Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton 6th Ed

Q e SPECIAL INDIAN EDITION [ J^ ^ S ix t l^ d it io n INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS PETER NORTON In te rn S n H T M l Appointment For Sale in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Bhutan alone Uploaded By : M. Kamran Hanif E-mail : mk. [email protected] com Website : www. kamran. hk. ms Advice independent in this assignment has been acquired by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reli­ able. However, neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors agreement the accurateness or com pleteness of any infor­ mation arise herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor Its authors shall be amenable for any errors, omissions, or amercement arising out of use of this Infor* mation. This assignment is arise with the compassionate that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are bartering in­ accumulation but are not attempting to cede engineering or another able services. If such casework are re­ quired. the abetment of an adapted able should be approved m Tata McGraw-Hill PET ER NORTON’S * INTRODUCTION TO CO M PUTERS Indian Adaptation done by adjustment with the McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.. NewYbrk Sales territories: India. Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Bhutan. Ninth album 2008 RYXDCDRXRB8YA Copyright (D 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, inc. All rights reserved. No allotment of this advertisement may be reproduced or advertisement in any anatomy or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, after the above-mentioned accounting accord of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.. including, but not bound to, in any adjustment or another cyberbanking accumulator or transmission, or advertisement for ambit learning. Some andllaries, including cyberbanking and book components, may not be attainable to barter alfresco the United States. ISBN-13:97S4M>7-0S9374*9 ISBN-10:0-07-059374-4 Arise by the Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. 7 W est Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008. typeset m Tim es at Script Makers. 19, A1-B. DDA Market, Pashchim Vlhar, New Delhi 110 063 and printed at Pashupati Printers, 1/429/16, G ali No. 1, Friends Colony. G. T. Road, Shahdara, Delhi 110 095 Cover Printer: SD R Printers Cover Design: Kapil Gupta The M cG raw -H ill Contponies Ez& sscr PH M TPM TQ AT A Cl I Chapter 1: Introducing Computer Systems Assignment 1A: Exploring Computers and Their Uses Assignment IB : Lookina Central the Computer Svstem Affiliate 2: Interaction with Your Computer Assignment 2A: Appliance the Kevboard and Abrasion Assignment 2B: Inputting Abstracts in Another Wavs Affiliate 3: Secinq, Hearing, and Printin') Abstracts l;ctnn 3A; Virfpo and Snunri Assignment 3B: Printinq Chanter 4: Processing Abstracts Assignment 4A: Transfbrmina Abstracts into Advice Assignment 4B: Modem CPUs Affiliate 5; Storina Abstracts Assignment SA: Types of Storaqe Accessories Assignment SB: Measurinq and Improving Drive Achievement Affiliate 6: Usina Ooeratinu Systems Assignment 6A: Oporatinq Svstem Basics assignment 6B: Survev of PC nd Adjustment Operatino Systems Chanter 7: Networks Assignment 7A: Networkinq Basics 2 3 24 48 49 68 88 89 1 07 124 12S Ufi m m 107 Affiliate 0: Alive in the Online World Assignment 9A: Connectinq to the Internet Assignment 9B: Doinq Business in the Online World Affiliate 10: Workinq with Appliance Software Assignment 10A: Productivity Software Assignment 10B: Cartoon and Multimedia Affiliate 11: Database Administration Assignment 11A: Database Manaqement Systems Assignment 11B: Survey of Database Systems Chanter 12: Software Proaramminq and Development Assignment 12A: Creating Computer Proqrams Assignment 12B: Proaramminq Lanauaoes and the Proqramminq Activity Chanter 13: Protectina Your Privacy. Your Computer, and Your Abstracts 330 331 345 382 263 383 400 401 42Q 438 439 456 478 477 497 518 528 532 538 SS8 Lesson 13A: Compassionate the Charge for Aegis Measures 204 Assignment 13B: Takina Protective Measures 205 Appendix A: Creating Your Own Web Paae 22k Appendix B: Buyinq Your Aboriginal Computer 242 Appendix C: Computer Viruses Annendix D: History of Microcomputers 243 267 Appendix E: Self-Check Answers Affiliate ; Presenting the Internet Assignment 8A: The Internet and the World Assignment 8B: E-Mail and Another Internet Casework 284 286 312 Urheberrechtlich geschutzies ^ aterial FEATURE ARTICLES At Affair Computerized Oisease Manaqement Computer Votinq—Is It a Acceptable Thinq? 36 62 10? 134 192 228 252 316 336 372 414 450 490 Productivity Tig Choosinq the Riqht Apparatus for the Job Savinq Time with Keyboard Shortcuts The Care and Feedinq of Printers Do You Charge M n RAM? ; Backino Up Your Abstracts Do-It-Yourself Tech Abutment The Telecommuter's Checklist---------------- — Evaluatino the Reliability of Chase After-effects and Web Sites Sharinq an Internet Connection Automatinq Your Assignment with Macros 0atahaoard, mouse,and microphone are commonInputdevices. Microphone Keyboard Speakers Adviser Printer :: FIGURE 1B. 11 Themonitor, primer,and speakers are commonou? put devices. 30 Affiliate 1 Some types of accouterments can act as both ascribe and achievement devices. A blow screen, for example, is a blazon of adviser that displays altercation or icons you can touch. Aback you blow the screen, adapted sensors ascertain the blow and the computer cal­ culates the point on the awning breadth you placed your finger. Depending on the lo­ cation of the touch, the computer determines what advice to affectation or what activity to booty next. Communications accessories are the best accepted types of accessories that can per­ anatomy both ascribe and output. These accessories affix one computer 10 another—a activity accepted as networking. The best accepted kinds of communications de­ vices are modems, which accredit computers to acquaint through blast curve or cable television systems, and adjustment interface cards (NICs), which let users affix a accumulation of computers to allotment abstracts and devices. Accumulator Accessories A computer can activity with alone processing, memory, input, and achievement de­ vices. To be absolutely useful, however; a computer additionally needs a abode to accumulate affairs files and accompanying abstracts aback they are not in use. The purpose of accumulator is to authority abstracts permanently, alike aback the computer is angry off. You may anticipate of accumulator as an cyberbanking book chiffonier and RAM as an elec­ tronic worktable. Aback you charge to assignment with a affairs or a set of data, the computer locates it in the book chiffonier and puts a archetype on the table. After you acquire able alive with the affairs or data, you put it aback into the book cabinet. The changes you achieve to abstracts while alive on it alter the aboriginal abstracts in the book chiffonier (unless you abundance it in a altered place). Novice computer users generally abash accumulator with memory. Although the func­ tions of accumulator and anamnesis arc similar; they assignment in altered ways. There arc three aloft distinctions amid accumulator and memory: » There is added allowance in accumulator than in memory, aloof as there is added allowance in a book chiffonier tlian there is on a tabletop. » Contents are retained in accumulator aback the computer is angry off, admitting programs or the abstracts in anamnesis abandon aback you shut bottomward the computer. » Accumulator accessories achieve abundant slower than anamnesis chips, bur accumulator is abundant cheaper than memory. Nor Formore accumulation onsorage U V C 3 Appointment 3S 8. http://www. mhhe. ccm/ petemorton There are two basal types of computer storage: alluring and optical. Both are covered in the afterward sections. Magnetic Accumulator There are abounding types of computer storage, but the best accepted is the alluring disk. A deejay is a round, collapsed article that spins about its center. (Magnetic disks are about consistently housed central a case of some kind, so you can’t see the deejay itself unless you attainable the case. ) Read/write heads, which assignment in abundant the aforementioned way as the active of a band recorder or VCR, are acclimated to apprehend abstracts from the deejay or address abstracts assimilate the disk. The accessory that holds a deejay is alleged a deejay drive. Some disks are congenital into die drive and are not meant to be removed; another kinds of drives accredit you to abolish and alter disks (see Amount IB. 12). Most claimed computers acquire at atomic one nonremovable adamantine deejay (or adamantine drive). In addition, there is additionally a diskette drive, which allows you to use disposable diskettes (or billowing disks). The adamantine deejay serves as the computer’s primary filing chiffonier because it can abundance far added abstracts than a diskette can contain. Diskettes are acclimated to amount abstracts assimilate the adamantine disk, to barter abstracts with another users, and to achieve advancement copies of the abstracts on the adamantine disk. Introducing Computer Systems sch :: FIGURE 1B. 12 Accepted PCs haw a buB-in hart deejay and a octette dim The adamantine dfck is bult into the computer's case. Diskettes can be amid into and removed from the diskette drive. Optical Storage In accession to alluring storage, about every computer awash today includes at atomic one anatomy of optical storage—devices that use lasers to apprehend abstracts from or w rite abstracts to the cogitating apparent of an optical disc. The CD-ROM drive is the best accepted blazon of optical accumulator device. Com­ alliance discs (CD s) arc a blazon of optical storage, identical to audio CDs. U ntil re­ cently, a accepted CD could abundance about 74 account of audio or 650 M B of data. A newer brand of CDs can authority 80 account of audio or 700 M B of abstracts (see Fig­ ure 1B. 13). The blazon acclimated in computers is alleged Bunched Disc Read-Only Mem­ ory (CD -RO M ). As the name implies, you cannot change the acquaint ation on the disc, aloof as you cannot almanac over an audio CD. If you acquirement a CD-Recordable (CD-R) drive, you acquire the advantage of creat* ing your own CDs. A CD-R drive can w rite abstracts to and apprehend abstracts from a bunched disc. To almanac abstracts w ith a CD-R drive, you charge use a adapted CD-R disc, which can be accounting on alone once, or a CD-ReW ritable (CD-RW ) disc, which can be accounting to m ultiple times, like a billowing disk. An added accepted abstracts accumulator technology is the Agenda Video Disc (D V D ), which is revolutionizing home entertainment. Appliance adult com­ pression technologies, a distinct DVD (which is the aforementioned admeasurement as a accepted bunched disc) can abundance an absolute affection movie. DVDs can authority a minimum of 4. 7 G B of abstracts and as abundant as 17 G B. Future D VD technologies affiance abundant college stor­ age capacities on a distinct disc. DVD drives additionally can locate abstracts on the disc abundant faster than accepted CD-ROM drives. DVDs crave a adapted amateur (see Amount IB . 14). M any DVD players, how­ ever, can comedy audio, data, and DVD discs, absolution the user from purchasing dif­ ferent players for anniversary blazon of disc. D VD drives are now accepted accessories on abounding new claimed computers. Users not alone can install programs and abstracts from their accepted CDs, but they additionally can watch movies on their claimed computers by appliance a DVD. FIGURE 1B. 13 Software nakers frequently sel Oier productson CDbecauseof the dsc's aerial accumulator capaoty. Software Brings the Machine to Life The additive that enables a computer to achieve a specific assignment is software, which consists of instructions. A set of instructions that drive a computer to per­ anatomy specific tasks is alleged a program. These instructions acquaint the machine’s phys­ ical apparatus what to do; after the instructions, a computer could not do annihilation at a ll. Aback a computer uses a authentic program, it is said to be run­ ning or active that program. Although the adjustment of attainable programs is all-inclusive and varied, best software avalanche into two aloft categories: adjustment software and appliance software. ONLINE FormoreInformation on computersoftware, appointment http://www. mhhe. com/ petemorton 32 Affiliate 1 Adjustment Software System software is any affairs (hat controls the computer’s hard­ ceramics or that can be acclimated to advance the computer in some w ay so that it runs added efficiently. There are three basal types of adjustment software: » An operating adjustment tells the computer how to use its own com* poncnts. Examples of operating systems accommodate Windows, the Macintosh Operating System, and Linux (see Amount IB . 15). An operating adjustment is basal for any computet; because it acts as an analyst amid the hardware, appliance programs, and the usee Aback a affairs wants the accouterments to do something, it communicates through the operating system. Sim ilarly, aback you appetite the accouterments to do article (such as artful or columnist a file), your appeal is handled by the operating system. A adjustment operating adjustment allows omputers to acquaint and allotment abstracts beyond a adjustment while authoritative adjustment op* erations and administering the network’s security. A u tility is a affairs that makes the computer adjustment easier to use or performs awful specialized functions (see Amount IB . 16). U tilities arc acclimated to administer disks, troubleshoot hard* ceramics problems, and achieve another tasks that the operating sys­ tem itself may not be able to do. » » FIG U RE 1B. 14 DVDplayersare now standardon abounding PCsand are foundin marryhome entertainmentcentos. Appliance Software Appliance software tells the computer how to achieve specific tasks, such as chat processing or drawing, for the user. Thousands of applications are attainable for abounding purposes and for bodies o f all ages. Some of the aloft categories of these applications accommodate » » Chat processing software for creating text-based abstracts such as newsletters or brochures (see Amount IB . 17). Spreadsheets for creating numeric-based abstracts such as budgets or bal­ ance sheets. FIG U RE 1B. 15 Windowsis Ihe mostpopular cf aS PC operatingsystems, runningonabout BagiEBEBBjBSi 90 percentof al personalcomputers. Introducing Computer Systems 33 Urheberrechtlich geschutzles M« » Database administration software for architecture and manipulating abounding sets of data, such as the names, addresses, and buzz numbers in a blast directory. Presentation programs for creating and presenting cyberbanking accelerate shows (see Amount 1B. 18). Cartoon programs for designing illus­ trations or manipulating photographs, movies, or animation. Multim edia assembly applications for architecture agenda movies that absorb sound, video, anim ation, and alternate features. Brawl and apprenticeship software, abounding of which are alternate multime­ dia events. » » » » FIGURE 1B. 16 » Web architecture accoutrement and Web browsers, and another Internet applications such as newsreaders and e-mail programs. » Games, some o f which arc for a distinct amateur and abounding of which can be played by several bodies over a adjustment or the Internet. Thereare hundreds of account programs attainable forpersonal computers. This one. caled ParttlonMagic, helps you administer jour adamantine cfisKto getthe best from it Computer Abstracts You acquire already apparent that, to a computer, abstracts is any allotment of advice or actuality that, taken by itself, may not achieve faculty to a person. For example, you adeptness anticipate of the belletrist of the alphabet as data. Taken individually, they do not beggarly a lot. But aback aggregate into words and sentences, they achieve sense; that is, they become advice (see Amount IB . 19). Sim ilarly, basal geometric shapes may not acquire abundant acceptation by themselves, but aback they arc aggregate into a adapt or a chart, they become advantageous information. n o * a « ' - f o lflJJ e• IS*H*M »*a* n o t - * *•- t *-•* jlK » z j* / u-*-ai-:. *— . ; - f t ir - V * '* - * n, i. 4r » ¦ ~ { _ k___ _ l l 1 I FIG U RE 1 B. 1 ? Chat processing software s advised (or creating documentsthatconsistprimarily of text, but additionally lets youadd graphcs and sounds to your documents. It additionally provides blueprint appearance that letyou actualize brochures. newsletters,Web pages, and mom . 34 Affiliate 1 M i 3 — « I H w fcn «h Haw*M**AH«a4«M* M M ptflw W lM A to A M Ih m k B m V Dmm*mS. xa NvMrHtwMMk ¦ M r itM m i l« h » M ld » » » « * llh i» ^ f c n 1 ilfilw > » — n TW « t iW * * » lW fa m i w d p u l— n le y— d w t 't i i w l a Ml ¦M l ¦ ‘* ¦ * -1________________________B lw f lja ! ______ ‘‘ ¦; ! .. C uitrom A K lM M T . U . ATTOOCTBATLAW 1002 AIMMBSB8ZT sunu;,iL4nw C i A Urheborrechtlich geschOtztes M FIGURE 1B. 18 :: T oil rtyt Sj ;fca f Presentation software is mostoften acclimated torcreating sales presentations,aXtvxjgh I can be effectivetorany typeol electronicside show. « H i n ^ X iM ; . i W h;i; :' V! J i 1 jwufinm :. ^ ¦ H o? drrnfi! ^Viis,-S* The Keyboard The Abrasion Variants of the Abrasion Ergonomics and Ascribe Accessories Assignment 2B: Inputting D ata In O ther W ays » » » Accessories for the Duke Optical Ascribe Accessories Audiovisual Ascribe Accessories LESSON v m Overview: T he K eyboard an d M ouse If you anticipate of the CPU as a computer’s brain, again you adeptness anticipate of the ascribe accessories as its acoustic organs—the eyes, ears, and fingers. From the user’s point of view, ascribe accessories are aloof as important as the CPU, conceivably alike added important. After you buy and set up the com* putcr, you may booty the CPU for accepted because you collaborate anon with ascribe accessories and alone alongside with the CPU. But your adeptness to use ascribe accessories is analytical to your all-embracing success with the able system. An ascribe accessory docs absolutely what its name suggests: it enables you to admission advice and commands into the computer. The best com* monly acclimated ascribe accessories arc the keyboard and the mouse. If you buy a new claimed computer today, it w ill accommodate a keyboard and abrasion un­ below you specify otherwise. Another types of ascribe accessories arc attainable as well, such as variations of the abrasion and specialized ''alternative” ascribe accessories such as microphones and scanners. This assignment introduces you to the keyboard and the mouse. You w ill apprentice the accent of these devices, the way the computer accepts ascribe from them, and the abounding tasks they accredit you to achieve on your PC. Appliance the Keyboard and Abrasion OBJECTIVES :: > Identity the bristles key groups on a ; • accepted computer keyboard. > Name six special*purpose keys begin on all accepted computer keyboards. » List the accomplish a computer follows aback accepting ascribe from a keyboard. Describe the purpose of a abrasion and the blueprint it plays in computing. » Identify the bristles basal techniques for appliance a mouse. » Identify three accepted variants of the mouse. » Describe bristles accomplish you can booty to abstain repetitive accent injuries from computer use. Urheberrechtilch g eschutztes Material The Keyboard O N L IN E For mote advice on computer-based keyboard tutooals, vs* http://wvrw. mhho. com/ petemortoa The keyboard was one of the aboriginal peripherals to be acclimated with computers, and it is still the primary ascribe accessory for entering altercation and numbers. A accepted keyboard includes about 100 keys; anniversary key sends a altered arresting to the CPU. If you acquire not acclimated a computer keyboard or a typewriter, you w ill apprentice bound that you can use a computer abundant added finer if you apperceive how to type. The accomplishment of typing, or keyboarding, is the adeptness to admission altercation and numbers with accomplishment and accuracy. Certainly, you can use a computer after accepting acceptable accounting skills. Some bodies affirmation that aback computers can adapt autography and accent with 100 percent accuracy, accounting w ill become unnecessary. But for now and the accountable future, keyboarding charcoal the best accepted way to admission altercation and another abstracts into a computer: The Accepted Keyboard Blueprint O N L IN E For added miormaiion on computer keyboards and keyboard manufacturers, appointment http://www. mhhc. com/ petemortal Keyboards arise in abounding styles. The assorted models alter in size, shape, and feel; except for a few special-purpose keys, best keyboards arc laid out about identi­ cally. Amid IBM-compatible computers, the best accepted keyboard blueprint is the IBM Enhanced Keyboard. It has about 100 keys abiding in bristles groups, as apparent in Amount 2A. 1. (The appellation IBM-compatible computer refers to any PC based on the aboriginal claimed computers, which were fabricated by IBM . Today, an IBMcompatible PC is any PC another than a Macintosh computer. ) The Alphanumeric Keys The alphanumeric keys—(he breadth of the keyboard that looks like a typewriter's keys—are abiding the aforementioned way on about every keyboard. Sometimes this com­ mon adjustment is alleged the Q W ERTY (pronounced KWER-tcc) blueprint be­ account the aboriginal six keys on the top row of belletrist are Q, W, E , R , T, and Y. Forth with the keys that aftermath belletrist and numbers, the alphanumeric key accumulation includes four keys accepting specific functions. The t a b , CAPS LOCK, ba c k ­ spa c e , and e n t e r keys are declared in Amount 2A. 2. FIGURE 2A . 1 Best BM com pattie PCs use a keyboard like M s one. Mar/ keyboards affection a cardinal of specialized keys, am)keyboardscan alter in admeasurement and shape. But about e l accepted PC keyboards accommodate the keys shewn here. The Modifier Keys The SHIFT, ALT (Alternate), and CTRL (Control) keys are alleged modifier keys be­ account they adapt the ascribe of another keys. In another words, if you authority bottomward a modifier key while acute accession key, again you are alteration the added key's Alphanum keys eric 50 Affiliate 2 Theto key m ovesyouto predefined tabstops In m applicationprogram any s (suchas wordprocessors). Thebackspace keyerases characters youhavejusttyped. Forexam ina ple, chat processingprogramyoucan columnist baosmce to “backover" an Incorrect appearance anddelete it Thecaps lock keylets you"lock* the alphabetkeys sotheyproduceonly basal letters. The ehter key letsyou agree dataentry inm typesof appBcatkmprogram any s. Ybualso can usewtw tocboosecom ands m andoptionsin m affairs and at any s assorted places in anoperatingsystem's Interface. FIGURE 2A . 2 nput in some way. For example, if you columnist the Jtkcy, you ascribe a baby letter/. ' But if you authority bottomward the sh u t key while acute the J key, you ascribe a basal /. M odifier keys arc acutely advantageous bccausc they accord all another keys assorted ca­ pabilities. Amount 2A. 3 describes the modifier keys and their uses. Functionsofthe tab,catsloo. v o s ta , andtwin keys The Numeric Keypad The numeric keypad is usually amid on the adapted ancillary of the keyboard, as apparent in Amount 2A. 1. The numeric keypad looks like a calculator's keypad, with its 10 digits and algebraic operators (+, -, *, and Whenpressedalong with analphanumerickey,smft forcesthe /). The numeric keypad additionally appearance a NUM computerto outputa basal letterorsymbol sun is additionally a LOCK key, which armament the numeric keys to in­ m ocfifierkey in someprogram forexam youcan presssnft s; ple, put numbers. Aback NUM LOCK is deactivated, alongwtthcursor-m ovem keys toselect textforediting. ent the numeric keypad's keys achieve cursormovement ascendancy and another functions. The Activity Keys The activity keys, which are labeled F l, f l, and so on (as apparent in Amount 2A. 1), are usu­ accessory abiding in a row forth the top of the key­ board. They acquiesce you to ascribe commands after accounting continued strings of characters or abyssal airheaded or chat boxes. Anniversary func­ tion key's purpose depends on the affairs you are using. For example, in best programs, F l is the advice key. Aback you columnist it, a adapted window appears to affectation advice about = On Thecm (control) key producesdifferent after-effects dependingonthe programyouare using. In m Windows-based affairs any s, cm-key combinationsprovideshortcuts for m com ands. Forexam the enu m ple, combinationcnuo enables youto attainable a newfile. n Them j (mjcmmu) keyoperates Skethectrl key,but producesa altered set of results. In Windowsprogram Mi-key s. combinations enableyouto cross m enus anddialog boxeswithoutusingthe m ouse. FIGURE 2A . 3 Fuvtionsoftheshft, emuanda lt keys. Interacting with Your Computer 51 the affairs you are using. Best IBM-compatible keyboards acquire 12 activity keys. Abounding programs use activity keys forth with modifier keys to accord the func­ tion keys added capabilities. The Cursor-Movement Keys Most accepted keyboards additionally accommodate a set of cursor-movcmcnt keys, which let you move about the awning after appliance a mouse. In abounding programs and op* erating systems, a mark on the awning indicates breadth the characters you blazon w ill be entered. This mark, alleged the cursor or admittance point, appears on the awning as a blinking vertical line, a baby box, or some another attribute to appearance your abode in a certificate or command line. Amount 2A. 4 describes the cursor-movcmcnt keys and Amount 2A. 5 shows an admittance point in a certificate window. Special-Purpose Keys In accession to the bristles groups of keys declared earlier, all IBM*compatible key­ boards affection six special-purpose keys, anniversary of which performs a altered func­ tion. Amount 2A. describes these spccial-purposc keys. Back 1996, about all IBM-compatible keyboards acquire included two added special-purpose key’s advised to assignment with the Windows operating systems (see Amount 2A. 7): » alpha . This key, which appearance the Windows logo (and is sometimes alleged the Windows logo key), opens the Windows Alpha card on best computers. Acute this key is the aforementioned as beat the Alpha button on the Windows taskbar. s h o r t c u t . This key, which appearance an angel o f a menu, opens an on-screen adjustment card in Windows-based appliance programs. » One of the latest trends in keyboard technology is the accession of Internet and multimedia controls. Microsoft's Internet Keyboard and MultiMedia Keyboard, for example, affection buttons that you can affairs to achieve any cardinal of tasks. For example, you can use the buttons to barrage a Web browser, assay e-mail. Depending onme program,you maybe able to columnist nomcto movethe cursorto the alpha ofa band and br>to moveto the endof a line. The mccu and hm o o w keys let you “flip" p * through a document, awning by screen, Hto axis the pages of a book. Columnist m et w to agglomeration to the antecedent screen; columnist m gedonn to jump to the abutting ___ I The arrow keys move the admittance point up or bottomward a distinct line, or larboard or adapted one appearance space. FIGURE 2A . 4 The airsor-movement keys. FIGURE 2A . Thecursor, orinsertionpoW, shews wherethenextletter typedwit appear. 52 Affiliate 2 The cursor, o r admittance point, in a certificate eberrechtlich M The(softkey's functiondependsonyour programoroperatingenvironment Typically, the csckeyis usedto“backup"onelevel in a multilevel environm ent. ThenmT scREBtkey sRom the user10 s abduction whatever b shownon thescreen as anim Thiskeydoes notwork with al age. affairs s. In som programs,scrou. lockcauses the e cursorto remainstationary onthescreen, andthe document'scontentsm aroundIt. ove Thiskeydoesn'tfuncttonatal in som affairs e s. In som programs,themuse key can b e e usedtostopa co m In progress. m and 1 5 M i I I I | ? :. a . 5 is ¦Bill r I I* J" TheM keyBatches som programsfrom SEm e Insert m ode" (in wtiich textis amid into thedocum at the cursor) to“overtypem ent ode (in whichnewtextis typodover existingtext), andvice vena. m —N A 4 f I 6 ' m n ? » 6 a [? | 3 i* J removesonecharacterat a time at thecursor's location, cam erases characterstothe adapted otthecursor. FIGURE 2A . 6 SpecU jwpose keysonm accepted ost keyboards FIGURE 2A . 7 ThosafiT keyandtheatofiran toy arise frequencyontherwwer keytnordsthat are sdldwAhWndcMiS' basedcom puters. 2Z and alpha your best frequently acclimated programs. Multimedia buttons let you ascendancy the computer’s CD-ROM or DVD drive and acclimatize the apostle volume. Abounding key* lath makers activity such appearance on newer models (see Amount 2A. 8). How the Computer Accepts Ascribe from the Keyboard You adeptness anticipate the keyboard artlessly sends the letter of a apprenticed key to the computer—after all, that is what appears to happen. Actually, the activity of ac­ cepting ascribe from the keyboard is added complex, as apparent in Amount 2A. 9. Aback you columnist a key, a tiny dent alleged the keyboard ambassador addendum that a key has been presxd. The keyboard ambassador places a cipher into pan of its memory. Interacting with Your Computer 53 B i f a 'S Q ill FIGURE 2A. 8 alleged the keyboard buffer, to announce which key was pressed. (A absorber is a tem­ porary accumulator breadth that holds abstracts until it can be processed. ) The keyboard con­ commonplace on newer keyboards. roller again sends a arresting to the computer's adjustment software, advice it that article has happened at the keyboard. Q A key is apprenticed onthe keyboard Aback the adjustment software receives the signal, it determines the adapted response. Aback a keystroke has occurred, the adjustment reads the Q Thesystemsoftwareresponds to anamnesis breadth in the keyboard He Interruptby account thescan cipher fromthe keyboardbuffer. absorber that contains the cipher of the key that was pressed. The sys­ K EYBO RD A SYSTEM tem software again passes that BUFFER SOFTWARE cipher to the CPU. 0 The keyboard controler e The keyboardcontroller The keyboard absorber can abundance Q The adjustment software sends an arrest sendsDiescan cipher passes the browse cipher abounding keystrokes at one time. This appeal to the forthe key tothe tothe CPU adequacy is all-important because keyboardbuffet adjustment software. some time elapses amid the acute of a key and the com­ FIGURE 2A. 9 puter’s account of that key from the keyboard buffer. W ith the key­ How Ascribe is recawd from the keyboard acclamation stored in a buffer, the affairs can acknowledge to them aback it is convenient. O f course, this all happens actual quickly. Unless the computer is actual active administration assorted tasks, you apprehension no adjournment amid acute keys and seeing the belletrist on your screen. In some computers, the keyboard ambassador handles ascribe from the computer's keyboard and abrasion and food the settings for both devices. One keyboard set­ ting, the echo rate, determines how continued you charge authority bottomward an alphanumeric key afore the keyboard w ill echo the appearance and how rapidly the appearance is retyped while you columnist the key. You can set the echo amount to clothing your accounting speed. (You w ill apprentice how to assay your keyboard’s echo amount in the lab exer­ cises at the end of this chapter. ) internet and muftmeda appearance are The Abrasion A claimed computer that was purchased in the aboriginal 1980s apparently included a keyboard as the alone ascribe device. Today, every new PC includes a pointing dcvicc as accepted equipment, as apparent in Amount 2A. 10. Full-size PCs usually accommodate a abrasion as the pointing dcvicc. A abrasion is an ascribe dcvicc that you can move about on a collapsed apparent (usually on a lath or keyboard tray) and controls the pointer. The arrow (also alleged the abrasion pointer) is an on-screen object, usually an arrow, that is acclimated to baddest text; admission menus; and collaborate with programs, files, or abstracts that arise on the screen. Amount 2A. 11 shows an archetype of a arrow in a affairs window. FIGURE 2A. 10 Best avant-garde claimed computers are eqlipped w ti a mctse. 54 Affiliate 2 The automated abrasion is the best accepted blazon of pointing de­ vice. A automated abrasion contains a baby elastic brawl that proW trades through a aperture in the basal of the mouse's. case (see Amount 2A. 12). The brawl rolls central the case aback you move the abrasion about on a collapsed surface. Inside the mouse, rollers and sensors accelerate signals to the computer, cogent it the distance, direction, and acceleration of the ball's motions (see Amount 2A. 13). The computer uses this abstracts to position the abrasion arrow on the screen. Accession accepted blazon of mouse, the optical mouse, is nonmechanical. This blazon of abrasion emits a axle of ablaze from its underside; it uses the light's absorption to adjudicator the distance, direction, and acceleration of its biking (see Amount 2A. 14). The abrasion offers two basal benefits. First, the abrasion lets you position the cur­ sor anywhere on the awning bound after appliance the cursor-movement keys. You artlessly move the arrow to the on­ Rdlers awning position you appetite and columnist the abrasion button; the cursor appears at that location. Second, instead of banishment you to blazon or affair commands from the key­ board, the abrasion and mouse-based operating systems let you acquire com­ mands from easy-to-use airheaded and chat boxes (see Amount 2A. 15). The aftereffect is a abundant added automatic way to use computers. Instead of canonizing abstruse command names, users can amount out rather calmly breadth com­ mands and options arc located. FIG U R E 2A. 11 Anexam ola pointeras it m ple ight appearona com puterscreen. ^ o r ^ f f c iN E For m Acquaint ore ationonm ice andm ousemanufacturers,vsil http://www. mhhe. com/ petemoiton. FIGURE 2 A . 1 2 Thepartsofa automated m ouse,seen fro Vieb m m otto . NortO N L IN E Formoreformation onoptical mice, appointment http://wvrw. mhhe. com/ petemorion Q Whenthe abrasion mom... ^ ... he rolling abrasion bond spins me rollers Q Thertormafa i from the spinning roMereIs beatific to the adjustment software,wNcti controls the pointer. FIGURE 2A. 13 H them ow ousecontrolsthepointer. Interacting with Your Computer 55 1 Urheberrechtlich geschi i: FIGURE 2A. 14 The base ol anoptical mouse. If you use a cartoon program, you can use the abrasion to crcatc cartoon such as lines, curves, and freehand shapes on the scrccn. The abrasion has helped authorize the com* purer as a able apparatus for clear designers, starting w hat has back bccome a anarchy in the clear de* assurance field. Appliance th e Abrasion For added MormaUcn on abrasion techniques, w sl http://www. mhhe. com/ petemorton You use a abrasion to move the arrow to a breadth on the screen, a activity alleged pointing. Everything you do with a abrasion is able by com bining point­ ing w ith these techniques: » Beat » Double-clicking » Boring » Right-clicking :: FIGURE 2A. 15 Appliance the abrasion to acquire a command Irom a menu. r*e Cdt ym ?e«xh ? o fcsownarks Ctrl+N ( New U*vn)4lCir SVQctow N&" *I Ofwn Web Location... CtrHSMt+l Qpen Fie... 0 SM CblfO Qrl+W OrM-S CdtPaga Accelerate Page... OrU€ Q rffP Book P is WoifcCffine _ » fe t Q jW } 1 Pointing agency blame the abrasion beyond your desk. O n the scrccn, the arrow moves in affiliation to the abrasion (see Amount 2A. 16). Push the abrasion forward, and the arrow moves up. Push the abrasion to the left, and the arrow moves to the left. To point to an ob­ ject or breadth on the scrccn, you artlessly use the abrasion to abode the arrow on top of the article or location. The mice that arise w ith IBM-compatible computers usually acquire two buttons, but tech­ niques such as clicking, double-clicking, and boring arc usually agitated out w ith the larboard abrasion button (see Amount 2A. 17). In m ulti­ button mice, one button charge be appointed :: FIGURE 2A. 16 Appliance the abrasion to ascendancy the on-screen pointer. The arrow moves in affiliation tothe mouse's movements. 56 Affiliate 2 Urheberrechthch geschutztes Ma s the “primary” button, re­ InWindows and m any The larboard abrasion button Windows programs, the ferred to as the abrasion button. is usualy the primary adapted abrasion button Some mice can acquire three or button. can be acclimated in added buttons. The buttons' manyways, too. uses arc angled by the computer's operating system, appliance software, and mouse-control software. To bang an account w ith the mouse, you move the arrow to the account on the scrccn. Aback the arrow touches the object, bound columnist and absolution the primary abrasion button already “d c k " {see Amount 2A. 18). Clicking— or single-clicking, as it is additionally called— is the best important abrasion action. To baddest any article on the screen, such as a menu, com mand, or button, you bang it. Double-clicking an account agency pointing to the account with the abrasion arrow and again acute and absolution the abrasion button alert in accelerated assumption (see Amount 2A. 19). Double-clicking is prim arily acclimated with desktop altar such as icons. For example, you can double-click a pro­ •click click" gram's figure to barrage the program. Boring an account agency accession the abrasion arrow over the item, acute the primary abrasion button, and captivation it bottomward as you move the mouse. As you move the pointer, the account is “dragged” forth with it beyond the scrccn (see Amount 2A. 20). You can again bead the account in a new position on the screen. This address is additionally alleged drag-and-drop editing, or aloof annoyance and drop. Boring is a actual attainable tool. In a wordprocessing program, for exam­ -and absolution the button ple, you can annoyance altercation from one Authority bottomward the aback you accomplishment dragging. primary button 4 breadth to accession in a docu­ a s you move ment. In a file-managemcnr th e m o u se.. program, you can annoyance a docu­ ment's figure and bead it assimilate a printer's figure to book the docu­ ment. W indows and abounding W in­ dows programs abutment rightclicking, which agency pointing to an account on the screen, again acute and absolution the adapted abrasion button (see Amount 2A. 21). Right-clicking usually opens a adjustment card that contains commands and options that affect to the account to which you arc pointing. A caster abrasion has a baby caster nestled amid its but­ bags (see Amount 2A. 22). You can use the caster for assorted purposes, one o f which is scrolling through continued docu­ ments. N ot all applications and operating systems abutment the use o f the wheel. FIGURE 2A. 17 Standardbutton agreement ona tw obuttonmouse. FIGURE 2A. 18 Beat a mouse. FIGURE 2A. 19 DoUbie-dlcWnga mouse. FIG URE 2A. 20 Bragging with a mouse. FIG URE 2A. 21 RiQht-dictonga mouse. Interacting with Your Computer 57 U rheberrechtlich g esch u tz tes al Nor Abrasion Button Configurations m IN E For m tatorm ore atJononthecare andusageofrrtce. appointment http://www. mhhe. com/ pctemorton FIGURE 2A. 22 Avrfieel mouse. The abrasion usually sits to the adapted of the keyboard (for right-handed people), and the user assignment the abrasion with the adapted hand, acute the larboard button with the adapted forefinger. For this reason, the larboard abrasion button is sometimes alleged the primary abrasion button. If you are left-handed, you can configure the adapted abrasion button as the primary button (as apparent in Amount 2A. 23). This agreement lets you abode the abrasion to the larboard of the keyboard, ascendancy the abrasion with your larboard hand, and use your larboard fore* feel for best abrasion actions. Newer mice accredit you to configure buttons to achieve altered tasks than clicking. You adeptness configure a button to annul alleged text, for ex­ ample, or to attainable a affairs that lets you chase for files. Such settings may lim it the account of the abrasion but can be attainable if you charge to achieve a assertive assignment abounding times. m 3 MW^waau^MOUl Variants of the Abrasion Although the abrasion is a attainable tool, some bodies do : MMbi not like appliance a abrasion or acquire adversity activity 1(0* one. For others, a abrasion W D i W tfW w : requires too abundant desktop jo* space—a absolute botheration aback you are not alive at a deskl Uw aJi | tM For these affidavit and others, accouterments makers acquire developed accessories that Cm * k 1 m * 1 « alike the mouse's func­ tionality but collaborate with the user in altered ways. The primary goals or these “ abrasion variants'* are to accommodate case of use while demography up below amplitude than a mouse. They all abide sta­ tionary and can alike be congenital into the keyboard. Trackballs A trackball is a pointing accessory that works like an backward mouse. You blow your basis feel or deride on an apparent ball, again abode your another fingers on the buttons. To move the arrow about the screen, you cycle the brawl with your in­ dex feel or thumb. Because you do not move the able device, a trackball re­ quires below amplitude than a mouse. Trackballs acquired acceptance with the appearance of laptop computers, which about are acclimated on laps or on baby assignment surfaces that acquire no allowance for a mouse. Trackballs arise in altered models, as apparent in Amount 2A. 24. Some track­ assurance are abounding and abundant with a brawl about the aforementioned admeasurement as a cue balL Others are abundant smaller. Best trackballs affection two buttons, although three-button models http://www. mhhe. com/ pctemorton 58 Affiliate 2 Urheberrechlllch geschOtztes Ma SELF-CHECK :: Circle the actual acknowledgment for anniversary question. 1. Themost com onkeyboard blueprint hasabout this manykeys. m a. 10 a. s t/ h i k e y h. 100 b. sh o rtc u t k e y c. 110 c. a lte rn a je key IB il 2. Wfochspecial keyboardkey has a account of theWindows logoonit? 3. Best full-si2e PCs affection oneof these as the pointingdevice. a. Keyboard b. Abrasion c. Scanner " p w | are additionally available. Trackball units additionally are attainable in right- and awkward models. Trackpads The trackpad (also alleged a touchpad) is a anchored pointing accessory that abounding bodies acquisition below backbreaking to use than a abrasion or trackball. The movement of a feel beyond a baby touch-sensitive apparent is translated into arrow movement on the computer screen. The touch-scnsitivc apparent may be alone 1. 5 or 2 inches square, so the feel never has to move far. The trackpad's admeasurement additionally makes it acceptable for a anthology computer. Some anthology models affection a congenital trackpad rather than a abrasion or trackball (sec Amount 2A. 25). Like mice, trackpads usually are abstracted from the keyboard in desktop com­ puters and are absorbed to the computer through a cord. Some adapted keyboards affection congenital trackpads. This affection keeps the pad attainable and frees a anchorage that would contrarily be acclimated by the trackpad. Trackpads accommodate two or three buttons that achieve the aforementioned functions as abrasion buttons. Some trackpads arc additionally “ bang sensitive," acceptation you can tap the pad with your fingertip instead of appliance its buttons. FIGURE 2A. 24 Trackballscomeinm shapes and any sires. Anatomy infcxm on ore ailon tracl; ad andintegrated p s porting devces. vis* http://www. mhhe. com/ petemorton Pointers in the Keyboard Abounding carriageable computers now fea­ ture a baby joystick positioned abreast the average of the keyboard, about amid the G and H keys. The joy­ stick is controlled with either fore­ finger, and it controls the movement of the arrow on screen. Because users do not acquire to booty their calmly off the keyboard to use this device, they can save a abundant accord of time and effort. Two buttons that per­ anatomy the aforementioned activity as abrasion buttons are aloof below the space­ bar and are apprenticed with the thumb. Several all-encompassing agreement acquire emerged for this device; abounding manu­ facturers accredit to it as an chip FIGURE 2A. 2S Trackpad Soma notebookcomputersanddesktop keyboardsfeatire a buiK-intraefcpod Interacting with Your Computer 59 M , I Pmdunthvily Tip Saving Tim e With Keyboard Shortcuts In the 1980s, as programmers began packing added appearance into PC software, they additionally developed agency for users to is­ sue an ever-increasing cardinal of commands. Software bales came with continued lists of commands, all of which had to be entered at the keyboard. (This was afore the abrasion came into accepted use. ) As a result, the computer keyboard rapidly became a admired tool. Programmers began devising keyboard shortcuts that acquiesce users to affair commands bound by accounting a abbreviate aggregate of keystrokes. Keyboard shortcuts absorb appliance a modifier key (such as aut or cm. ) forth with one or added alphanumeric or activity keys. To book a certificate in abounding applications, for archetype the user can columnist ctri+p. Function keys additionally became important The Fl key, for ex­ ample, became the accepted way to admission online help. IBMcompatible computer keyboards originally had 10 activity keys; eventually the cardinal of activity keys was broadcast to 12. Accession accepted blazon of keyboard adjustment involves acute the a u key to admission a program's card system. Aback active any Windows program, you can columnist alt to actuate the card bar, and again columnist a accent letter in a menu's name to attainable that menu. Stilt a keyboard can authority alone so abounding keys, and the lists of keyboard shortcuts became unmanageable. A distinct affairs could use dozens of "hotkeys,” as these shortcuts were called. If you acclimated several programs, you had to apprentice altered shortcuts for anniversary program. Finally, the Accepted User Admission (CUA) accepted led to the acclimation of abounding frequently acclimated hotkeys beyond altered programs and environments. With this accepted for frequently acclimated hotkeys, users acquire below hotkeys to remember. Despite such standards, pointing accessories (such as the mouse) came forth none too anon for hotkey-weary com­ puter users. Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh operating adjustment acquired acceptance because of their easy-to-use, mouse-oriented graphical interfaces. By operating the mouse, users could achieve selections visually from airheaded and chat boxes. Emphasis rapidly began alive abroad from the keyboard to the screen; today, abounding users do not apperceive the purpose of their activity keys! pointing dcvicc, while others alarm it a 3-D point stick. On the IBM ThinkPad band of anthology computers, the pointing accessory is alleged the TrackPoint (see Amount 2A. 26). Ergonomics and Ascribe Accessories Any officc artisan w ill acquaint you tliat alive at a lath all day can be acutely afflictive (see Amount 2A. 27). Sitting all day and us­ ing a computer can be alike worse. Not alone docs the user's anatomy anguish from actuality in a armchair too long, but duke and wrist injuries can aftereffect from appliance a keyboard and abrasion for continued periods. Eyes can become artificial from staring at a adviser for hours. Such injuries can be extreme, aggressive the user’s accepted bloom and adeptness to work. Abundant is actuality done to achieve computers easier^ safer, and added able to use. Ergonomics, which is the abstraction of the concrete accord amid bodies and their tools—such as computers— addresses these issues. Now added than anytime before, bodies admit the impor­ tance of accepting ergonomically actual computer appliance and appliance able aspect and techniques while alive with computers. (The appellation ergonomically actual agency that a apparatus or a abode is advised to assignment appropriately with the animal body, and appropriately reduces the accident of ache and injuries. ) TrackPoint : FIG U RE 2A. 26 IBM's ThinkPad computers affection the TrackPoint pointing device, and smtar donees are begin in abounding otter carriageable PCs. 60 Affiliate 2 Columnist cm+a To Toggle adventurous appearance formatting on or off for the alleged or amid ext; achieve belletrist adventurous or unbold Toggle italic appearance formatting on or off for the alleged or amid text; achieve belletrist italic Toggle accentuate appearance formatting on or off for the alleged or amid text; accentuate belletrist Oecrease chantry admeasurement for the alleged or amid altercation Increase chantry admeasurement for the alleged or amid altercation Abolish branch formatting for the alleged branch or paragraphs Abolish appearance formatting for the alleged altercation Archetype the alleged altercation or article Cut the alleged altercation or article Paste altercation or an article Undo the aftermost activity Redo the aftermost activity c tilh Pointing, however, can apathetic you down. As airheaded and di­ alog boxes become added crowded, commands can be adamantine to acquisition and their locations can be as difficult to re­ affiliate as keyboard shortcuts. Abounding computer users over­ arise these problems by appliance a aggregate of keyboard shortcuts and a pointing device. You use one duke to affair abounding basal shortcuts (such as cnti+f and ctrl+s) or to barrage macros. A macro is a alternation of commands that a pro­ gram memorizes for you. Macros accredit you to affair an en­ annoy set o t commands in aloof a few keystrokes. Using these techniques minimizes keystrokes and leaves a duke chargeless to use a pointing device. The afterward table lists some of the adjustment keys avail­ able in Microsoft Word. ctri-hi ctm >shift*< ct«l+shih+> CTRi+o ctri+smcebar cm -K ctri+x ctri+y ctri+z ctrl+ y Repetitive Accent Injuries The acreage of ergonomics did not rcccivc abundant absorption until a ccrtain chic o f in­ juries began actualization amid accounting workers who absorb best o f their time en­ tering abstracts on computer keyboards. These ailments are alleged repetitive accent injuries (RSIs) or repetitive ache injuries and aftereffect from continuously appliance the anatomy in agency it was not advised to work. One blazon of RSI that is abnormally able-bodied authentic amid computer users is carpal adit syndrome, a wrist or duke in­ lath acquired by appliance a keyboard for continued periods of time. W C IW E For moreinformationon ergonomics andavok&ig computer-relatedinjuries, v a i http://www. mhhe. conj/ petemorton FIGURE 2A. 27 Experience showslhat appointment worftcan affectation speofc healti risks. Interacting with Your Computer 61 Urheberrechtlich geschulzles M Transverse Cross Section of NormalW rit! FlexorTendons and Sheath . " :™ . Affronted Inflamedtendon sheath presses adjoin average assumption carpal?. : : * Bones FIGURE 2A . 2 8 Carpel adit syndrom affectsthe e nervesrunningthroughthe carpal adit of thewrist. The carpal adit is a alleyway in the wrist through which fretfulness canyon (see Amount 2A. 28). In carpal adit syndrome, tendons in the adit bccome affronted because the victim has captivated his or her wrists durably for continued periods, as bodies tend to do at a keyboard. Aback the tendons become inflamed, they columnist adjoin the nerves, causing tingling, numbness, pain, or the disability to use the hands. Carpal adit affection is the best-known repetitive accent injury. It can become so de­ bilitating that victims can absence weeks or months of work. In acute cases, anaplasty is required. Avoiding Keyboard-Related Injuries If you use a computer frequently, you can abstain RSIs by adopting a few acceptable assignment habits, and by authoritative abiding that your accouterments and workspace are set up in an ergonomically affable way. At Jssue Com puter Voting— Is It a Acceptable Thing? The altercation over cyberbanking voting is as acrimonious as a agitation amid presidential candidates. The risks against the bene­ fits are discussed, investigated, and argued. But what are the facts that lie below the fuss? The key activity of an cyberbanking voting adjustment is to ob­ tain aborigine preferences and address them—reliably and accu­ rately. Some advance that cyberbanking systems are safer than another methods of voting because they apparatus aegis checks and assay trails, and are tougher to alter with than cardboard ballots. One of the best broadly acclimated cyberbanking voting systems. Diebold Acclamation Systems (http://www. diebold. com/ dieboldes/accuvote_ts. tm), boasts some 33,000 voting stations in locations beyond the United States. Dieboltfs AccuVote-TS adjustment is a voter-activated alternate touch­ awning adjustment appliance an able Aborigine Card as the aborigine interface. The interface allows voters to appearance and casting their votes by affecting ambition areas on an electronically gener­ ated acclamation pad. Anniversary assemblage provides a direct-entry computerized voting base that automatically annal and food acclamation infor­ mation and results. While classified as a absolute almanac access (ORE) device, the AccuVote-TS adjustment has added capa­ bilities. The tabulator is a multifunctional interface that counts and abulates the ballots at precincts on acclamation day and communicates with the host computer at Acclamation Central for authentic and appropriate jurisdictionwide results. However, cyberbanking voting systems acquire generated con­ cern because their assignment is not readily attainable for inspec­ tion; what goes on abaft the awning is a abstruseness to the accepted accessible and accordingly causes uneasiness. With com­ puter voting, aborigine annal are intangibly stored on a adamantine drive, with voting after-effects recorded in cyberbanking memory. Indeed, a July 2003 assay of the Diebold blow awning by computer advisers from Johns Hopkins and Rice uni­ versities (found at http://www. newscientist. oin) showed that the software was riddled with errors and attainable to fraud. However, alike with the achievability of fraud, cyberbanking 62 Affiliate 2 Urheberrechllich oesch Aback ambience up your accretion workspace, achieve it a prior­ ity to acquire a comfortable, ergonomically advised armchair (sec Amount 2A. 29). Your appointment armchair should » » » Acquiesce you to acclimatize its height. Accommodate acceptable lower-back support. Acquire adjustable armrests. Your lath additionally should be adapted to computer use, like the one apparent in Amount 2A. 30. The lath should authority your key­ lath and abrasion at the able height, so that your calmly are at the aforementioned acme as your elbows (or a few inches lower) aback you authority them over the keyboard. Here arc some another tips that can advice you abstain RSIs while alive with your keyboard and mouse: » Use an Ergonomic Keyboard. Traditional, collapsed keyboards arc not adapted to the appearance of animal hands. An ergonomic keyboard allows you to authority your calmly in a added accustomed position (with wrists straight, rather than angled outward) while accounting (see Amount 2A. 31). » Use a Padded Wrist Support. If you blazon a lot, a wrist abutment can be attainable by acceptance you to blow your calmly calmly aback you are not absolutely typ­ ing. Remember; however, that FIGURE 2A. 29 Anergonom ically designedcom puter chairanddesk. FIGURE 2A. 30 A propertydesignedcom puterdesk featuresa Udl-insfieB or traytohoWffw keyteard andm ouse. ystems may still be safer than above-mentioned methods of voting be­ account they apparatus bombastic aegis checks and audits and may be added difficult to alter with because of the admeasurement and attributes of their accretion components. Accession altercation in favor of cardboard ballots, or at atomic cardboard receipts, is that in adjustment to verify an election, all you charge to do is accumulate up the ballots and alphabetize them a sec­ ond (or third, as the case may be) time. However, auditing cardboard acclamation systems is not consistently as accessible as it sounds. Bal­ lots, decidedly punch-cards, sometimes accommodate ambigu­ ous results, as apparent in a contempo presidential election. They are calmly artificial and they charge be physically handled and transported, which provides the befalling for substitu­ tion or loss. Whether computerized or traditional, no acclamation adjustment is infallible, and in truth, conceivably it doesn't charge to be. As some acquire said, every safe has the adequacy to be cracked. The aforementioned is accurate for voting systems. The affair is not whether they are 100 percent secure, but whether they pre­ beatific able safeguards to accord us acceptance in the candor of our elections. n Interacting with Your Computer 63 » » » » you should never blow your wrists on anything—even a able wrist support—while you type. Use the abutment alone aback your fingers are not affective over the keyboard. Accumulate Your Wrists Straight. Aback typing, your calmly should be in a beeline band with your forearms, aback beheld either from aloft or from the ancillary (see Amount 2A. 32). Keeping the wrists angled in cither administration can account mus de fatigue. Sit Up Straight. Abstain slouching as you type, and accumulate your anxiety collapsed on the attic in advanced of you. Abstain bridge your legs in advanced of you or beneath your armchair for continued periods. Apprentice to Type. You w ill use the keyboard added calmly and artlessly if you apperceive how to type. If you M coursing and peek," you are added acceptable to slouch and accumulate your arch bottomward while attractive at rite keyboard. This tech­ nique not alone slows you down, but it leads to fatigue and stiffness. Booty Frequent Breaks. Get up and move about for a few account anniversary hour, and amplitude occasionally throughout the day. FIGURE 2A. 31 Anexam ol anergonom keyboard. ple ic FIGURE 2A. 32 Whent> in . your handsshouldbein pg & eWin yourforearm al all tonesand n s whenviewedfromanyantfe. 64 Affiliate 2 Urheberrechlllch geschutzte Review Summary :: » A accepted computer keyboard has about 100 keys. » Best keyboards chase a agnate layout, with their keys abiding in bristles groups. Those groups accommodate the alphanumeric keys, numeric keypad, activity keys, mod­ ifier keys, and cursor-movement keys. » Aback you columnist a key, the keyboard ambassador places a cipher in the keyboard absorber to announce which key was pressed. The keyboard sends the computer a signal, which tells the CPU to acquire the keystroke. The abrasion is a pointing accessory that lets you ascendancy the position of a graphical arrow on the awning after appliance the keyboard. » Appliance the abrasion involves bristles techniques: pointing, clicking, double-clicking, drag­ ging, and right-clicking. » A trackball is like a abrasion angry upside-down. It provides the functionality of a abrasion but takes below amplitude on the desktop. » A trackpad is a touch-sensitive pad that provides the aforementioned functionality as a mouse. To use a trackpad, you coast your feel beyond its surface. » Abounding anthology computers accommodate a joystick-like pointing accessory congenital into the keyboard. You ascendancy the arrow by affective the joystick. On IBM systems, this de­ carnality is alleged a TrackPoint Generically, it is alleged an chip pointing device. » Continuous use of a keyboard and pointing accessory can advance to repetitive accent injuries. » The acreage of ergonomics studies the way bodies use took. This abstraction leads to bet­ ter artefact designs and techniques that advice bodies abstain injuries at work. » Ergonomically advised keyboards are attainable to advice users anticipate repetitive accent injuries to the wrists and hands. Key Agreement :: alphanumeric key, 60 buffer, 54 carpal adit syndrome, 61 click, 57 cursor, 52 cursor-movement key, 52 double-clicking, 57 annoyance and drop, 57 drag-and-drop editing, 57 dragging, 57 ergonomics, 60 activity key. 51 admittance point 52 chip pointing device. 9 keyboard buffer, 54 keyboard controller, 53 keyboarding, 50 automated mouse, 55 modifier key, 50 numeric keypad, 51 optical mouse, 55 pointer, 54 pointing, 56 pointing device. 54 echo rate, 54 repetitive accent abrasion (RSI), 61 right-dicking, 57 trackpad, 59 TrackPoint 60 caster mouse, 57 Interacting with Your Computer 65 Urheberrechtlich g esch u tztes M« | tLg§g @ 8 0 K ey Appellation Quiz :i Review Complete anniversary account by autograph one of the agreement listed beneath Key Agreement in anniversary blank. 1. In computer use, the accomplishment of accounting is generally referred to as 2. IBM -com patible PCs acquire 10 or 1 2______________ keys. . 3. In abounding programs, an on-screen attribute alleged a(n )___________ or a(n )____________ shows you breadth you are in a certificate 4. A(n) is a acting accumulator breadth that holds abstracts until the CPU is accessible for it. 5. In accession to pointing, the four primary abrasion techniques are and___________ _ 6. You use a abrasion (or one of its variants) to position a(n )_____ 7. In abounding Windows applications, you can attainable a adjustment card by. on the screen. ______ the mouse. 8. Abounding laptop computers affection a baby joystick amid the c and k keys, which is alleged a(n) a(n )----------9. is the abstraction of the way bodies assignment with tools. 10. _____ is a accepted blazon of repetitive accent abrasion amid computer users. Assorted Best is Circle the chat or byword that best completes anniversary statement. 1. Some bodies affirmation that aback computers can adapt autography and accent with 100 percent accuracy, this will become unnecessary. a. mice a. special-purpose keys b. accounting b. activity keys c. pointing accessory c. accounting keys ......... - - layout. d. special-purpose keys d. alphanumeric keys d. QWERYT d. iadsmce 2. These keys achieve up the allotment of the keyboard that looks like a typewriter's keys, 3. The accepted keyboard adjustment is alleged the a. QWERTY b. QEWTYR 4. Which of the afterward is not a modifier key? a. about-face b. cm c. ait 5. In best programs, you can columnist this key to get help, a. csc a. keyboard a. C C S b. r l b. keyboard absorber b. f1 c . alt c . keyboard ambassador C. SM CEBAR d . no d. keyboard CPU d. S O T U H RCT 6. Aback you columnist a key, this accessory notifies the adjustment software, 7. In abounding Windows applications, you can use this key as an another to the adapted abrasion button. c. QYWERT 66 Affiliate 2 Urheberrechtlich geschutztes Material | 8. This blazon of abrasion uses reflected ablaze to admeasurement its movements. c. automated a. optical b. laser 9. In a multi-button mouse, one button charge be appointed as the c. primary a. aboriginal b. larboard 10. You can__ a. point to a program's figure to barrage the program. b. double-click C. right-click button. d. user d. annoyance Review d. caster Review Questions :: In your own words, briefly acknowledgment the afterward questions. 1. Host accepted keyboards accommodate bristles aloft groups of keys. List them. 2. Why are best accepted keyboards alleged "QWERTY" keyboards? 3. What does the ctrl key do? 4. What is the purpose of the alpha key, which appears on abounding IBM-compatible keyboards? 5. What happens aback you columnist a key on the computer's keyboard? 6. What is the purpose of the abrasion pointer? 7. How does a automated abrasion work? 8. Describe two allowances of appliance a mouse. 9. What does the appellation boring beggarly and how do you do it? 10. Describe the account and aftereffect of carpal adit syndrome. Assignment Labs :: Complete the afterward contest as directed by your instructor. 1. Test your accounting abilities in Notepad. Click the alpha button, point to All Programs, bang Accessories, and again dick Notepad to attainable the Notepad text-editing program. Notepad opens in a window. Acquire a acquaintance time you as you blazon a branch of text. The branch should be at atomic bristles curve continued and should achieve sense. (For example, you could blazon a branch of altercation from any folio in this book. ) Do not stop to actual mistakes; accumulate accounting until you are able accounting the selection. 2. Audit your system's abrasion settings. (Do not change any settings after your instructor's permission. ) Use the afterward steps: a. Bang the alpha button to attainable the Alpha menu; again bang Ascendancy Panel. The Ascendancy Panel window opens. b. Double-dick the Abrasion figure to attainable the Abrasion Properties chat box. Bang the tabs in this chat box and audit your settings. c. Experiment with the Arrow Acceleration and Appearance Arrow Trails tools. How do they affect your mouse's performance. Aback you are finished, dick Cancel Interacting with Your Computer 67 M U R B Overview: O ptions for Every N eed a n d P referen c e Although the keyboard and the abrasion arc the ascribe dcviccs that bodies use best often, there are abounding another agency to ascribe abstracts into a com­ puter. Sometimes the apparatus is artlessly a amount of choice. Some users jusr adopt the feel of a trackball over a mouse. In abounding cases, however, an accustomed ascribe accessory may nor be the best choice. In a arenaceous branch or warehouse, for example, a accepted keyboard or abrasion can be dam* age-old if it becomes chock-full with dirt. Grocery checkout curve would apathetic bottomward badly if cashiers had to manually ascribe artefact codes and prices. In these environments, specialized ascribe accessories abide acute altitude and abate the accident of ascribe errors. Another ascribe accessories are important genitalia of some specialpurpose computers. Tapping a handheld computer's scrccn with a pen is a abundant faster way to ascribe commands than accounting on a miniature key­ board. On the another hand, a specialized accessory can accord new purpose to a accepted system. If you appetite to comedy action-packed amateur on your home PC, for example, you w ill acquire added fun if you use a joystick or bold ambassador than a accepted keyboard or mouse. This assignment examines several categories of another ascribe accessories and discusses the adapted uses of each. You may be afraid at how of­ ten you see these devices, and yo

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