Geographical Discoveries

Great bounded discoveries - a accepted appellation bounded discoveries fabricated at the about-face of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, in particular: ambit Cape of Good Hope by Diaz (1488), the analysis of America by Columbus (1492), and afresh the conquest, cruise [[Vasco da Gama | to India (1498) and the aboriginal cruise about the world, Magellan (1519-1522). These contest triggered a added voyages of analysis and contributed to a cogent addition of the bounded border of Europeans. Campaign of Christopher Columbus Rulers of Spain, they accomplished that they activate to lose the ambit to Portugal, which absolutely advance the abundance organized expeditions. But so far Spain was active angry with the Arabs, who dedicated her at the aftermost bastion - Grenada. Aback in 1492 the Saracens were expelled from the Iberian peninsula, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to accounts the expedition, which presented them with a description of the Genoese Christopher Columbus. The charlatan asked the aboriginal baron of Portugal. Presented a plan aimed at aircraft on the west and in accordance with the map of Ptolemy, afterwards bridge the Atlantic to ability Asia. However, not met with favor. With the aforementioned plan, asked the baron of Spain. Beneath the agreement, accounting by Columbus from the aristocratic couple: Columbus was appointed for activity admiral, governor and agent of the anew apparent lands. 1 / 10 of assets from the anew apparent acreage was to accord to Columbus, the blow of the aristocratic treasury. In return, Columbus promised to awning 1 / 8 the amount of the expedition. The blow covered the aristocratic couple. And the campaign of Christopher Columbus (1492-1493) The campaign set captain on August 3, 1492 from the anchorage of Palos de la Frontera. The aboriginal date of the adventure were ahead apparent the Canary Islands, afresh Columbus sailed forth the 28 alongside to the west. The crew, consisting of about 90 bodies afterwards 3 weeks of aircraft began to rebel, aback it angry out that you can not see land. 29. 09. Columbus in his account wrote that it was rebellion. 11. 10. Columbus erected claiming - if aural 24 hours will not see the acreage has ordered outflow. Fortunately for Kolumba12 October afterwards three months of the expedition, aback the complete aggregation of the address was already annoyed and absolutely threatened Columbus's death, Juan Rodriguez Bermejo saw the crow's backup land. The campaign landed on the island apparently Watling (called Guanahani by the Indians), a baby island accumulation of the Bahamas. In the citizenry acicular gold ornaments. Interviewed about their agent adumbrated the administration to the south. Judging from this that lies to the arctic of the mainland, Columbus chose a new advance to the southwest. Indians alleged the island's inhabitants. October 28 Columbus accustomed in Cuba, afresh on December 6 begin addition island of Haiti / Hipiola and the abate islands, which he alleged Isabella and Fernandina in account of the aristocratic couple. Then there was a crisis - in backward January and February angry out that the admiral address sank and the Santa Maria, Columbus ordered the acknowledgment to their homeland. In March 1493, two ships alternate to Palos. Additional campaign of Christopher Columbus (1493 - 1494) September 25, 1493, the campaign set off another. This time the campaign bigger equipped, calculation added ships (about 15, the cardinal of crew: about 1750). The campaign lasted 1. 5 years. This time, Columbus chose a added southern route, and appropriately accomplished acreage in the breadth of ?? the Lesser Antilles. Subsequently apparent the island of Dominica, Marie - Galante, Guadeloupe, Antigua and Puerto Rico. Nov. 22 Columbus accustomed in Haiti again, to see that the bodies larboard there, no one survived. How domyslono, all asleep in the attempt with the natives. In the best adventure Columbus sailed forth the southern bank of Cuba and apparent Jamaica. However, the complete gggaaaTymczasem proceeding to Columbus alienated a ample allotment of his crew. Discouraged abounding hardships and abridgement of allegorical abundance afar themselves from the cruise and started analytic on your own. Others alternate to Spain, asthmatic abounding complaints on Columbus. Influenced by the enemies of Columbus accepted to booty privileges accepted to him earlier, and in his abode appointed aristocratic governor of the anew apparent lands. In this situation, Columbus on March 19 headed aback to Spain, area he accustomed June 11. At the cloister managed to bright himself of the accuse adjoin him, acquired a acceptance of beforehand privileges and the affiance of acclimation the next, the third expedition. Third campaign of Christopher Columbus (1498 - 1500) Another, already the third campaign took abode in 1498 on her alignment had to delay so much, because it bootless to absolutely restore aplomb in what it darzono. In fact, alone during this expedition, Christopher Columbus saw the mainland. It was South America, but that's aback fate angry abroad from Columbus. Columbus complete favor of his people, in accurate his son - Diego. She came to the undoubted annoyance at the abridgement of above bread-and-butter successes and difficulties expeditions in relations with the natives. Just as during the additional expedition, account accustomed of the problems to the crown. Meanwhile, it was absitively to act added decisively. In June 1500 beatific to the west of Francis Bobadilla, which were able with avant-garde admiral of attorney. Afterwards reviewing the bearings in Haiti, he ordered arrest of Columbus and his son, and shackled to accelerate them to Spain. At the Columbus armpit afresh managed to bright themselves of accuse and acknowledgment to the graces of the aristocratic pair. The aftereffect was a fourth and aftermost campaign of Columbus to America. IV campaign of Christopher Columbus (1502 -1504) May 9, 1502 fleet of four ships and 150 aggregation aggregation Columbus went west again. This time the bearings was urgent. In the meantime, Vasco da Gama apparent the avenue to India about the African continent. Columbus actively bare was a success proving that the alley to the west is shorter, added adequate and safer. Columbus's ambition was to acquisition the alteration to water, which eventually took him to advance India. He accepted to go to the west of Cuba. There was headed in his expedition. Flowing in this administration accomplished the coasts of Honduras and the Mosquito Bank on the east bank of Nicaragua. There, the citizenry abstruse about the "rich kingdoms" (Mayan civilization, and conceivably alike the Inca Empire) and the "great sea" (Pacific Ocean), which lies added west, but admitting arduous attempts bootless to acquisition a baptize access to the reservoir. Accepting absent two of the four ships, accommodated to acknowledgment to Cuba, afresh to Jamaica. There he was affected to achieve the actual ships aground. Materials basic in the damaged ships were acclimated for the architecture of adherent settlements. One of the assembly of Columbus, Diego Mendez, the Indian boats set off for advice survivors. But it was alone afterwards months abnormality managed to get to Haiti, area he brought help. In the concurrently Columbus was actively ill and in such action were transported him to Spain, area he accustomed November 25, 1504. Summary of accomplishments of Christopher Columbus Accustomed what Columbus has to say that the end of his activity was tragic. Afterwards abiding from the campaign confused to fourth abode Vailadolid actively ill, and accepting about the cachet of a beggar. He died on May 20, 1506 was absolutely not alive that he apparent America. He was assertive that came to Japan, to China, to India, and the mainland, which he saw during the third campaign he advised the biblical paradise. Meanwhile, the Portuguese and Spaniards, and accomplished that Columbus did not ability India, and apparent a new land. Addition adaptation of the aftermost years of his activity of Columbus presents a abstruse arrangement of Puri, according to which Columbus had died abounding years after and still booty one-fifth cruise to the West Indies. The actuality of this antecedent is given, however, questioned by best advisers Ferdinand Magellan (port. Fernao de Magalhaes, Spanish. Fernando de Magallanes, born. In the bounce of 1480, as amended. April 27, 1521) - Portuguese sailor in the account of the Spanish amphibian charlatan and adventurer. He alleged the Pacific Ocean (Pacific). September 20, 1519 set out from Portugal by the western, or by the Atlantic Ocean to the Spice Islands in the Malay Archipelago. The expedition, which sailed beneath his command as the aboriginal circumnavigated the Earth. He died on April 27 dead by the citizenry of the island of Mactan in the Philippine Archipelago Christopher Columbus (born 25 August or 31 October 1451 in Genoa (Italy) - died. May 20, 1506 in Valladolid, cat Cristofor Colom, endemic by Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish. Cristobal Colon) - European sailor and navigator (probably Catalan by contempo discoveries), captain of the expedition, which flowed on the three ships Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta beneath the banderole of Castile in chase of the western sea avenue to India, as the aboriginal in the history of bounded discoveries of avant-garde exhausted close Atlantic Ocean and 12 October 1492 accomplished the West Indies (Antilles ) off the bank of America - the abstemious at that time alien in Europe. Was appointed as admiral and fabricated the aboriginal governor of the Spanish colonies in Central America, the organizer and adept of four across analysis expeditions from Spain to America. Diaz acclimated the analysis of Vasco da Gama. In 1497 addition campaign was launched. Da Gama sailed about the Cape of Good Hope and headed appear Asia. Docked in the anchorage of Calicut in India. Alternate to the country in 1499 forth with a ample burden of gold and spices. The country accustomed him enthusiastically. Amphibian avenue to India became a reality. No admiration that the success of this campaign had a big appulse naorganizowanie next. Henry the Navigator Portugal at atomic because of its area lent itself altogether to the abject for ocean expeditions. Admitting the advantages of bounded area odegralaby apparently not such a role in the abundant bounded discoveries, if not activity and adherence to Prince Henry (1394-1460) Henry alleged Sailor. Afterwards the acquisition by the Portuguese in 1415 On the Moroccan bank Ceutry Henry was assertive that added amplification in Africa will accompany abundant benefits. Counting on profits from trading gold, slaves, ivory, and pepper. With his abutment forth the western bank of Cape Sangres organized a array of database affiliation with the analysis center, area he calm all the bounded and abyssal abstracts and formed on the architecture of sailing ships. For seventy years the Portuguese sailing ships were affective further and further south forth the African coast, extensive alternating headlands: Nun, Bojador, Blanco and 1445 Green Cape. During these expeditions the Portuguese apparent and colonized adopted islands and archipelagos - Madeira, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde. They affected a adherent factories on the coast. And as it angry out that gold is beneath in Africa than they hoped, they took a added assisting procedere, the bondservant trade. EXPEDITIONS: WYPRARY PORTUGUESE: -Henry the Navigator - Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, beyond the equator in 1471r. , -Bartholomew Diaz - 1488r . - Busz Cape (Cape of Good Hope), Vasco da Gamma-- the alley to India forth the bank of Africa (1497-1498), SPANISH EXPEDITION: Christopher Columbus - the analysis of America (12. 10. 1942r), Hipiola (Haiti), Cuba and others (1492), Lesser Antilles, the Bank of Central America and South America (1493-1503); -Amerigo Vespucci - accomplished that America is a new abstemious (from his name, name); -Ferdinand Magellan - (1519-1522) ambit of the Earth (Magellan Strait, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Borneo) - died in 1521r. In the Philippines, an campaign Sebastian del Cano finished; - Francis Drake (English) - and the ambit of South America (the world); CIVILIZATIONS AND SOUTH CENTRAL AMERICA: Maya: V w. n. e. - The ancestry of acculturation in the areas of Central America (Yucatan plw. ) with its basic in Majapan; Economy: -Wypaleniskowa (incandescent), -Grown: beans, wheat, -Craft, art, the pyramid; -Religion based on the sun-god cults, rites - animal sacrifice; -Totalitarian power, absolute, hereditary; -The arch adviser to the adjudicator - the aerial priest; -Did not apperceive the caster or arc; -Calendar (365 canicule disconnected into 18 months); -Developed astronomy; -Know the time (to accept this concept) decimal system; Were acquainted of the blueprint of digits; The Aztecs: The thirteenth aeon - the ancestry of acculturation in the areas of Mexico today, with its basic in Tenochtitlan; -Developed economy; -Grown: tomatoes, cotton, cocoa; -Money: amber beans or aureate sand; -Tools added avant-garde than the Mayans; -Construction: the temples; -Ruler called from amid the authoritative units; -Bloody rituals, adoration of the sun: 1489 - 250 thousand were killed. bodies as victims of ritual, such as skinned, affairs assault hearts; -Took over the Mayan calendar; Incas: Fifteenth aeon origins of acculturation in the areas of Peru; -Cult of the sun and moon; -A awful developed economy, -Machu Picchu, -Crafts (ornaments of gold); -Totalitarian state, complete power; -The interests of the subordinated interests of the state; -Residents could not biking to alternative genitalia of the country; Courier-Mail (16 thousand. Km of roads) Knotted-letter; -Developed anaplasty and herbal medicine, hypnosis; 1519r. - Hipic - Cortez Aztec acculturation znieszczenie; XVI - the abolition of the Incas - Izarro;

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