Chapter 7: Review Question : 3 3Q) How do the Internet and Internet technology work, and how do they abutment advice and e-business? Ans) The Internet is a accepted arrangement of networks that uses the client/server archetypal of accretion and the TCP/IP arrangement advertence model. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a altered numeric IP address. The Area Name Arrangement (DNS) converts IP addresses to added convenient area names. Accepted Internet behavior are accustomed by organizations and government bodies, such as the Internet Architectonics Board (IAB) and the Apple Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Define the Internet, call how it works, and explain how it provides business value. The Internet has become the world’s best extensive, accessible advice arrangement that now rivals the all-around blast arrangement in ability and range. Best homes and baby businesses affix to the Internet by subscribing to an Internet account e provider. An Internet account provider (ISP) is a bartering alignment with a abiding affiliation to the Internet that sells acting admission to retail subscribers. •Explain how the Area Name Arrangement (DNS) and IP acclamation arrangement work.
It would be abundantly difficult for Internet users to bethink strings of 12 numbers; the Area Name Arrangement (DNS) converts area names to IP addresses. The area name is the English-like name that corresponds to the altered 32-bit numeric IP abode for anniversary computer affiliated to the Internet. DNS servers advance a database absolute IP addresses mapped to their agnate area names. To admission a computer on the Internet, users charge alone specify its area name. DNS has a hierarchical structure. At the top of the DNS bureaucracy is the basis domain.
The adolescent area of the basis is alleged a top-level domain, and the adolescent area of a top-level area is alleged is a second-level domain. The Internet is based on the TCP/IP networking agreement suite. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a altered Internet Agreement (IP) address, which currently is a 32-bit cardinal represented by four strings of numbers alignment from 0 to 255 afar by periods. When a user sends a account to addition user on the Internet, the account is aboriginal addle into packets application the TCP protocol. Anniversary packet contains its destination address.
The packets are again beatific from the applicant to the arrangement server and from there on to as abounding another servers as all-important to admission at a specific computer with a accustomed address. At the destination address, the packets are reassembled into the aboriginal message. •List and call the arch Internet services. A applicant computer abutting to the Internet has admission to a array of services. These casework accommodate e-mail, cyberbanking altercation groups, chatting and burning messaging, Telnet, File Transfer Agreement (FTP), and the Web.
E-mail: E-mail enables letters to be exchanged from computer to computer, with capabilities for acquisition letters to assorted recipients, forwarding messages, and adhering argument abstracts or multimedia files to messages. Although some organizations accomplish their own centralized cyberbanking mail systems, best e-mail today is beatific through the Internet. The costs of e-mail is far lower than agnate voice, postal, or brief commitment costs, authoritative the Internet a actual bargain and accelerated communications medium. Chatting:
Many workplaces accept advisers communicating interactively application babble or burning messaging tools. Chatting enables two or added bodies who are accompanying affiliated to the Internet to authority live, alternate conversations. Babble systems now abutment articulation and video babble as able-bodied as accounting conversations. Abounding online retail businesses action babble casework on their Web sites to allure visitors, to animate echo purchases, and to advance chump service. Burning Messaging: Burning messaging is a blazon of babble account that enables participants to actualize their own clandestine babble channels.
The burning messaging arrangement alerts the user whenever addition on his or her clandestine account is online so that the user can admit a babble affair with another individuals. Burning messaging systems for consumers accommodate Yahoo! Messenger, Google Talk, and Windows Alive Messenger. Companies anxious with aegis use proprietary burning messaging systems such as Lotus Sametime. News Groups: Newsgroups are accepted altercation groups acquaint on Internet cyberbanking account boards on which bodies allotment advice and account on a authentic topic, such as radiology or bedrock bands.
Anyone can column letters on these account boards for others to read. Abounding bags of groups abide that altercate about all believable topics. File Transfer Protocol(FTP): Transferring files from one computer to addition computer. These files can be transferred through internet by application advice software’s like chatting, burning messaging and many. Web: The Web is the best accustomed Internet service. It’s a arrangement with universally accustomed standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and announcement advice application client/server architecture.
Web pages are formatted application hypertext with anchored links that affix abstracts to one addition and that additionally articulation pages to another objects, such as sound, video, or action files. When you bang a clear and a video blow plays, you accept clicked a hyperlink. •Define and call VoIP and basic clandestine networks, and explain how they accommodate amount to businesses. The Internet has additionally become a accustomed belvedere for articulation manual and accumulated networking. Articulation over IP (VoIP) technology delivers articulation advice in agenda anatomy application packet switching, alienated the tolls answerable by bounded and long-distance blast networks.
Calls that would frequently be transmitted over accessible blast networks biking over the accumulated arrangement based on the Internet Protocol, or the accessible Internet. Articulation calls can be fabricated and accustomed with a computer able with a microphone and speakers or with a VoIP-enabled telephone. Although there are up-front investments appropriate for an IP buzz system, VoIP can abate advice and arrangement administration costs by 20 to 30 percent. A Basic Clandestine Arrangement (VPN) is a secure, encrypted, clandestine arrangement that has been configured aural a accessible arrangement to booty advantage of the economies of cale and administration accessories of ample networks, such as the Internet). A VPN provides your close with secure, encrypted communications at a abundant lower amount than the aforementioned capabilities offered by acceptable non-Internet providers who use their clandestine networks to defended communications. VPNs additionally accommodate a arrangement basement for accumulation articulation and abstracts networks. Several aggressive protocols are acclimated to assure abstracts transmitted over the accessible Internet, including Point-to-Point Tunneling Agreement (PPTP). •List and call another agency of analysis advice on the Web.
The assorted another agency of analysis advice on the Web are namely: Chase Engines: Chase engines attack to break the botheration of award advantageous advice on the Web about instantly, and, arguably, they are the “killer app” of the Internet era. Today’s chase engines can analyze through HTML files, files of Microsoft Office applications, PDF files, as able-bodied as audio, video, and angel files. There are hundreds of altered chase engines in the world, but the all-inclusive majority of chase after-effects are supplied by three top providers: Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft’s Bing chase engine. Able Abettor Arcade Bots : Arcade bots use able abettor software for analytic the Internet for arcade information. Arcade bots such as MySimon or Google Product Chase can advice bodies absorbed in authoritative a acquirement clarify and retrieve advice about articles of interest, appraise aggressive articles according to belief the users accept established, and accommodate with vendors for amount and commitment terms.
Many of these arcade agents chase the Web for appraisement and availability of articles defined by the user and allotment a account of sites that advertise the account forth with appraisement advice and a acquirement link. Web-Blogs: A blog, the accustomed appellation for a Weblog, is a claimed Web armpit that about contains a alternation of archival entries (newest to oldest) by its author, and links to accompanying Web pages. The blog may accommodate a blog cycle (a accumulating of links to another blogs) and trackbacks (a account of entries in another blogs that accredit to a column on the aboriginal blog Wiki’s:
Wikis, in contrast, are collaborative Web sites area visitors can add, delete, or adapt agreeable on the site, including the assignment of antecedent authors. Wiki software about provides a arrangement that defines blueprint and elements accepted to all pages, displays user-editable software affairs code, and again renders the agreeable into an HTML-based folio for affectation in a Web browser. Amusing Networking: Amusing networking sites accredit users to body communities of accompany and able colleagues.
Members anniversary about actualize a “profile,” a Web folio for announcement photos, videos, MP3 files, and text, and again allotment these profiles with others on the account articular as their “friends” or contacts. Amusing networking sites are awful interactive, action real-time user control, await on user-generated content, and are broadly based on amusing accord and administration of agreeable and opinions. •Compare Web 2. 0 and Web 3. 0. Web 2. 0 facilitates alternation amid web users and sites, so it allows users to collaborate added advisedly with anniversary other.
Web 2. 0 encourages participation, collaboration, and advice sharing. This web 2. 0 is additionally alleged as “Second bearing Apple Wide Web. ” Examples of Web 2. 0 applications are Youtube, Wiki, Flickr, Facebook, and so on. This is additionally termed as ' read-write web '. Web 3. 0 is additionally alleged as “Semantic web” which agency web for the future. In Web 3. 0, computers can adapt advice like bodies and intelligently accomplish and administer advantageous agreeable tailored to the needs of users. Web 3. 0 is accustomed as the “Third bearing of Apple Wide Web”.
With the advice of Web 3. 0, web agreeable was calmly agitated in the anatomy of accustomed language. It additionally abide of micro formats, accustomed accent search, advocacy agents which are frequently accustomed as AI i. e. Artificial Intelligence. One archetype of Web 3. 0 is Tivo, a agenda video recorder. Its recording affairs can chase the web and apprehend what it finds to you based on your preferences. Reference: Kenneth C. Laudon , Jane P. Laudon -- Administration Advice System: managing the agenda close 12th Edition. [Page numbers: 251 – 274]
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