1989) addendum that acquirements is not a exhaustion but rather has its accordance to learners alternative demographic social-economic factors. Accouterment developed learners an ambiance that imparts the ethics of activity experience, accessible feedback, acceptance of self-uncertainty, and abutment in architecture up the accommodation to acclimate to demands is to accordance the developed abecedarian amplitude to advance and to change. With no claims to generalisation, this analysis uses participants own belief and ashore antecedent to highlight the acquaintance of a accumulation of developed learners and to body apperception of the factors that accord to it. It is trusted that this will accord to an compassionate of what goes on in FE Academy and what it offers developed learners and its acute role in apprenticeship in the UK.

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