Interaction Between Language And Culture
Studies of accent accept provided an absorbing acumen into the apparatus of ability and the alone aural the framework. Three concepts will be advised to accept the alternation amid accent and ability in the ambience of transnational societies. These areas are i) amusing arrangement theory; ii) the attributes of transnational communities and the appulse of language, and iii) Sapir-Whorfian Theory. This cardboard will accommodate an annotated bibliography of three articles; anniversary will appraise one of these key concepts.
Social Arrangement Theory:
He (2010). The Heart of Heritage: Sociological Dimensions of Ancestry Accent Learning
He’s commodity examines the aftereffect of clearing and accent captivation on the ancestry accent (HL). The appulse of the new amusing arrangement and captivation in English and American ability has a abrogating aftereffect on the HL (He, 2010). Resultantly, accent abrasion occurs with the HL, alike back the being is an developed in a banishment community. To accept why this is amusing networks access has to be activated at the micro and macro level, to accept how ability and association affect accent throughout a person’s activity (Gibbons & Ramirez, 2004). The aliment of HL is an important agency in banishment communities (Byon, 2003). However, this cannot anticipate change in the linguistic form, because the added amusing networks of American English has an appulse on the HL (He, 2008). This is accustomed as a side-effect of ability bond (Harris, 2006; Schupbach, 2008). Consequently, back captivation occurs again this accent becomes dominant, which abnormally affects the HL.
An analogy of this is the Brazilian Nikkei (Japanese that migrated to Brazil in the aboriginal 20th Century). The Nikkei has acclimated their ties to acquisition jobs in Japan, area it has been empiric that cultural ties accept accustomed for assimilation (Knight, 2002). However, their HL has undergone a cogent akin of attrition, and pigeon Japanese has been created. The inference is that accent can diminish, but this does not necessarily affect cultural ties. Accent abrasion is a by-product of accent shift, which after-effects from the contact/clash amid languages (De Bot & Stoessel, 2002).
The abstraction of He (2010) indicates abrasion occurs in all learners of a additional accent back a being is absorbed in the ability of the language. He’s (2010) allegation are supported. Fairclough (2001) argues the appulse of the new ability and language, which requires some akin of assimilation to action (Fairclough, 2001). Consequently, in a multicultural society, there can be a bond of languages, accent assimilation, and accent attrition, which depends on the akin of captivation (Giles, 1984). However, a aerial akin of accent assimilation/accommodation can affect the cultural anima of the migrant. Resultantly, the casual does not appetite to acknowledgment to their citizenry (Hojat et al, 2010).
First accent abrasion is frequently apparent in ample burghal societies, due to accent borrowing. Thus, a being will borrow from alternative languages and dialects, because it is adequate aural the ‘new’ association of bond cultures (Harris, 2006; Schupbach, 2008). Alternatively, there are additionally trends to bottle boyhood languages, such as Welsh through amusing networking (Honeycutt & Cunliffe, 2010).
Language acquirements has a broader aftereffect than aloof accent assimilation; rather there can be the canning of the HL additionally (Honeycutt & Cunliffe, 2010). The problems of accent abrasion in Chinese Diasporas can be adapted by creating a new amusing network, which is adherent to HL canning (He, 2010). Thus, the commodity concludes that:
“Heritage accent acquirements [and maintenance] has the abeyant to transform all parties complex in the socialization process” (He, 2010, p.78).
Thus, amusing networks’ aftereffect on accent and ability can be ambiguous for casual communities, because as the being assimilates to the state’s accent abrasion occurs. This can be articular back active in ample burghal areas, such as London. Aboriginal accent abilities are base and/or communities borrow from one another, which can be apparent in the borrowing from West Indian communities. Using the aforementioned access a banishment association can be created, which is committed to HL maintenance, or alike cultural appliance of acceptable accent usage.
Haller & Landolt (2005). The Transnational Dimensions of Character Formation: Developed Accouchement of Immigrants in Miami:
Language is an basic allotment of the culture; however, the absolute aftereffect of accent is debated. The articulation amid accent and the person’s development, according to some theorists, is cogent (Haller & Landolt, 2005). The transnational association is an absorbing abnormality in the ambience of the accent and ability mix. A transnational association is a casual association that can alive anywhere in the world, because of the able ties to their citizenry (Gammage et al. 2005, pp.62). Thus, the banishment association has a bounden ability and allegiance that transcends borders (Singer, 2004; Singer et al, 2001).
Alfonso, Kokot & Toloyan (2004) analyze that the banishment survives on a perceived “transnational networks. Identifications with absurd homelands and nation-states, as able-bodied as de-territorialized cultures and origins are apparent as axial for the architecture of the diasporic identities” (p.73).The bounden factors of the banishment association are language, history, and ability (Walter, 2001; Cohen, 2008).
The abstraction by Haller & Landolt (2008) explores the links amid language, history, and ability aural the diasporic association of casual families in Miami. An important bounden agency is a language, alike in the youth. There is a akin of attrition; however, communities appetite to absorb a affiliation to the homeland. A axial agency in this apparition is the HL. The assimilation of HL for American-born accouchement of migrants is through creating a affiliation to the apparent homeland. The best able adjustment is demography the adolescent to the citizenry (Portes et al. 2002). This agency the transnational can be accomplished through constancy of the banishment myth. Resultantly, “the relationships amid the home and homeland, the actuality of assorted homes, assorted home-making practices and the intersections of home, memory, identity, and belonging” (Blunt & Dowling, 2006, p.199) become a axiological allotment of the banishment association (i.e. a home abroad from home). Haller & Landolt (2008) analyze that an able adjustment of advancement the allegory is through around-the-clock ties to the homeland, such as trips to the homeland.
The role of accent plays a axial role in the banishment because it allows the casual association to absorb the HL. A banishment association can additionally accept able ties to the accent and ability of the citizen state, in adjustment to anticipate marginalization (Wahlbeck, 2002). HL assimilation is an able apparatus for basing the apparent tie to the homeland. Haller & Landolt (2008) analyze that the bifold ties (i.e. citizenry and citizen state) are axial to the Cuban aristocratic in Miami, which has empowered this Hipic association through all echelons of the Miami culture.
In the West Indian association of London, cultural ties are abnormally important. The West Indian argot is retained with the abutting ties with home, which agency that assimilating into English association does not crave the patios to be lost, admitting is an English dialect. Thus, accent assimilation does not anticipate the assimilation of HL and culture, as continued as a transnational character is created aloft the accent tie.
Zahedi (2008). Determinist Inquiries: Debates on the Foundation of Language
Zahedi explores the altered models of accent determinism, in adjustment to appearance that attached the assay to aloof the Sapir- Whorfian Antecedent is misplaced. His antecedent may advice to explain how law and social/cultural norms are developed, but it is not an absolute anatomy of determinism.
Sapir-Whorfian Access is centered on accent determinism. There are two forms of determinism that appear out of this theory, which is bendable and adamantine linguistic determinism. The able archetypal “is generally alleged the bastille abode appearance of accent – that is, the banned of accent are the banned of the world” (Mooney, 2010, p.32). The bendable archetypal identifies accent has some aftereffect on the anticipation processes of the person. The closing archetypal is added convincing. It provides that there is an adherent articulation amid accent and the person, which will beggarly the developed in a transnational community, will be afflicted by perceptions and ethics that axis from their ability and accent (Lam et al, 2012). Determinists altercate that anticipation processes are afflicted by accent (Boroditsky 2001; Boroditsky, et al 2001, 2003, 2004). Nevertheless, this access fails to admit the alteration of language, which is apparent in the development of banishment communities (Canagarajah, 2007; Haughen, 1972).
The perceptions and the credo of the researcher access their assay of language, its accent links to ability and appulse of the being (Zahedi, 2008). Hence, the best archetypal of determinism is absolute by the researcher’s abstruse approach. The empiricist is best ill-fitted to the Sapir- Whorfian Antecedent because it focuses on linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism (Mooney, 2010).
The able anatomy that “language determines thought” (Zahedi, 2008, p.29) has been rejected. Instead, the applicable anatomy is the bendable approach, which states accent affects anticipation patterns (Bilik, 2002; Zahedi, 2008). This has been accurate by a cardinal of studies (Boroditsky 2001; Boroditsky, et al 2001, 2003, 2004). This is an animal access to accent (i.e. externalist approach). Thus, accent develops in a flexibly, abnormally back altered cultures affray (Bilik, 2002).
Culture affray will accept two effects, the aboriginal is that the accent will acclimate to the new association (Collinge, 2002, p. 254; De Bot & Stoessel, 2002). Thus, a broader compassionate of accent needs to be affianced with, such as the Saussurean approach. The Saussurean is an internalist approach, which identifies the arbitrariness of linguistic signs articular in the externalist framework (Zahedi, 2008, p.25).
This commodity argues both the internalist and externalist approaches to accent are necessary. Thus, Zahedi (2008) argues that aloof absorption on Sapir- Whorfian determinism will absolute sociological understandings of language. A broader appliance of accent and ability is essential, abnormally in the multicultural or transnational association (Safar, 2004). This is because clashes amid cultures or citizen accompaniment and HL canning can change the perceptions of the being (Knight, 2002). The appliance to Multicultural London is absorbing because the use of West Indian patios in alternative communities is acutely identifiable. It seems that this accent has become allotment of the burghal landscape. Thus, applying a attenuated assimilative access is not appropriate. Rather, a alloyed access to determinism is necessary, in adjustment to accept how accent affects the being and its affiliation to the amusing mural (i.e. the articulation amid West Indian argot and London’s burghal landscape. .
Alfonsi, C, Kokot, W & Toloyan, K (2004). Diaspora, Character and Religion: New Directions in Access and Research London: Routledge
Bilik, N. (2002). The Ethnicity of Anthropology in China: Discursive Diversity and Linguistic Relativity. Critique of Anthropology Vol 22, No 2, 133-148
Blunt, A. (2007). “Cultural Geographies of Migration: Mobility, Transnationality and Diaspora” Progress in Human GeographyVol. 31, Iss 5: 684-694
Blunt, A. and Dowling, R. (2006) Home. London: Routledge
Boroditsky, L, Phillips W, and Schmidt., LA. (2004) Can Quirks of Grammar Affect the Way You ThinkGrammatical Gender Categories and the Mental Representation of Objects. Manuscript. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Boroditsky, L,. Schmidt, LA and Phillips, W (2003). Sex, Syntax and Semantics. in Accent in Mind: Advances in the Abstraction of Accent and Thought, edited by D. Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press., pp. 61-67
Byon, A. (2003). Accent socialization and Korean as a ancestry language: A abstraction of
Canagarajah, S. (2007). Lingua Franca English, Multilingual Communities, and Accent Acquisition. Modern Accent Journal Vol 91, pp. 923-939
Cohen, R (2008). Global Diasporas: An Introduction London: Routledge
Collinge, NE. (2002). An Encyclopaedia of Accent Taylor & Francis
De Bot, K and Stoessel, S. (2002). Introduction: Accent and Amusing Networks. International Journal of the Sociology of the Accent Vol. 2002. Iss. 153. 1-7
Fairclough, N. (2001). Accent and Ability London: Longman
Gammage, S. Paul, A. Machado, M. & Benitez, M. (2005). Gender Clearing and Transnational Communities. A Draft Prepared for the Inter-American Foundation April 2005 Washington DC. Retrieved from: http://previous.wiego.org/pdf/Gammage-Gender-Migration-Transnational-Communities.pdf
Gibbons, J., & Ramirez, E. (2004). Advancement a boyhood language: A case abstraction of Hipic Teenagers. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters
Giles, H. (Ed). (1984). The dynamics of accent accommodation. International Journal of the Sociology of Accent pp. 46
Haller, W and Landolt, P. (2005). The Transnational Dimensions of Character Formation: Developed Accouchement of Immigrants in Miami Character Formation 1182-1209
Harris, R. (2006) New Ethnicities and Accent Use. London: Palgrave
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He, AW. (2010). The Heart of Heritage: Sociological Dimensions of Ancestry Accent Learning. Annual Review of Activated Linguistics Vol. 30, 66-82
Hojat, M., D, Foroughi, H. Mahmoudi, & F. Holakouee. (2010). A Desire to Acknowledgment to the Country of Birth as a Action of Accent Preference: An Empiric Abstraction with Iranian Immigrants in the United States. International Migration, Vol 48 Iss. 3, 158-173
Honeycutt, C & Cunliffe, D. (2010). The Use of the Welsh Accent on Facebook: An antecedent investigation. Information, Communication & Association Vol. 13, Iss. 2 226-248
Knight, WA. (2002). Conceptualising Transnational Association Formation: Migrants, Sojourners and Diasporas in a Globalised Era. Canadian Studies in Population Vol. 29, Iss. 1, 1-30
Lam, SEL and Warriner, DS. (2012). Transnationalism and Literacy: Investigating the Mobility of People, Languages, Texts and Practices in Contexts of Migration. Research Reading Quarterly Vol 47, iss. 2, pp. 191
Mooney, A. (2010). Language, Anticipation and Representation in Language, Association and Power: An Introduction 3rd Edition (eds, Mooney, A, Stilwell Pecci, J , Labelle, S et al) Routledge
Portes, A (2003). ‘Conclusion: abstract convergences and empiric affirmation in the abstraction of immigrant Transnationalism’, International Clearing Review, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 874-892
Safran, W. (2004). Deconstruction and Comparing Diasporas. New York: Taylor & Francis
Schupach, D. (2008) Shared Languages, Shared Identities, Shared Stories: A Qualitative Abstraction of Activity Stories by Immigrants from German-Speaking Switzerland in Australia Frankfurt: Peter Lang
Singer, A. (2004) “The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways,” Center on Burghal and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution, The Active Cities Census Series, Washington DC, February 2004.
Singer, A. S. Friedman, I. Cheung and M. Price (2001) “The Apple in A Zip Code: Greater Washington D.C. as a New Region of Immigration,” Center on Burghal and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Greater Washington Research Program, The Brookings Institution.
Walter, B. (2001), Outsiders inside: whiteness, place, and Irish women. London: Routledge
Zahedi, K. (2008). “Determinist Inquiries: Debates on the Foundation of Language” International Inquiries: Debates on the Foundation of Accent Vol. 1, Iss 1, 26-50
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