History of Danish Cinema
The Danish “Golden Age” of cinema is owed about wholly to Nordisk Films Compagni and the cardinal decisions it fabricated in the aboriginal 1910s to differentiate its films in adjustment to ensure a able exportation of its product. Likewise, the annihilation of Denmark’s blur industry is owed in allotment to Nordisk and its disability to aberrate from its assisting blueprint for acknowledged blur amid an ever-evolving industry.
This cardboard will appraise Denmark’s quick acceleration to accurate access during its Aureate Age, detail the changes Nordisk and alternative Danish filmmakers fabricated and the consecutive appulse on cinema internationally, as able-bodied as investigate accessible affidavit for the abatement of both Nordisk and Denmark. Danish blur had a almost backward start–its aboriginal assembly company, Nordisk Films Compagni, wasn’t accustomed until 1906 (Engberg 63). Ole Olsen, the architect of Nordisk, was a agent who endemic a cinema and saw both the acute appeal for blur and abridgement of accumulation internationally.
He focused his efforts on exporting films and by the end of 1906 had a annex in Berlin and assembly in several countries beyond Europe. By 1910 Nordisk activated vertical affiliation to become one of the better blur assembly companies in Europe and conductor in the Aureate Age of Danish cinema, from 1911-1914. At this time Nordisk was the additional better blur close in the apple abaft Pathe in France, bearing several hundred films a year (Neergaard 218). 1910 was a battleground year area Nordisk approved to differentiate itself and access exports.
A new aesthetic director, August Blom, ushered in Denmark’s aureate era forth with a host of new, austere rules about what kinds of films to produce. Nordisk badly bargain its assembly of aeon pieces (“costume films”) and instead focused on astute films about the common set in the present. A new accent was placed on scriptwriters, who were instructed to actualize belief that were simple and calmly accepted internationally, acceptation beneath intertitles and an added accent on accuracy in the blur (Engberg 65).
In accession to absorption to clarity, Nordisk approved astute settings, aloof acting in adverse to the affected performances of actors in south Europe, and admiral who, consistently active as a aftereffect of the arduous aggregate of films Nordisk produced, could hone their ability (Neergaard 218). Addition important accident in 1910 was broadcast by a accessory Danish assembly company, Fotorama, that took a accident and showed a film, The White Slave Traffic, which far exceeded the actionable industry accepted of 15 minutes.
The 30-minute blur was was a huge success in Denmark and affected Nordisk and alternative assembly companies globally to actualize longer, multi-reel films to accommodated admirers demand. This alteration to best films was advocate in agreement of aesthetic possibilities, storytelling, and change of the blur average (Engberg 65). The aboriginal extra to appropriate the aesthetic possibilities of film’s best active time was Asta Neilsen, whose achievement in The Abyss (produced by Kosmorama in 1910) was apathetic and subdued, in adverse with best actors’ added rushed, corybantic performances encouraged by the charge to back the adventure quickly.
Audiences were captivated by Neilsen’s performance, as was Nordisk, which congenital this anatomy of acting into its new direction. The Abyss was a hit in Denmark and abroad, ushering in a new era of ability in acting and authoritative Neilsen Europe’s aboriginal blur brilliant (Engberg 65). Nordisk accepted the accent of exportation and accouterment to the markets they exported to. As Nordisk grew they catered to audiences in altered markets: for example, afore 1917 Nordisk exported abounding films to Russia.
Russian audiences admired dramatic, sad endings, so Nordisk would actualize endings accurately for the Russian bazaar with these elements (Engberg 67). Nordisk connected to consign all over Europe and the United States, area it captivated a branch, The Abundant Northern Blur Company, ensuring that film-hungry audiences in American were apparent to Denmark’s films through renting and again absolute sales (Mottram 80). While Danish cinema enjoyed abundant success afore Apple War I, the country’s Aureate Age began to dim about the aforementioned time the war ended.
The appulse of WWI on Danish cinema was mixed, as exports to surrounding countries like Germany and Russia were helped by Denmark’s axial geographic location. However, as countries began banning imports to activate their own blur industry, Denmark suffered (Bordwell 64). Furthermore, Nordisk’s films began to abrasion on audiences who did get to see them. The adherence to a blueprint that had ahead formed able-bodied for Denmark but had been congenital aloft and bigger in alternative countries like Switzerland signaled the alpha of the end. Ebbe Neergaard, a beat Danish blur critic, wrote in 1958 that dditional rules Nordisk implemented in 1915 began the atrophy of Danish cinema. “In Denmark there was no allowance for experiments, for seriousness, or for individuality in a director, as there was, for instance, in Germany. Yet the alone way the blur industry of a baby country can attempt with the articles of the bigger industries is to accomplish conspicuously appropriate or conspicuously documentary affection films. ” (222). Though Nordisk and alternative Danish films pioneered aesthetic advances in the anatomy afore the war, they could not advance from this and were surpassed afterwards Apple War I.
Between 1918 and 1939 Denmark’s achievement beneath as Nordisk’s films became beneath successful. Neergaard attributes this to the “naivete of her producers” (221), who upheld their “snobbish standards” and bootless to advance with the average as “elsewhere blur art grew up to feel an absolute responsibility. ” (221). Nordisk did try and abate itself in the aboriginal twenties by employing Carl Dreyer, now advised one of the best blur admiral of all time. He fabricated two films for Nordisk alpha in 1920: one aggressive by D. W.
Griffith’s Intolerance blue-blooded Pages Out of the Book of Satan, that activated aberrant acting and editing. However, Dreyer anon confused about Europe to aftermath added beginning films after the constraints of Nordisk, a move echoed by abounding of the aptitude in Denmark, furthering Nordisk’s and Denmark’s abatement (Neergaard 221). Perhaps Denmark’s accurate achievement wouldn’t accept beneath during this time had Nordisk not been so dominant, but the angular chip aggregation was the blur industry in Denmark, and its abortion was Denmark’s failure.
As far as industry is concerned, Denmark’s Nordisk was actual agnate to France’s Pathe. Both companies bedeviled not alone their corresponding countries but additionally all-embracing cinema in the aboriginal 1910s (Bordwell 62). Like Nordisk, Pathe fabricated several missteps that acquired it to lose ascendancy afore WWI. Pathe, like Nordisk, became too focused on profits and cut costs on assembly harming the affection (Bordwell 62). Nordisk’s disability to aberrate from its accurate (and profitable) blur rules was allotment of its annihilation as well.
However, clashing Denmark, France’s blur industry was comprised of abounding abate blur assembly companies as able-bodied as addition ascendant firm, Gaumont, so back Pathe faltered or as Hollywood films took hold, the industry was able to continue. With aloof one ascendant aggregation in Denmark, the civic cinema bootless with the company. Denmark’s primary accurate aeon (its Aureate Age) was the alone allocation of aboriginal Danish accurate history adherent to any cogent analysis or commentary. I primarily acclimated essays from blur critics and advisers from Denmark accounting from added avant-garde times.
I couldn’t acquisition any primary or accessory abstracts account the specificities of administration and exhibition; it seemed that this affair was so acutely bedeviled by Nordisk that little altercation bare to be adherent to it. Similarly, capacity to what Denmark alien film-wise were scarce: I can alone assume the industry to be agnate to that of the blow of Europe, acceptation alien films from the blow of the abstemious and America. Works Cited Bordwell, David, and Kirstin Thompson. Blur History: An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.
Print. Engberg, Margeurite. "The Erotic Melodrama in Danish Silent Films 1910-1918. " Film History 5. 1 (1993): 63-67. JSTORE. Web. 25 Sept. 2011. <http://www. jstor. org/stable/3815110>. Mottram, Ron. "The Abundant Northern Blur Company: Nordisk Blur in the American Motion Picture Market. " Film History 2. 1 (1988): 71-86. JSTOR. Web. 24 Sept. 2011. <http://www. jstor. org/stable/3814950>. Neergaard, Ebbe. "The Rise, the Fall, and the Acceleration of Danish Film. " Hollywood Quarterly 4. 3 (1950): 217-232. Print.
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