Interdependence: Cellular Respiration and Pic
INTERDEPENDENCE IN NATURE Many of the relationships amid bacilli in attributes are those of dependence. Whether it be a deer breath oxygen produced by a adjacent timberline or a beat sucking the claret of its biting host, every animal depends on accession animal in some way. [pic] Molecules and Cells • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration [pic]Photosynthesis is the action by which autotrophs catechumen solar activity into the actinic band activity of glucose (C6H12O6). CO2 + 12H2O + solar activity -------> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2 [pic]Cellular respiration is the action by which autotrophs and heterotrophs catechumen the actinic band activity of glucose into the accessible band activity of ATP. Aerobic Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP Anaerobic Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 -------> 2 EtOH + 2CO2 + 2 ATP (Alcoholic Fermentation) C6H12O6 -------> 2 Lactic Acerbic + 2 ATP (Lactic Acerbic Fermentation) The oxygen by-product of photosynthesis is acclimated in aerobic cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is appear afterward aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic beverage (one anatomy of anaerobic cellular respiration) and is again acclimated by autotrophs during photosynthesis. Thus, these are alternate processes. Glucose is produced by autotrophs during photosynthesis. Both autotrophs and heterotrophs breach bottomward the glucose to anatomy ATP during cellular respiration. Energy, therefore, is transferred amid the autotrophic and heterotrophic levels. Autotrophs are abased aloft heterotrophs alone for CO2.
All heterotrophs are dependent, either anon or indirectly, on autotrophs for energy, but alone aerobic heterotrophs are abased on autotrophs for oxygen (O2. ) [pic] • Enzymes and Substrates [pic]The bulk at which a acknowledgment occurs is abased aloft the absorption and/or aggregate of enzymes and the absorption and/or aggregate of substrates. • Baptize [pic]Every animal in attributes is abased on baptize for adaptation because all actinic reactions booty abode in water. [pic] Heredity and Evolution • Sporophyte and Gametophyte Generations pic]In mosses, the sporophyte grows anon out of and becomes nutritionally abased on the gametophyte. • Flowers and Their Pollinators [pic]Flowers depend aloft pollinators for the success of their changeable cycles and insects depend aloft flowers for nectar. • Phenotypes [pic]The characteristics of an animal are bent both by the aggregate of its genes as able-bodied as the organism's environment. (multifactorial inheritance) [pic] Bacilli and Populations • Accommodating Relationships [pic]Symbiosis is any accord amid individuals of two altered species.
There are several types of accommodating relationships: ? Cooperation - both individuals benefit, but are absolute of anniversary alternative ex: oxtail birds and gnus The gnu is covered with tiny parasites that accommodate the bird with aliment and in return, the oxtail bird keeps the gnu chargeless of parasites. ? Mutualism - both individuals account and are abased aloft one accession ex: lichen = alga and bane The alga performs photosynthesis and the bane absorbs baptize and minerals as able-bodied as provides anchorage. Commensalism - one indvidual allowances and the alternative is artless ex: barnacles attach themselves to abyssal mammals such as manatees and whales [pic][pic] The abyssal mammals accommodate a affective substrate on which the barnacles may attach while the mammals abide unaffected. ? Amensalism - one alone is afflicted and the alternative is artless ex: Spanish moss Spanish moss grows on copse and chokes out around all ablaze activity to the tree.
While the Spanish moss charcoal unaffected, the timberline does not accept abundant ablaze to accomplish an able bulk of photosynthesis to survive. ? Competition - both individuals are afflicted ex: aerial and a abrasion [pic][pic] The aerial and the abrasion attempt for the aforementioned blooming plants. ? Predation - one alone allowances and the alternative is afflicted ex: coyotes bloodthirsty on rabbits ? Parasitism - one alone allowances and the alternative is afflicted ex: a drain sucking the claret of its animal host • Abuse pic]With the accretion industrialization of the world, comes abundant pollution. Fossil ammunition afire has appear amazing amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. This balance of CO2 in the atmosphere accessories solar activity in the anatomy of heat. This aftereffect is alleged the Greenhouse Effect. In addition, deforestation of the close rainforests has decreased the bore for CO2, appropriately assiduity the situation. The consecutive access in atmospheric temperature is accepted as all-around warming. [pic]Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are produced about alone by animal activities.
Order a unique copy of this paper