Gestalt analysis is a ameliorative access in attitude that helped advance the humanistic theories of the 1950s and 1960s and that was, in turn, afflicted by them. In Gestalt philosophy, the accommodating is credible as accepting bigger acumen into himself or herself than the therapist does. Thus, the therapist guides the being on a self-directed aisle to acquaintance and refrains from interpreting the patient’s behaviors. Acquaintance comprises acceptance of one’s albatross for choices, self-knowledge, and adeptness to break problems.
Its originators, Frederick S. (Fritz) Perls (1893–1970) and Laura Perls (born Lore Posner, 1905–1990), were built-in in Germany and advised attitude there. They fled Germany during the Nazi regime, affective to South Africa and afresh to New York City. They were both initially afflicted by Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic approaches and by Wilhelm Reich’s Orgonomic psychotherapy. Their afterwards annual on Gestalt analysis bankrupt with the psychoanalytic tradition, affective against existentialism and, ultimately, humanism.
In New York City the Perls founded the Gestalt Analysis Institute in 1952. Their atypical address in analysis was to face the patient, in adverse to the archetypal Freudian address of sitting abaft a collapsed person. The contiguous accession acceptable the therapist to absolute the patient’s absorption to movements, gestures, and postures so the accommodating could strive to accretion a fuller acquaintance of his or her absolute behaviors and environment.
Another acclaimed access alien in Gestalt analysis is the alleged “empty armchair technique,” in which a being sits beyond from and talks to an abandoned chair, envisioning a cogent being (or object) associated with cerebral tensions. By application these techniques, the Perls believed, the accommodating would be able to accretion acumen into how thoughts and behaviors are acclimated to avert absorption from important cerebral issues and would apprentice to admit the attendance of issues from the accomplished that affect accepted behavior.
The aim was for the accommodating to acquaintance feelings, not to accretion acumen into the affidavit for them, as psychoanalysts favored. In the change of their therapy, Laura and Fritz Perls differed in some of their approaches. Laura emphasized added direct, concrete acquaintance and movement than Fritz did, and the acquaintance advantaged by Fritz Perls was added allegorical than physical. Gestalt analysis took its name from the academy of bookish attitude alleged Gestalt psychology. Perls asserted that Gestalt attitude had afflicted the development of his ideas, but the Gestaltists laimed that there was no affiliation amid the two. Afterwards advisers adapted a accepted substrate bond the bookish Gestalt attitude of Max Wertheimer (1880–1943), Wolfgang Kohler (1887–1967), and Kurt Koffka (1886–1941) and the Gestalt analysis of the Perls and their collaborators Ralph Hefferline (1910–1974) and Paul Goodman (1911–1972). This commonality complex acknowledgment of the accomplished rather than a reductionistic access to compassionate cerebral phenomena and behavior. Gestalt analysis took anatomy in the 1950s and 1960s, back humanism ancient flourished.
The optimistic access promulgated by the Perls was absolutely accordant with the annual of alternative humanistically aggressive psychologists such as Carl Rogers (1902–1987). Its access has waned back the 1980s, although accepted therapies accept been afflicted by the humanistic and optimistic angle of the access and by some of the alternating techniques developed by the Perls and their followers. Gestalt theory, a above academy of attitude during the ancient bisected of the twentieth century, was an affecting counterpoint to the alternative mostly atomistic cerebral systems of the time: structuralism, functionalism, and behaviorism.
While its controversies with these alternative systems during the “age of schools” in attitude accept receded into history, its above credo already afresh became arresting against the end of the twentieth aeon in such fields as amusing psychology, cognition, personality psychology, and beheld neuroscience. Gestalt attitude proposed a abolitionist afterlight of the atomistic appearance that had prevailed for centuries in Western science and amusing science. Natural wholes, according to the Gestalt view, are not artlessly the sum absolute of their basic parts.
Rather, characteristics of the accomplished actuate the attributes of its parts, prescribing the place, role, and action of anniversary allotment in the unified whole. The Gestalt assumption of Pragnanz, furthermore, asserts that the alignment of any accomplished will be as “good” (i. e. , balanced, simple, integrated) as the prevailing altitude allow. This affirmation on holistic processes applies appropriately to all chip wholes, from concrete systems such as electrical fields, alluring fields, and soap films to cerebral systems such as cerebral processes, the alignment of perception, personality, and amusing phenomena.
The Gestalt movement is about beheld (Ash 1995; King and Wertheimer 2005) as accepting been launched by a alternation of abstracts by Max Wertheimer (1880–1943) on credible movement appear in 1912, although bright break of a Gestalt angle were already axiomatic in two beforehand publications of Wertheimer on agreeable structures (1910) and on ancient cerebration about afterwards issues (1912).
Two of Wertheimer’s colleagues who served as assemblage in these experiments, Wolfgang Kohler (1887–1967) and Kurt Koffka (1886–1941), became his collaborators during the abutting decades in promulgating the new Gestalt access (Kohler 1929; Koffka 1935). A archetypal agreement in Wertheimer’s alternation involved, for example, acknowledgment of a abbreviate vertical band in the beheld field, followed afterwards a abrupt breach by acknowledgment of a additional agnate vertical band a abbreviate ambit abroad from area the ancient one had been exposed.
If the time and ambit relations are appropriate, assemblage see a distinct band affective from one area to the other. The acquaintance is duplicate from watching an absolute abbreviate vertical band move from one area to the other; in both cases, the acumen of motion is absolute and compelling. The prevailing alternating abstract orientations, advancement that percepts consistently accord with their activated concrete stimuli, could not explain the perceived motion back the absolute stimuli are two anchored curve successively exposed.
The whole, the acquaintance of motion as a Gestalt, cannot be acquired from a aggregate of the “component sensations” of the two anchored stimuli. The Gestalt academy became arresting in European and American psychology. Its attempt of perceptual alignment accept been abbreviated in about every anterior attitude textbook; Wertheimer’s book Productive Thinking. (1945) challenged the computer models of the backward twentieth aeon to try to annual for the all-over cerebral processes of acumen and understanding.
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