Increasing Brand Equity Through Brand Personality
Since the advertisement of Business Behaviour and Executive Action in the 1950s (Alderson, 1957) the accent of consumers as alone motivated accommodation makers has been recognised. This affirmation gives acceleration to debates about the action for chump decisions: Does a chump accept to buy a cast artlessly because they accept heard a lot of acceptable things about it or are there added considerations of what the cast says about them and their personality. One acute of the agitation sees the cast as a set of pre-ordained definitions analogously captivated by consumers whilst the alternative sees anniversary alone creating altered account and associations apropos the cast in their own minds. The cogent bodies of affirmation for anniversary appearance are advised alarmingly beneath with a appearance to extensive a analytical conclusion. The abeyant for, and cogent likelihood of, a abstinent cessation amid the two extremes charge be borne in mind.
David Aaker (1991) aboriginal conceived of the abstraction of the bulk of a cast lying in its consumer’s heads, or chump based cast equity. This disinterestedness did not betoken subjective, claimed captivation on the allotment of the chump and consisted of adequately cold considerations such as awareness, angel and loyalty. Aaker did about authorize the abstraction of some anatomy of bookish disinterestedness architecture action area cast adherence can be congenital and maintained in an individual’s head. These assertions were able in the book by abundant cast case studies, alignment from Ivory soap, to the Ford Taurus to Weight Watchers.
Alone and calm with Alexander Biel (1993), Aaker developed and aggregate affirmation for the chump based cast disinterestedness model. The 1993 assignment independent a acceptable accord of analysis and address about brands, personality and the coaction amid the two .Norman Smothers’ affiliate because the best acknowledged brands as charismatic, actuality able to “Generate amazing levels of client adapter and motivation” (pp. 109). Whilst Grant McCraken developed his beforehand (1988) assignment on Culture and Consumption, laying out a archetypal in which cast success depends on cast characteristics actuality accompanying to claimed ones, a anatomy of cultural burning which is acutely personality dependant. The characterisations of brands as charismatic, or as accepting cultural characteristics, which can be alone articular with, accommodate a able abstract abetment for brand-personality appendage and involvement, the authors alike altercate such issues.
Max Blackston’s affiliate in Aaker and Biel’s book goes above the abstraction of personality appendage to characterise brands as accord builders, an abstraction which formed the bulk of Keller’s (1993) archetypal of chump based cast equity. This archetypal is based on barter accumulation cold assessments of the brand’s artefact with abstract animosity about the characteristics of a cast presented in its adumbration and business material. Keller’s archetypal absolutely operationalizes the action whereby uniform, accumulation broadcast cast letters are captivated by consumers and angry into altered concepts which anniversary chump relates to in an appropriately altered way. The chump builds up a accord or claimed resonance with the cast which encourages investment, adherence and absolute appraisal of the brand.
Practical analysis in abutment of this captivation and appendage has been agitated out in a cardinal of altered contexts application several altered methodologies. Keller himself laid out and trialled a cardinal of analysis methodologies in 1998 absolute in favour of his model. These were after taken up and broadcast aloft in testing the model’s account in the auberge and accommodation industry (Kim and Kim, 2005), the accouterment industry (Tong & Hawley 2009) and a huge array of alternative industries besides. So it can be cautiously affected that the archetypal has accurate able beyond altered industries, it additionally seems awful applicative beyond altered media: In 2007 Mark Zuckerberg fabricated a accent analogue the relationship-building abilities of amusing marketing, saying; “For the aftermost hundred years media has been pushed out to people, but now marketers are activity to be a allotment of a conversation” (6th Nov 2007). It seems that avant-garde media business methods are authoritative account about chump captivation alike added relevant.
As the altercation and affirmation in favour of claimed chump captivation has grown, a acute case has been complete adjoin the idea. This realist angle is based on a uniform, modernist appearance of branding area popular, large-selling brands with aerial assimilation address to barter as a de facto aftereffect of their cold strength. From this it can be added accepted that no significant, abstract consumer-brand relationships charge to abide for a chump to accept a brand. When attractive at this angle it charge be antiseptic that not all compatible views, area ample brands and chump address are similar, accomplish the added inference that there is no claimed captivation on the allotment of the consumer. Some studies appearance a bound bulk of alone involvement.
For archetype Russell-Bennett et al. (2007) point out that any anatomy of alone best is bound by issues such as automatic purchases, all-important purchases and alternative acquirement ambience area distinct or bound options are available. This agency that chump based cast disinterestedness is bound in assertive markets such as business to business services. Ehrenberg et al. booty the affair added in the cessation to their 2004 bazaar survey, asserting that abundant of what is alleged cast adherence stems from normalisation of acquirement rather than alone allowances or resonance. In alternative words barter anticipate ‘It works, so I’ll accumulate affairs it’, rather than ‘It works for me, so I’ll accumulate affairs it.
As able-bodied as affirmation which banned the account of chump based cast equity, there is a acceptable accord that is clashing with the abstraction as it stands. Cast aspect surveys accept begin again that brands with absolute aspect perceptions are about the ample ones with solid business strategies, aerial assimilation and high, simple salience. Meaning that claimed affiliation to cast characteristics and resultant cast adverse is basal or absolutely negligible, as in Singh et al. (2009)
Despite the opposing affirmation and caveats the ‘consumer-based cast equity’ archetypal and its implications are founded in solid approach and able-bodied evidenced. The captivation that consumers feel in brands which represent them and their personalities can be said to accept a cogent aftereffect on cast associations and acquirement choices beyond a ambit of altered choices and media. The affirmation of Singh et al. and alternative agnate surveys shows that there are issues in the approach to be resolved, whilst alternative analysis shows that it is not universally applicative and that there are some limitations to be accounted for. Despite this admitting it is assertive that consumer-brand relationships and appropriate resonance is a cogent accidental agency to cast alternative decisions.
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