In Malaysia, the accomplishing of Industrialised Architecture Arrangement (IBS) by application caked accurate elements were alien back 1966 back the government lauched two projects which involves the architecture of Rifle ambit Road Flats in Penang and Tuanku Abdul Rahman Flats in Kuala Lumpur.
From the assay conducted by CIDB Malaysia, the akin of accepting in IBS in the bounded architecture industry is 15 % in 2003 although abounding government initiatives accept been alien to animate the use of IBS. Accordingly a abstraction is conducted to abstraction will be conducted to abstraction the accustomed acquaintance of the accepting of IBS in Malaysia.
Furthermore this abstraction will be conducted to analyse agency to advance the accomplishing of IBS in the bounded architecture industry.
Industrialised Architecture Arrangement (IBS) was alien back the 60’s in Malaysia. There are several allowances of IBS such as acceleration up the architecture advance and possibly abate labour force, architecture bulk and accident as well. Even IBS accept abounding allowances but there is still accept some problems in implementing IBS into the architecture industry mainly due to abridgement of ability in IBS amid the contractor. Assay done by Lim Sin Peng in year 2009 showed that the accepting or accomplishing akin of IBS is still low in Malaysia architecture industry.
According to Architecture Industry Development Board (CIDB) (2003b) address architecture activity application IBS in Malaysia stands 15 allotment (%) in the year 2003 and the complete activity application IBS in year 2006 alone 10 % ( CIDB, 2007b) beneath than one-third of the absolute architecture activity (using at atomic one IBS product) in year 2006 (CIDB 2007a). The aboriginal IBS project, Pekeliling Flat, was accomplished by the Government at Jalan Pekeliling, Kuala Lumpur in 1964. The accomplishing of IBS in Malaysia was not able-bodied accustomed by the architecture industry afterwards the aboriginal accepting of IBS proves to be a abortion in befitting to architecture bulk aural the estimated budget. Thus, the aim of abstraction is to change the acumen of the architecture industry appear IBS.
The accomplishing akin of IBS is perceived to be lower compared to the advantages categorical by the architecture industry. The afterward questions charge to be answered afore the issues could be addressed:
If the accomplishing akin of IBS is accede low in Malaysia architecture industry, afresh alone can advance to the abutting assay question.
This will accommodate some annual that about what stop the contractors from application IBS.
This will accommodate advocacy to access the akin of accomplishing to accommodated the objectives of CIDB and Government to accommodate bigger accumulation in architecture industry.
The assay aim is to appraise the affidavit and factors of why beneath contractors apparatus IBS in Malaysia architecture industry
The objectives of this abstraction are to authorize the accomplishing akin of IBS actuality in Kuala Lumpur as accustomed of Malaysia. The abstraction additionally determines the barriers to contractors for not implementing IBS. In addition, it additionally evaluates the annual and advantages of application IBS. Moreover, the abstraction additionally is to acclaim factors that would animate architect to apparatus IBS.
The accent of this abstraction is to acquisition out the affidavit of aversion of this arrangement in Malaysia in allegory to another countries such as Japan, Singapore, and United Kingdom (UK) which accept implemented the IBS successfully. In affiliate 2, the abstract reviews will discussed further. Beside that, the allowances of this abstraction are
In the dissertation, the ambit of abstraction will on focus on the accepting akin of application IBS abnormally in the architect point of view. Added more, some affidavit and factors that ability affect the accomplishing of IBS and what would be the best motivations for architect to use IBS will be altercate as well. The limitation of this assay is the assay requires a lot of acknowledging about 200 and it does not ensure that they will accomplish any feedback. Due to the limitation of the carriage and there are abounding architect firms, so this assay will alone abide in Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley area.
Quantitative adjustment will be acclimated to conduct this research. Catechism assay will be conducted for targeting acknowledging from Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley breadth to actuate their acquaintance of the assertive issues or factors. This adjustment will booty some time of administering a survey, so time charge be accustomed for backward allotment and responses to chase up attempts. Moreover, this is the simplest way to access advice from targeted groups. Abstracts calm from assay will firstly assay for the accurateness afore agitated out to assignment out the assay by application statistical assay software such as SPSS.
To acquisition out the accomplishing akin of IBS in Malaysia
Determine the barriers for architect to apparatus IBS
Evaluate the absolute aftereffect of application IBS
Give factors that would animate architect to apparatus IBS
Analyze and advance solutions
Achieve aim and objectives.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Figure Assay Methodological Method
This argument is consists of bristles (5) capacity as declared as below:
This affiliate includes abrupt description of the botheration annual with the purpose of administering this assay and its aim and objectives. It additionally includes the ambit of abstraction and allowances of the study. In addition, a abrupt description of the adjustment that acclimated in study, accession accordant abstracts and information. A abrupt addition on the consecutive capacity is discussed as well.
This affiliate focuses on the assay bogus from articles, journal, newspapers cutting, quotes from authors and online accessories accompanying to IBS. The axiological allotment of this affiliate is to altercate in abyss about the allowances of application IBS, limitation of application IBS and barriers implementing IBS in architecture industry of Malaysia.
This affiliate explains the alignment will adopted in detail including the adjustment acclimated by the researcher to accomplish the beforehand mentioned cold for the assay purpose.
This Affiliate will covers the presentation on the aftereffect from carries out the abstracts calm from the respondents through the assay assay will be analyzed and will be archival in the anatomy of blueprint and discussed in detail.
This affiliate concludes the research, its allegation and assay apropos the affair of the abstraction including the limitations encountered during the research. The aftermost allotment of this affiliate is the recommendations and some claimed animadversion had been accustomed to advance the abstraction as able-bodied as approaching research.
In this chapter, the columnist advised works done by others through journals, articles, bi-weekly cutting, and quotes from authors and online accessories collected. IBS arrangement is a action to acceleration up the architecture assignment and to abbreviate the annex of labour on site.
The cold of this abstraction is added discussed about the barriers of architect in implementing IBS. Besides that, this affiliate additionally will focus on the basal assay of IBS such as definitions, background, types and characteristics in IBS and accept a basal addition about the detail of IBS.
‘Industrialised building’ is the appellation accustomed to architecture technology breadth avant-garde alike methods of design, accumulation planning and ascendancy as able-bodied as automatic and automatic accomplish are activated (Ingemar Lofgren and Kent Gylltoft, 2000)
While ‘Building system’ beggarly a architecture arrangement includes architecture rules and a artefact arrangement whose genitalia accept accordant interfaces, appropriately accepting the use of several another apparatus and assemblies is assured by agency of a dimensional and altruism arrangement as able-bodied as affiliation and collective (Ingemar Lofgren and Kent Gylltoft, 2000)
There was no frequently accustomed or agreed analogue of IBS. Several authors accept authentic IBS as action or a technique. Blimas et. al. (2006) and Pan et. al. (2008) authentic that IBS is about referred by literatures as off -site construction, off-site production, industrialised and automatic construction.
Warszawski (1999) explain in detail that an automated action is and advance in equipment, facilities, and technology with the cold of maximizing accumulation output, minimising labour resource, and convalescent affection while a architecture arrangement is authentic as a set of commutual aspect collective calm to accredit the appointed accomplishment of a building.
Another analogue by Trikha (1999) claimed that IBS additionally may be authentic in which all architecture apparatus such as wall, attic slab, cavalcade and access are accumulation produced either n branch or at armpit beneath austere affection ascendancy and basal on armpit activities
Another analogue that antiseptic by Junid (1986) breadth IBS as action by which apparatus of architecture are conceived, planned and fabricated, transported and erected at site. The arrangement includes antithesis aggregate amid software and accouterments component. The software elements accommodate arrangement design, which is circuitous action of belief the claim of the end user, bazaar assay and the development of standardise component, enactment of accomplishment and accumulation blueprint and process, allocation of assets and abstracts and analogue of a architecture artist conceptual framework.The software elements accommodate a prerequisite to actualize the accessory ambiance for industrialised to expand.
According to Junid (1986), the accouterments elements are categorised into three above groups. These accommodate anatomy or column and axle system, console system, and box system. The afflicted structures are authentic as those anatomy that backpack the endless through their beams and girders to columns and to the arena whilst in console arrangement bulk are broadcast through ample attic and bank panels. The box systems accommodate those arrangement that apply three-dimensional modules (or boxes) for artifact of accouter units are able of bear bulk from assorted admonition due to their centralized stability.
CIDB authentic IBS as architecture arrangement whereby the apparatus are manfactured in a factory, on-site or off-site, afresh positioned and accumulated into structures with basal addtional armpit work.
This breadth will focus on the allocation of the architecture arrangement that are appear internationally and in Malaysia
There are four types of architecture arrangement beneath IBS in Malaysia and there are namely accustomed column-beam-slab anatomy systems with balk and plywood as formwork, casting in-situ arrangement with animate or aluminium as formwork, prefabricated arrangement and the blended architecture arrangement is apparent in bulk 2.1. Anniversary architecture arrangement is represented by its architecture technology, anatomic and geometrical agreement (Badir et al, 1998). (cited at Thanoon et. al., 2003)
According to Majzub (1977) has altered abstraction in classifying architecture arrangement that is the about weight of the apparatus should be acclimated as a base for architecture allocation apparent in bulk 2.2. The agency of weight has cogent appulse on the transportability of the apparatus and additionally has influences on the accumulation adjustment of the apparatus and their adjustment adjustment on site. This allocation adjustment is begin to be bare to absorb another architecture arrangement curl recently.
There are bristles types of IBS had actuality acclimated in Malaysia:
(IBS Road Maps 2003-2010)
Type 1: Pre-Cast Accurate Framing, Console and Box System
The best accustomed accumulation of IBS articles is pre-cast accurate of elements in architecture industry. For example, there are including columns, beams, slabs, Three-Dimension (3D) apparatus (balconies, staircase, toilet, lift chambers), abiding accurate formwork, and so on. (CIDB, 2005). Pre-cast accurate framing, console and box arrangement is beneath categories of prefabricated system. The advantage application this is because it cans minimum decay due to assignment ambiance in branch is easier to control. Console arrangement is use for the architecture of autogenous walls and exoteric walls action acceleration of architecture in abounding ways. For box arrangement will accomplish ultimate cold of industrialization that is a best extenuative of animal labour on site.
Figure Pre-cast Accurate Elements
Type 2: Animate Formwork Systems
This arrangement advised as atomic prefabricated IBS, as they about absorb armpit casting and accountable to action aerial affection finishes and fast architecture with beneath armpit labour can appear in adit formwork, beams, columns, and slab moulding forms abiding animate formworks (metal decks) and so on. (CIDB, 2005) The animate formwork is prefabricated in the branch and afresh installed on site.
Figure Animate Formwork Systems
Type 3: Animate Framing System
This arrangement consistently be the accustomed best and acclimated assiduously in the fast-track architecture of skyscrapers. Recent development in this types arrangement included the added accepting of ablaze animate trusses. Animate is non burnable actual and improves blaze affirmation and reduces bulk of structural amercement in the accident of a blaze happen. Example: Animate beam, columns, aperture frames, roof trusses. (CIDB, 2005). Animate framing additionally accede as prefabricated arrangement and it to be erected whereby adjustment at joints are conducted. This arrangement cans faster the advance construction.
Figure Animate Anatomy Systems
Type 4: Prefabricate Balk Framing System
While the closing are added popular, balk architecture anatomy alms absorbing designs from abode units to barrio acute aerial aesthetical ethics such as chalets for resorts
Example: Balk frame, balk roof trusses (CIDB, 2005). The advantage of the arrangement is mainly in the autogenous flexibility, as ample amplitude can be acclimated for altered functions and can be calmly afflicted or adapted according to the use.
Figure Prefabricated Balk Framing System
Type 5: Block Assignment System
This arrangement has revolutionizes by the development and accepting of chain accurate masonry units (CMU) and declining accurate blocks. The annoying and time-consuming adequate brick-laying tasks are abundantly simplified by the accepting of there able another solutions. Block assignment arrangement additionally accede beneath prefabricated system. The allowances of block assignment arrangement are faster architecture and access bricklayer longevity. Moreover, it’s additionally added activity accumulation like declining concrete’s attrition to calefaction breeze is alert of average and abundant weight concrete, it’s beggarly that beneath heating/cooling activity is needed.
Figure Block work
It is important to accept the afterward characteristics alone accede to be accustomed as allotment of the IBS and ensure the accomplishment of accurate allowances of IBS. Anniversary of them will be altercate briefly at beneath (CIDB 2008):
Industrial accumulation of apparatus admitting pre-fabrication; or awful automatic in-situ processes. For example, abiding animate formwork
Reduced labour during pre-fabrication of the apparatus and armpit works.
Modern architecture and accomplishment methods involving advice Technology such as the accepting of Computer Aided architecture (CAD) and Computer Aided Accomplishment (CAM)
Systematic Affection ascendancy such as ISO 9000 principles
Open Architecture Abstraction i.e accepting the amalgam applications, and adjustable to acclimation and Modular Coordination (MC)
Figure The Characteristics of Architecture System
Sources: Adopted from Abdullah M.R., 2009
The use of IBS accept assorted advantages such as the abridgement annex of adopted workers, beneath wastage, beneath aggregate of architecture materials, added ecology and architecture armpit cleanliness and bigger affection ascendancy analyze to accustomed method.
These advantages additionally advance a safer and added organised architecture site, and abate the achievement time of construction. Abounding world-class Malaysian developers accept called IBS over the accustomed methods for important projects such as the Petronas Twin Towers, Putrajaya, KL Sentral, and KLIA. (IBS Roadmap, 2003 -2010)
Even so, the accepting akin of IBS in architecture is still low. From a assay conducted by CIDB Malaysia, the accepting akin of IBS in the bounded architecture industry stands at alone 15% (IBS Assay 2003). The aboriginal efforts of the Government to animate the use of IBS in the architecture breadth has yet to accumulate a adequate response, and this breadth is still practicing accustomed architecture methods that accept accurate time and afresh to be wasteful, alarming and messy. Relatively, the low labour bulk in this country is the basis annual of the industry declining to ameliorate and actuality conceited with the accustomed akin of productivity, affection and safety. (IBS Roadmap, 2003 -2010)
Moreover, according to the bi-weekly the brilliant 2009 declared that Jamilus explained that IBS was a architecture address in which apparatus were bogus in a controlled ambiance (on-site, off-site), transported, positioned and accumulated into a anatomy with basal added armpit work. Beside that, out of 1,400 contractors in Johor, there alone 4% of it are application this systems. Moreover, he said that back year 2008, there alone 51 contractors in the accompaniment accept been appear to use the IBS arrangement in their architecture projects and the cardinal were accustomed advance in time. (The star, 2009)
The accepting of IBS is not new in the Malaysia architecture industry. The abstraction application IBS in Malaysia was aboriginal purpose during the aboriginal 60’s back the Minister apartment and Bounded Government visited several European countries and evaluated their architecture arrangement performance. At the time, the government makes a big accommodation to accord a try on a two pilot projects application IBS concept. The aboriginal project, Pekeliling Flat was complete forth Jalan Pekeliling with architecture of 7 blocks of 17 storey flats, and 4 blocks of 4 storey flats absolute about 3,000 units of low bulk flats and 40 storey boutique lot and this activity application ample console automated prefabricated systems. On the another hand, the additional activity was congenital in Penang with the architecture of 6 blocks of 17 storey flats and 3 blocks of 18 storey flats absolute 3,699 units and 66 boutique lots forth the Jalan Rifle Ambit and this activity was application the French Estiot Arrangement (Din, 1984).
Even admitting the aboriginal accomplishing IBS was not acknowledged due to the abortion to accumulate aural bulk admiration but there are some acknowledged accepting too. Amid the cogent projects that apparatus IBS are including KL Sentral. KL Convention Centre, KLIA, etc
Following is the Acknowledged implemented of IBS throughout Malaysia (CIDB Malaysia, 2003)
Year 2007 – Stormwater Management and Road Adit (SMART Tunnel), Kuala Lumpur
– The Spring Shopping Mall, Kuching, Sarawak
Year 2006 – Kuching International Airport, Kuching, Sarawak
– Persada Johor International Convention Centre, Johor Bahru
Year 2005 – Serdang Hospital, Serdang, Selangor
– The Curve, Mutiara Damansara, Selangor
Year 2001 – Kuala Lumpur Sentral ( KL Sentral), Kuala Lumpur
– Likas Stadium, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Year 1998 – Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), Sepang, Selangor
– Malawati Indoor Satdium, Bukit Jalil, Selangor
Year 1997 – Petronas Twin Tower, Kuala Lumpur
– Bukit Jalil, Bukit Jalil, Salangor
Year 1984 – Daybumi Complex, Kuala Lumpur
Year 1981 – Aerial end bungalows and low bulk houses throughout Selangor
There are some several advantages application IBS (MCRJ, 2009)
The Government aimed to accomplish 100 percent accepting of IBS and to abate to 15 percent or about 50,000 of adopted workers in the architecture industry by 2010. With the accustomed adopted workers accretion 227,000, the remittances of the adopted workers amounted to about 7.5 billion. It is accustomed that the Government would be able to abate the remittances with the abounding accomplishing of IBS. (Bernama.com, 2006)
IBS is a alignment whereby a bounded architecture industry is apprenticed appear the accepting of an chip and auspicious key players in the architecture industry to aftermath and advance pre-fabricated and accumulation accumulation of the architecture at their assignment sites. This will advice to enhance the ability of architecture process, accepting a college productivity, quality, time and bulk saving. (CIDB, 2004)
IBS promises animated levels of ability throughout the industry, from manufacturers, installers, engineers, planners, designers, and developers. The allowances of IBS will ultimately aftermath bigger articles for the citizenry (CIDB, 2003)
The IBS, which enables on-site prefabricated or pre-cast architecture apparatus bogus at factories offers basal wastage, beneath armpit materials, cleaner and neater environment, controlled quality, and lower absolute architecture bulk (CIDB, 2003). For example, the repetitive use of arrangement formwork bogus up of steel, aluminium, etc and axle provides ample bulk accumulation (Bing et al. 2001).
An industrialised architecture arrangement basal produces college affection of apparatus accessible through accurate another of materials, use of avant-garde technology and austere affection affirmation ascendancy (Din,1984)
Prefabrication takes abode at a centralised factory, appropriately abbreviation labour claim at site. This is accurate abnormally back aerial bulk of mechanisation is complex (Warszawski, 1999)
An industrialised architecture arrangement allows for faster architecture time because casting of caked aspect at branch and foundation assignment at armpit can action simultaneously. This provides beforehand activity of the building, appropriately abbreviation absorption acquittal or basal outlays (Waleed et al., 2003)
Construction operation is not afflicted by adverse acclimate action because prefabricated basal is done in a branch controlled ambiance (Waleed et al., 2003)
An industrialised architecture arrangement allows fexibility in architectural architecture in adjustment to minimise the boredom of repetitive facades (Warszawski, 1999). An industrialised architecture arrangement provides adaptability in the architecture of caked aspect as able-bodied as in architecture so that altered systems may aftermath their own different architecture architecture methods (Zaini, 2000)
IBS can alter the accustomed architecture arrangement which is labour aggressive However, back the aboriginal activity of IBS not able-bodied accustomed by architecture parties because of abort to accord with the risks such abortion of accumulate aural the bulk estimate. For example, the aboriginal activity incurred 8.1 % college costs than a agnate architecture that application accustomed architecture method, while the additional activity was 2.6% lower than the cost. Both projects additionally completed in 27 months in appellation of analyze to the architecture acceleration but are across-the-board the time of set up the recasting factories too. Back appear to the quality, the accustomed adjustment seems accept bigger affection than IBS. In conclusion, there is a aggressive with accustomed architecture method.
Even admitting IBS is adequate to apparatus due to its advantages but the accomplishing of accepting akin is still actual low. According to Waleed et. al. (2003), the accustomed accord of all the stakeholders of architecture in Malaysia is that, the IBS accomplishing in Malaysian architecture architecture industry is still actual low compared to the accustomed methods. This is due to several reasons(MCRJ, 2009):
Wide swings in houses demand, aerial absorption bulk and bargain labour cost, accomplish it difficult to absolve ample basal investment. At present there is an affluence of bargain adopted workers in Malaysia and contractors adopt to use labour accelerated accustomed architecture arrangement because it is far easier to lay off workers during baggy period. The bread-and-butter allowances of IBS are not able-bodied accurate in Malaysia and the accomplished adventures adumbrated IBS is added big-ticket due to angry antagonism from accustomed architecture system.
Fully prefabricated architecture arrangement requires aerial architecture precision. Malaysian labour force still abridgement of accomplished workers in IBS implementation.
The architecture industry is actual fragmented, assorted and involves abounding parties. Accord is appropriate in the use of IBS during planning stage.
Lack of Assay & Development (R&D) in the breadth of atypical architecture arrangement that uses bounded materials. Majorities of IBS in Malaysia are alien from developed countries, appropriately active up the architecture cost. Engineering degrees in bounded universities hardly advise about the architecture and architecture of IBS.
The use of IBS in Japan and Sweden are so acknowledged due to aerial affection and aerial affluence but it sis the adverse in Malaysia. Previous projects complete with IBS abstraction were of low affection and aerial architecture cost.
Due to the abridgement of allurement and advance from government in the use of IBS, abounding abounding architects and engineers are still blind of the basal elements of IBS such as modular co-ordination.
An IBS arrangement can alone be adequate to practitioners if its above advantages are admired compared to the accustomed system. However, up to date, there is bare acknowledging affirmation to actualize the allowances of IBS system. It is therefore, arguable that the accomplishing of IBS is decidedly hindered by abridgement of accurate advice (Badir et al., 2002)
Standardization of architecture elements faces attrition from the architecture industry due to artful catch and bread-and-butter reason. One adequate archetype of this is back a 300mm blubbery modular connected attic slab has to be acclimated although a 260mm blubbery attic slab can accomplish the agnate structural performance. This after-effects diffusion of actual (Waleed et al., 2003)
1. IBS aboriginal time use by DBKL in basement activity of body a arch Jalan Dewan Bahasa-Jalan Hang Tuah because of time extenuative and abate cartage jam. This additionally can accord annual for those accepting that about the academy area. Beside that, about 75 % of IBS accept been use to ahead any botheration that not complete according to the schedule.
Ibs additionally can save time, abate labour and armpit actual clean, tidy and accept quality. Mostly IBS is use for building. This activity is the aboriginal basement activity application IBS. Moreover, the blow of the activity will be application IBS.
Nowadays in Malaysia, IBS still actuality developed and activated in new building. Beggarly while, the accomplishing akin is still actual low what has ahead by the government. The purpose of IBS is actual bright as an another for accustomed adjustment and additionally reduces the annex of labour, and access the accomplishment in time, cost, and quality. The Government of Malaysia advance IBS basal to the architecture industrials.
In the abstract assay accept accepted that there are abounding allowances of IBS but still is low accepting amid contractors and the accomplishing of application IBS akin is still actual low.
Research alignment explains methods that acclimated in the assay study, what abstracts accept been collected, what adjustment is adopted, why accurate address of allegory abstracts used; all of these will be answered in this chapter.
The quantitative access will be agitated out in this assay and the assay assay adjustment will be acclimated in this research. This breadth of abstraction will focus on the adjustment of the abstraction to accomplish the cold of this research.
The assay has been called to assay the factors, and bulk of acceptance, usage, advantages and animadversion of accepting in IBS. This adjustment is extenuative in agreement of time and bulk as able-bodied as acceptable as it can distributes to ample bulk of acknowledging but the accessible additionally did not get accept any acknowledge from acknowledging and the affection of the advice accumulate from assay ability inconsistent and inaccurate and additionally charge to be anxiously analysis.
Figure 3.1 shows the methods that be agitated out in adjustment to accomplish the cold of this abstraction and followed by the annual of anniversary step.
Figure Adjustment of Research
For the purpose of designing the question, the assay objectives and abstract assay had been taken into annual to advance to differentiate assorted issues, capacity and annual to actualize the questions in the questionnaire.
The quantitative assay will be use in this study. Afore assay to be aftermath out, there should be appropriate to assay thoroughly to the abstract assay and the assay aim and objectives. This is to accomplish abiding that there will not be out of affair from the research, this is the antecedent date for formulating question. Secondly, aftermath catechism that can accomplish aim and objectives and accompanying to abstract review. The third date is to accomplish the assay accessible to accept and acceptable with absolute but abbreviate enough, no arch catechism and bifold question. This will accomplish respondents can ample up calmly and faster due to the achievability that the respondents are busy.
220.127.116.11 The Rationale of Assay Design
The aboriginal allotment is ask about the accomplishments or adventures a