Imam Mosque Isfahan
Imam Mosque, is a abbey in Isfahan, Iran continuing in south ancillary of Naghsh-i Jahan Square. Congenital during the Safavid period, it is an accomplished archetype of Islamic architectonics of Iran, and admired as one of the masterpieces of Persian Architecture. The Shah Abbey of Esfahan is one of the abiding masterpieces of architectonics in Iran. It is registered, forth with the Naghsh-i Jahan Square, as a UNESCO Apple Heritage Site. Its architectonics began in 1611, and its brightness is mainly due to the adorableness of its seven-colour circuitous tiles and calligraphic inscriptions.
The abbey is one of the treasures featured on About the Apple in 80 Treasures presented by the architectonics historian Dan Cruickshank. The abbey is depicted on the about-face of the Iranian 20,000 rials banknote.  History Shah AbbasCopper block by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. 1600–1602. In 1598, back Shah Abbas absitively to move the basic of his Persian authority from the northwestern burghal of Qazvin to the axial burghal of Isfahan, he accomplished what would become one of the greatest programmes in Persian history; the complete remaking of this age-old city.
By allotment the axial burghal of Isfahan, fertilized by the Zayandeh River ("The life-giving river"), lying as an haven of acute agronomics in the bosom of a all-inclusive breadth of barren landscape, he both distanced his basic from any approaching assaults by the Ottomans and the Uzbeks, and at the aforementioned time acquired added ascendancy over the Persian Gulf, which had afresh become an important trading access for the Dutch and British East India Companies. 2]
The accomplished artist of this colossal assignment of burghal planning was Shaykh Bahai (Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili), who focused the programme on two key actualization of Shah Abbas's adept plan: the Chahar Bagh avenue, belted at either ancillary by all the arresting institutions of the city, such as the residences of all adopted dignitaries, and the Naqsh-e Jahan Aboveboard ("Examplar of the World").  Prior to the Shah's ascendance to power, Persia had a decentralized ability structure, in which altered institutions battled for power, including both the aggressive (the Qizilbash) and governors of the altered ambit authoritative up the empire.
Shah Abbas basic to attenuate this political structure, and the amusement of Isfahan, as a Grand basic of Persia, was an important footfall in centralizing the power.  The adeptness of the square, or Maidan, was that, by architectonics it, Shah Abbas would accumulate the three capital apparatus of ability in Persia in his own backyard; the ability of the clergy, represented by the Masjed-e Shah, the ability of the merchants, represented by the The Administrative Bazaar, and of course, the ability of the Shah himself, residing in the Ali Qapu Palace.
The acme jewel in this activity was the Masjed-e Shah, which would alter the abundant beforehand Jameh Abbey in administering the Friday prayers. To accomplish this, the Shah Abbey was complete not alone with eyes of grandeur, accepting the better accomplished in the city, but Shaykh Bahai additionally planned the architectonics of two religious schools and a winter abbey clamped at either ancillary of it. 5] Because of the Shah's admiration to accept the architectonics completed during his lifetime, shortcuts were taken in the construction; for example, the Shah abandoned warnings by one of the architects Abu'l Qasim apropos the crisis of subsidence in the foundations of the mosque, and he apprenticed advanced with the construction.  The artist accepted to accept been justified, as in 1662 the architectonics had to abide above repairs.  Also, the Persians invented a new actualization of asphalt circuitous (the Seven-colour) that was both cheaper and quicker, and that eventually acceleration up the construction.
This job was accomplished done by some of the best craftsmen in the country, and the accomplished assignment was supervised by Adept calligrapher, Reza Abbasi. In the end, the final touches on the abbey were fabricated in backward 1629, few months afterwards the afterlife of the Shah. Also, abounding historians accept wondered about the appropriate acclimatization of The Royal aboveboard (The Maidan). Unlike best barrio of importance, this aboveboard did not lie in alignment with Mecca, so that back entering the entrance-portal of the mosque, one makes, about after realising it, the half-right turn, which enables the capital cloister aural to face Mecca.
Donald Wilber gives the best believable account to this; the eyes of Shaykh Bahai was for the abbey to be arresting wherever in the maydan a actuality was situated. Had the arbor of the maydan coincided with the arbor of Mecca, the accomplished of the abbey would accept been buried from actualization by the aerial access aperture accomplished to it. By creating an bend amid them, the two genitalia of the building, the access aperture and the dome, are in absolute actualization for anybody aural the aboveboard to admire.  Architectonics and architectonics The access iwan with its aerial bluff Architectonics – the four-iwan style
The Safavids founded the Shah Abbey as a approach through which they could accurate themselves with their abundant architectural techniques. The four-iwan format, accomplished by the Seljuq dynasty, and affiliated by the Safavids, durably accustomed the courtyard bluff of such mosques, with the aerial gateways at every side, as added important than the absolute architectonics itself.  During Seljuq rule, as Islamic mysticism was on the acceleration and Persians were attractive for a new blazon of architectural architectonics that emphasized an Iranian identity, the four-iwan adjustment took form.
The Persians already had a affluent architectural legacy, and the audible actualization of the iwan was absolutely taken from earlier, Sassanid palace-designs, such as The Palace of Ardashir. Thus, Islamic architectonics witnessed the actualization of a new cast that differed from the hypostyle architectonics of the early, Arab mosques, such as the Umayyad Mosque. The four-iwan architectonics about took the anatomy of a aboveboard shaped, axial courtyard with ample entrances at anniversary side, giving the consequence of actuality gateways to the airy world.
Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841. The painting shows the capital courtyard, with two of the iwans. The iwan to the appropriate is topped by the goldast, which in abounding Persian mosques had replaced the action of the minarets. Continuing in the accessible square, or Maidan, the entrance-iwan (gateway) to the abbey takes the anatomy of a semicircle, akin a recessed accomplished and barometer 27 meters in height, the accomplished affected by azure accessory and busy with affluent stalactite tilework, a audible affection of Persian Islamic architecture.
At the abandon acceleration two minarets, 42 meters high, topped by beautifully carved, board balconies with stalactites active bottomward the sides. Adept calligrapher of the Royal court, Reza Abbasi, inscribed the date of the groundbreaking of the construction, and besides it, verses praising Muhammad and Ali.  In the middle, in advanced of the entrance, stood a baby basin and a comatose abode for the horses, and axial the worshippers begin a ample marble basin set on a pedestal, abounding with beginning baptize or lemonade.
This basin still stands as it has for four hundred years, but no best serves the action of accouterment refreshments to the worshipers at the Friday prayers. Back casual through the access portal, one alcove the capital courtyard, centered about a ample pool. The two gateways (iwans) on the abandon leads ones absorption to the capital aperture at the far end, the alone one with minarets, and abaft it the aerial dome, with its bright ornamentation. The audible affection of any abbey is the minaret, and the Masjed-e Shah has four.
Still, in Persian mosques, alpine minarets were advised clashing for the alarm to prayer, and they would add an aedicule, accepted in Persian as a goldast (bouquet) for this accurate purpose, which in the Masjed-e Shah stands on top of the west iwan.  The Religious Barrio Autogenous actualization of the winter mosque, congenital as a archetypal hypostyle mosque. Inside, the acoustic backdrop and reflections at the axial point beneath the accomplished is an agreeable absorption for abounding visitors, as the adeptness of the architects, back creating the dome, enables the Imam to allege with a chastened articulation and still be heard acutely by anybody axial the building.
The mihrab, a ample marble book ten anxiety alpine and three anxiety advanced on the southwestern wall, adumbrated the administration of Mecca. Above it the Shah's men had placed a gold-encrusted buffet of acquiesce wood. It captivated two relics: a Quran, said to accept been affected by Imam Reza, and the blood-soaked bathrobe of Imam Hussain. Although never displayed, the bathrobe was said to accept bewitched powers; aerial on the end of a pike in the action field, the acceptance was that it could beating an enemy.  From the capital courtyard, the iwan pointing to east independent a religious school, or madrasa.
It contains an inscription by calligrapher Muhammad Riza Imami praising the Fourteen Immaculate Ones (i. e. , Muhammad, Fatimah and The Twelve Imams). The iwan in the western bend leads to addition madrasa and a winter mosque. In its own, clandestine courtyard, one can acquisition the acclaimed alarm fabricated by Shaykh Bahai. The accomplished As with iwans, the addition of domes into Islamic architectural designs was done by the Persians. The oldest such architectonics is the Grand Abbey of Zavareh, dating 1135. 13] The Persians had complete such domes for centuries before, and some of the ancient accepted examples of all-embracing domes in the Apple are begin in Iran, an archetype actuality the The Maiden Castle. So, the Safavid Muslims adopted heavily from pre-Islamic ability in dome-building, i. e. the use of squinches to actualize a alteration from an octagonal structure, into a annular dome. To awning up these alteration zones, the Persians congenital affluent networks of stalactites. Thus, came additionally the addition of this affection into Persian mosques. A renaissance in Persian accomplished architectonics was accomplished by the Safavids.
The audible affection of Persian domes, which separates them from those domes created in the Christian apple or the Ottoman and Mughal empires, was the bright tiles, with which they covered the exoteric of their domes, as they would on the interior. These domes anon numbered dozens in Isfahan, and the distinct, blue-colored actualization would boss the skyline of the city. Reflecting the ablaze of the sun, these domes appeared like bright azure gem and could be apparent from afar abroad by travelers afterward the Silk alley through Persia.
Reaching 53 meters in height, the accomplished of the Masjed-e Shah would become the tallest in the burghal back it was accomplished in 1629. It was congenital as a double-shelled dome, with 14 meters pning amid the two layers, and comatose on an octagonal accomplished chamber.  Art Circuitous detail, as begin in the Shah Mosque, assuming Quranic calligraphy accounting in Thuluth calligraphy (photo taken at the Lotfallah Mosque). Autogenous actualization of the aerial accomplished covered with checkered tiles, advised to accord the beholder a faculty of adorable transcendence.
The Masjed-e Shah was a huge structure, said to accommodate 18 actor artery and 475,000 tiles, accepting amount the Shah 60,000 tomans to build.  It active the new haft rangi (seven-colour) actualization of asphalt mosaic. In beforehand Iranian mosques the tiles had been fabricated of faience mosaic, a apathetic and big-ticket action area tiny pieces are cut from connected tiles and accumulated to actualize intricate designs. In the haft rangi method, artisans put on all the colors at once, again accursed the tile. Cheaper and quicker, the new action accustomed a added ambit of colors to be used, creating richer patterns, sweeter to the eye. 7] According to Jean Chardin, it was the low clamminess in the air in Persia that fabricated the colors so abundant added active and the contrasts amid the altered patterns so abundant stronger than what could be accomplished in Europe, area the colors of tiles angry addled and absent its appearance. 
Still, best abreast and avant-garde writers attention the asphalt assignment of the Masjed-e Shah as inferior in both affection and adorableness compared to those accoutrement the Lotfallah Mosque, the closing generally referred to by abreast Persian historians, such as Iskandar Munshi, as the abbey of abundant abstention and beauty. 18] The architects additionally active a abundant accord of marble, which they aggregate from a marble quarry in adjacent Ardestan.  Throughout the building, from the access aperture and to the capital building, the lower two meters of the walls are covered with biscuit marble, with beautifully carved poles at anniversary ancillary of every aperture and carved inscriptions throughout. Above this akin begins the circuitous tiles that awning the blow of the building. The access aperture of the abbey displays the finest asphalt adornment in the building.
It is absolutely accomplished in asphalt circuitous in a abounding palette of seven colors (dark Persian blue, ablaze Turkish blue, white, black, yellow, blooming and bisquit). A advanced inscription bandage with religious texts accounting in white thuluth calligraphy on a aphotic dejected arena frames the iwan. The tiles in the Masjed-e Shah are predominantly blue, except in the covered halls of the building, which were after revetted in tiles of cooler, yellowy-green shades.  Adverse northwards, the mosque’s aperture to the Maidan is usually beneath adumbration but back it has been coated with beaming asphalt mosaics it glitters with a predominantly dejected ablaze of amazing intensity.
The beautification of the structures is absolutely traditional, as it recaptures the archetypal Iranian motifs of allegorical address for abundance and effectiveness. Aural the counterbalanced arcades and the counterbalanced iwans, one is drowned by the amaranthine after-effects of intricate applique in aureate chicken and aphotic blue, which absolve the beholder with a amplitude of centralized serenity. Architects The architects of the abbey are appear to be the afterward masters: * Muhibb Ali Beg (Supervisor of the project, and additionally the administrative treasurer) * Ostad Shaykh Bahai (Chief architect) * Ostad Ali Beg Isfahani * Ostad Badi al-Zaman Ostad Abu'l Qasim Measurements The anchorage of the abbey measures 27 m (89 ft) high, crowned with two minarets 42 m (138 ft) tall. The Abbey is amidst with four iwans and arcades. All the walls are bizarre with seven-color circuitous tile. The best arresting iwan of the abbey is the one adverse the Qibla barometer 33 m (108 ft) high. Abaft this iwan is a amplitude which is roofed with the better accomplished in the burghal at 52 m (171 ft) height. The accomplished is bifold layered. The accomplished of the architectonics measures 100 by 130 metres (330 ft × 430 ft), with the axial courtyard barometer 70 by 70 metres (230 ft × 230 ft).
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