How to Use References in Your Essays
This is a quick adviser to the altered systems of referencing you ability be asked to use. Normally you will accept to use alone one arrangement during your bookish course, but it’s advantageous to be accustomed with alternative styles. This adviser does not awning all the accessible referencing systems, nor the variations of each, so seek added description from your administration or the abounding advantageous online sources available.
Citations and References
Be acquainted of the aberration amid citations and references. Citations are placed in the anatomy of your essay, and announce to the clairvoyant area the abstraction you are advertence has arise from. They are about a beneath form. The abounding advertence is accustomed in the advertence account which comes at the end of the essay. Altered systems of referencing use altered conventions for both citations and advertence lists. Some systems additionally agree that you should accommodate a bibliography, a account of texts which you acclimated to accretion a ample compassionate of the accountable but which you do not accredit to anon in your essay. Some of the best accepted referencing styles are Harvard, APA, MLA and Chicago. Alternative styles accommodate IEEE (used in computer science and electronics), Vancouver (sciences and mathematics) and OSCOLA (law).
There are a cardinal of computer bales to advice you with references. The afterward links to a table which compares the altered ones and lists their pros and cons:
The Harvard referencing appearance is broadly acclimated beyond a cardinal of subjects
There are several altered versions of this style, so do analysis which is acclimated in your department
The appearance is based on name and date for citations, with cardinal additionally sometimes used.
This links to a adviser giving one adaptation of Harvard referencing in detail: http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
There are some online chargeless reference-generating accoutrement available, for example:
The referencing appearance of the American Psychological Association is accepted as APA. It is frequently acclimated in attitude and the amusing sciences.
Like Harvard, there are altered versions of APA style.
Features accommodate the use of indentations in advertence list, ampersands (‘&’) instead of ‘and’, and means of alleviative assorted authored texts.
This links to a adviser to APA: http://www.apastyle.org/
MLA is the referencing appearance of the Modern Languages Association. It is acclimated in aesthetics and English.
The account abaft citations in the MLA arrangement is to accommodate acceptable advice for the clairvoyant to analyze the source, with abounding capacity accustomed in the advertence list. It additionally rules that advice accustomed in brackets should not echo advice accustomed in the text
In MLA the name and folio cardinal accomplish up the citation, rather than the date. Names additionally accommodate brand in citations.
Like all referencing systems, MLA dictates a accurate way of ambidextrous with online and cyberbanking sources.
This is a adviser to the MLA style: http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/mla
The Chicago appearance is acclimated in English and History.
In Chicago use is fabricated of footnotes, and readers are accustomed abounding bibliographic capacity of anniversary antecedent used, as it is cited on anniversary page. Alternative footnotes apropos to the aforementioned antecedent accord the advice in a beneath form.
A bibliography lists all works mentioned in the text
While footnotes arise in the adjustment in which authors are mentioned in the text, the bibliography is alphabetical
This is a adviser to Chicago style: http://libweb.lancs.ac.uk/g79chicago.htm
Imperial College (2013) ‘Reference Management’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) accessible from
University of Bristol (2013) ‘A adviser to referencing bookish work’ [online] (cited 14th February 2013) accessible from
University of Cardiff (2013) ‘Citing and Referencing in the Harvard Style’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) accessible from
University of Cardiff (2013) ‘Referencing in the MHRA Style’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) accessible from
University of Southampton (2013) ‘Acknowledging Knowledge: an Bookish Adviser to Referencing’, [online] (cited 13th February 2013) accessible from
Order a unique copy of this paper