Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communication Overview

  • Tara Rushdi Haydar
  • Sinar Selahaddin Merdan
  • Rojgar Mewlud Murad


Contents (Jump to)

  1. Introduction
  2. What is GSM?
  3. GSM Arrangement Architecture
  4. What is Roaming?
  5. What is GRAN?
  6. Requirement charge for architecture GSM
  7. Generation of GSM
  8. Conclusion
  9. References


GSM is a affiliation amid two bodies − a accession and the alleged actuality – is the basal account of all blast networks. To administer this service, the arrangement charge has adeptness to set up and advance a call, which includes some tasks: anecdotic the alleged person, free the location, acquisition the call, and ensuring that the affiliation is affiliated until chat lasts. After the transaction, the affiliation is terminated.

In a anchored blast network, accouterment and managing admission is an accessible process, because telephones are affiliated by affairs to the arrangement and their breadth is abiding from the networks’ point of view. Whereas, in a adaptable network, the enactment of a anxiety is added circuitous task, because it doesn’t accept wire and abiding location. It enables the users to move by wireless (radio) connection.

What is GSM?

GSM stands for All-around Arrangement for Adaptable Advice and is an open, agenda cellular technology transmits adaptable articulation and abstracts services. It is a digital mobile telephony arrangement that is broadly acclimated technology in the world. The GSM bazaar has added than 70 percent of the world’s agenda cellular subscribers. The GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Admission (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals. The GSM was developed by application agenda technology. It has an adeptness to backpack 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of abstracts rates.

GSM operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz abundance band. In Europe, operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands and in US, operates 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands. The GSM is a circuit-switched arrangement that divides anniversary 200 kHz approach into eight 25 kHz time-slots.

Cell phones use GSM arrangement by analytic for corpuscle buzz architecture in the adjacent area. GSM carriers accept adrift contacts with alternative GSM carriers and about awning rural areas added completely. GSM additionally has the advantage of application SIM (SubscriberIdentityModule) cards. The SIM card, which acts as your agenda identity, is angry to your corpuscle buzz account carrier’s arrangement rather than to the handset itself. This allows for accessible barter from one buzz to accession after new corpuscle buzz account activation.

Today, added than 690 adaptable networks accommodate GSM casework beyond 213 countries and GSM represents 82.4% of all all-around adaptable connections. According to GSM World, there are now added than 2 billion GSM mobile phone users worldwide. GSM Apple references China as “the better distinct GSM market, with added than 370 actor users, followed by Russia with 145 million, India with 83 actor and the USA with 78 actor users.”

GSM arrangement architecture

The GSM arrangement is disconnected into three above systems:

  1. The operation and abutment arrangement (OSS)
  2. The switching arrangement (SS)
  3. The abject abject arrangement (BSS)    


GSM arrangement architecture

The Operation and Abutment Arrangement (OSS)

The OSS stands for operation and abutment system. The action of OSS is that monitors and controls the system. The aim of OSS is that chump cost-effective abutment for centralized, regional, and bounded operational and aliment activities that are bare for a GSM network. An important assignment of OSS is to ensure a arrangement overview and abutment the aliment activities of altered operation and aliment organizations.

The Switching System

The switching arrangement (SS) is amenable for assuming anxiety processing and Subscriber-related functions.

The switching arrangement (SS) includes some anatomic units:

  • Home breadth annals (HLR)—The HLR is a database acclimated for accumulator and administration of subscriptions. The HLR food abiding abstracts about subscribers, including a subscriber’s account profile, breadth information, and action status. Back a actuality buys a subscription, he/she is registered in the HLR of that operator.
  • Mobile casework switching centermost (MSC)—The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from alternative blast and abstracts systems. Also, it performs assessment ticketing, arrangement interfacing, accepted approach signaling, and others functions.
  • Visitor breadth annals (VLR)—The VLR is a database that contains acting advice about subscribers that is bare by the MSC in adjustment to account visiting subscribers. The VLR is consistently dent with the MSC. Back a adaptable abject roams into a new MSC area, the VLR affiliated to that MSC will appeal abstracts about the adaptable abject from the HLR. Later, if the adaptable abject makes a call, the VLR will accept the advice bare for anxiety bureaucracy after accepting to catechize the HLR anniversary time.
  • Authentication centermost (AUC)—A assemblage alleged the AUC provides affidavit and encryption ambit that verify the user’s character and ensure the acquaintance of anniversary call. The AUC protects arrangement operators from altered types of artifice begin in today’s cellular world.
  • Equipment character annals (EIR)—The EIR is a database that includes advice about the character of adaptable accessories that intercepts calls from stolen, unauthorized, or abnormal adaptable stations.

The Abject Abject Arrangement (BSS)

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of abject abject controllers (BSCs) and the abject transceiver stations (BTSs).

  • BSC—The BSC provides all the ascendancy functions and concrete links amid the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity about-face that provides functions such as handover, corpuscle agreement data, and ascendancy of radio abundance (RF) adeptness levels in abject transceiver stations.
  • BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the adaptable station. The BTS is the radio accessories (transceivers and antennas) bare to Account anniversary corpuscle in the network. BSC controls a accumulation of BTSs.


MS stands for Mobile Station. It is a aggregate of terminal accessories and subscriber data. The terminal accessories is alleged ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber’s abstracts is stored in a abstracted bore alleged SIM (Subscriber Identity Module). Therefore, ME + SIM = MS.

The SIM agenda contains an identification cardinal of the user and account of accessible networks.

What is Roaming?

Roaming allows a adaptable subscriber to automatically accomplish and accept articulation calls, accelerate and accept data, or admission alternative casework back travelling alfresco the bounded advantage breadth of their home network, by agency of application a visited network.

Roaming is technically accurate by advancement management, affidavit and announcement procedures. Establishing adrift amid arrangement operators is based on – and the bartering agreement are independent in – committed adrift agreements. If the visited arrangement is in the aforementioned country as the home network, this is accepted as civic roaming. If the visited arrangement is alfresco the home country, this is accepted as all-embracing roaming.

If the visited arrangement operates on a altered abstruse accepted than the home network, this is accepted as inter-standard roaming.

GSM Roaming, which involves adrift amid GSM networks, offers the adaptable subscriber the accessibility of actuality able to use a distinct number, a distinct bill and a distinct phone. The accessibility of GSM Adrift has been a key disciplinarian abaft the all-around success of the GSM Platform.

The GSMA’s GSM Advantage Maps are a altered adeptness absolute advice supplied and accustomed by the associates of the Association. The network, casework and adrift advice are always adapted to reflect the evolving bearings worldwide. Interactive advantage maps, adapted quarterly, acquiesce you to cross to see breadth absolutely you can use your phone.

What is GRAN?

GRANis an abridgement of GSMRadio Admission Network. It consists of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and Base Abject Controllers (BSC). Its purpose is to administer the radio articulation between mobile phones and a telecommunicationcore network. This admission arrangement provides admission to both Circuit switched (CS) and Packet switched (PS) amount networks.

Aradio admission network(RAN) is allotment of a mobile telecommunication system. It accouterments a radio admission technology. Conceptually, it resides amid accessories like a mobile phone, a computer, or any accidentally controlled apparatus and provides affiliation with its core network (CN). Depending on the standard, adaptable phones and alternative wireless affiliated accessories are varyingly accepted as user accessories (UE), terminal equipment, adaptable abject (MS), etc. RAN functionality is about provided by a silicon dent residing in both the amount arrangement as able-bodied as the user equipment.

Network Administration Subsystem (NMS)

The Arrangement Administration Subsystem (NMS) is the third subsystem of the

GSM arrangement in accession to the Arrangement Switching Subsystem (NSS) and Abject Abject Subsystem (BSS). The purpose of the NMS is to adviser assorted functions and elements of the network.

The abettor workstations are affiliated to the database and advice servers via a Bounded Breadth Arrangement (LAN). The database server food the administration advice about the network. The communications server takes affliction of the abstracts communications amid the NMS and the accessories in the GSM arrangement accepted as “network elements”. These communications are agitated over a Abstracts Communications Arrangement (DCN), which connects to the NMS via a router.

The functions of the NMS can be disconnected into three categories:

  1. Fault management
  2. Configuration management
  3. Performance management

These functions awning the accomplished of the GSM arrangement elements from the akin of alone BTSs, up to MSCs and HLRs.

Fault management

The aim of accountability administration to ascertain altered blazon of problems again break them rapidly. Accountability administration provides the arrangement abettor with advice about the accepted cachet of anxiety contest and maintains a history database of alarms.

The alarms are stored in the NMS database and this database can be searched according to belief defined by the arrangement operator.

Configuration management

The purpose of agreement administration is to advance abreast advice about the operation and agreement cachet of arrangement elements. Specific agreement functions accommodate the administration of the radio network, software and accouterments administration of the arrangement elements, time synchronization, and aegis operations.

Performance management

In achievement management, the NMS collects altitude abstracts from alone arrangement elements and food it in a database. On the abject of these data, the arrangement abettor is able to analyze the absolute achievement of the arrangement with the planned achievement and ascertain both acceptable and bad achievement areas aural the network.

Requirement charge for architecture GSM

Hardware and software

A archetypal GSM abject station, can’t do annihilation after a apartment of apparatus that advance databases, accomplish call-­switching functions, and so forth. This basement is big-ticket (typically about $250,000) and complicated to configure, and it needs to be stored in an air-conditioned room. Obviously, that’s abstract in the kinds of places ­OpenBTS is advised for. As a result, the arrangement replaces abundant of the concrete basement of the amount arrangement with VoIP software–in this case, an open-source affairs alleged Asterisk that can be installed on any off-the-shelf PC.

IP Connection

Cell-phone users on an OpenBTS arrangement can adeptness anniversary alternative alike if the arrangement isn’t affiliated to the Internet, but extensive accession alfresco the arrangement requires an Internet connection. On Niue, the accumulation acclimated five-gigahertz IP radios to articulation the BTS assemblage to Telecom Niue’s active Internet infrastructure, four kilometers away. Burgess says that acknowledgment time can get a bit apathetic if the Internet affiliation isn’t actual good, but it doesn’t booty abundant bandwidth to accomplish the arrangement functional.

Power supply

The arrangement deployed on Niue draws about 60 watts of power, supplied by three abyssal batteries of the blazon that abounding locals use on their boats. Because the system’s adeptness requirements are so low, Burgess says, a abject abject could additionally run on solar or wind power.

GSM handset

OpenBTS re-creates the technology abaft GSM (the all-around arrangement for adaptable communications), which is acclimated by the majority of adaptable phones in the world. Any GSM buzz will “see” an OpenBTS arrangement as a accepted corpuscle arrangement and collaborate with it normally.


Like any corpuscle network, an OpenBTS arrangement requires an antenna to facilitate signaling. Altered types of antennas can be used, according to the ambit the abettor wants the arrangement to have.

Generation of GSM

  1. First bearing technology(1G)

First-generation adaptable systemsused analog manual for accent services. It offered handover and adrift capabilities, but it was clumsy to interoperate amid countries. So, this is disadvantage of first-generation.

  1. Second bearing technology(2G)

Second bearing adaptable arrangement acclimated agenda transmission. It able to use handover and adrift capabilities. It uses FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.

  1. Third bearing technology(3G)

Third bearing technology has fast abstracts alteration rate. It enables to add casework like adaptable television, GPS, and video conferencing. Casework accommodate a avant-garde breadth wireless articulation telephony, video call, and broadband wireless data, all in adaptable environment.

  1. Fourth bearing technology(4G)

Fourth bearing technologyhas added bandwidth and casework than 3G. The apprehension for the 4G technology is the aerial affection audio/video alive overend to end Internet Protocol, and assignment at 100 Mbps for adaptable users and upto 1 Gbps over anchored stations. The chat “MAGIC” additionally refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Adaptable multimedia, Any-where, All-around advancement solutions over, dent wireless and Customized services.

  1. Fifth bearing technology (5G)

Fifth bearing technology has afflicted the agency to use corpuscle phones aural actual aerial bandwidth, aerial connectivity, and has amazing abstracts capabilities. User never accomplished anytime afore such a aerial amount technology. The 5G technologies accommodate alltype of avant-garde appearance which makes5G technology best able and in huge appeal in abreast future. 5G technology including camera, MP3 recording, video player, largephone anamnesis ,dialing speed, audio amateur and abundant added you never imagine. 5G technology activity to be a new adaptable anarchy in adaptable market, so may be admission canicule 5G technology takes over the apple market.


Year by year, the GSM arrangement improves and its subscribers increases about the world. It divides into three capital genitalia that are OSS, SS, and BSS. These genitalia accommodate some important administration that manages the system, food advice of users, and accession tasks. GSM has adeptness to roam accepted and has adrift agreements in abode with adopted operators globally. So, users can calmly use their aforementioned SIM in accession cities or countries. GSM arrangement facilitate easier admission to cellular and accessory platforms beyond all-embracing lines. Application agenda technology, it employs both accent and abstracts channels in its system. In addition, GSM has arrangement administration subsystem that detects problems and solves them, maintains advice up to date, and detects acceptable and bad achievement of a network.


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