Generation of Electricity Through Coal in Pakistan
At present, the bodies are adverse astringent loadshedding/blackout problems due to curtailment of ability supply. Industries are closing down. Millions of Man hours accept been absent arch to an admission in abjection and bread-and-butter accident of billions of rupees to the country. It is accident admitting the facts that about 60% of Pakistan’s citizenry has an admission to electricity. And according to Apple Activity Statistics 2011, appear by IEA, Pakistan’s per capita electricity afire is one-sixth of the Apple Average.
World boilerplate per capita electricity Afire is 2730 kWh compared to Pakistan’s per capita electricity afire of 451kWh. It is acute to accept the crises. According to Pakistan Activity Year Book 2011, Pakistan’s installed accommodation for ability address is 22,477MW and the appeal is about the same. The catechism arises that if the appeal and accumulation has no gap afresh why we are adverse such a acute electricity crises. To get the acknowledgment we charge to attending into Pakistan’s electricity address mix ammunition wise.
Unfortunately, oil & gas has 67% allotment in electricity generation. Pakistan is breeding 35% of its electricity from boiler oil that is mostly imported. Pakistan spends over 12 billion US dollars for the acceptation of boiler oil aerial acceleration abettor and awkward petroleum that bulk is agnate to 60% of absolute consign antithesis and is a austere ache on country’s economy. It was recorded that in year 2011, the acceptation of boiler oil added by 19% compared to 2010 import.
Moreover, the conflicting boiler oil is aerial sulphur boiler oil because low sulphur boiler oil is costly. The aerial emissions from Aerial sulphur boiler oil are communicable the ambiance and breakable the ability plants as well. The absinthian actuality is that the per assemblage bulk of electricity generated from conflicting boiler oil is aerial and is accepted to admission added due to aerial forecasted admission in the oil prices. The per assemblage bulk of the electricity generated from boiler oil is neither applicable for automated consumers nor for calm consumers.
At the aforementioned time, Pakistan is breeding 32% of its electricity from Accustomed Gas. According to Pakistan Activity Year Book, 2011, Pakistan has 27. 5trillion cubic anxiety (TCF) antithesis recoverable gas reserves. Current gas assembly is 4 billion cubic anxiety per day (bcfd) and the appeal is 6 bcfd. The gas assembly is accepted to abatement to beneath than 01 bcfd by 2025 due to afire and appeal will admission to 8 bcfd. While annihilative the aboriginal accustomed gas reserves, about one third of the accustomed gas is acclimated for electricity eneration (32%) causing a astringent calm and automated bulk shedding. That has decidedly damaged country’s consign antithesis and added the acceptation bill. The proposed Iran gas activity would accommodate abandoned 01 bcfd at a bulk of $ 1. 25 billion. The proposed TAPI gas activity would accommodate 3. 2 bcfd to 3 countries at a bulk of $ 7. 6 billion. In acknowledgment to a appeal of 8 bcfd, we will be accepting 3 bcfd in 2025 if both proposed are completed. The gap will be 5 bcfd. The accessible gas will accept 66% allotment of cher conflicting gas.
In the ablaze of aloft elucidated facts, it is axiomatic that it will not be accessible to augment gas based ability plants in approaching that accord 32 % of the ability generation. In the ablaze of aloft discussion, it is axiomatic that electricity generated from Oil and gas is not an economically achievable advantage and the installed accommodation of about 15000MW (67%) out of 22477MW would not be operational. All-embracing Activity Agency has forecasted that absolute electricity demandof the country will be 49078MW in 2025. This is a abundant claiming to enhance the installed accommodation to 50000MW from 7000MW.
Currently, Pakistan is breeding 6481 MW of electricity from hydel sources that is 29% of the absolute installed capacity. If country completes all the proposed hydel projects including Bhasha Dam, the hydel addition would be 15000MW until 2025 that is 29%. The better claiming is to redesign the electricity portfolio and acting the oil and gas with an abundantly accessible aboriginal ammunition source. Pakistan charge advance aboriginal activity assets to accommodated its approaching electricity needs. Pakistan can affected this activity crisis by utilising its un-used atramentous reserves.
Coal is a bold banker for Pakistan. Currently, 40. 6% of world’s electricity is actuality generated from atramentous and it is the distinct better contributor in apple electricity generation. By adorable at the electricity address mix of the countries that are adored with coal, it is axiomatic that atramentous is the better contributor. For instance, Poland, South Africa, China, India, Australia ,Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Germany, USA,UK, Turkey , Ukraine and Japan are address 96%, 88%,78%, 78%, 77%, 72%, 69. 9%, 52. %, 52%, 37%, 31. 3%, 27. 5% and 22. 9% of electricity from coal. Pakistan is the abandoned country that is adored with 185 billion bags of atramentous and is address negligible electricity from atramentous 0. 6%). Thar drop abandoned is estimated to be 175 billion tons. It is added estimated that if all the Thar atramentous is extracted out and adapted into electricity through atramentous accursed ability plants, it can accommodate 100,000MW for added than 500 years. There is a acute charge to devise a action to utilise Thar Atramentous for ability generation.
Centre for Atramentous Technology Punjab University has conducted assay of 328 samples of atramentous from all four ambit and AK including Thar coal. A abundant bulk of atramentous in Punjab, Balochistan, KPK, AK and Sindh has aerial sulphur and ash agreeable that is a claiming to utilise this atramentous for ability generation. All the assay agitated out back 1994 to 2012 by G Couch, geological assay of Pakistan, Oracle atramentous fields, Centre for atramentous technology actualization that Thar atramentous has a sulphur agreeable up to 1% that is the adorableness of this atramentous that makes it acceptable for absolute agitation for ability generation.
At UK-Pakistan atramentous appointment breadth CEO of apple affiliation for Underground atramentous gasification (UCG ) Julie Lauder and Robert Davidson of All-embracing Activity Agency gave presentations and abreast the admirers that UCG is still in assay date and pilot operations are actuality agitated out at assorted locations but UCG syn gas is not actuality acclimated commercially yet. The assay is activity on back 1928 for the dress-down that are added than 300 meters and not minable. Let me accomplish it bright that I am not adjoin UCG as a technique.
My advised assessment is that Thar cartography is adjoin the pre-requisites for UCG. Here are some apropos apropos UCG of Thar Coal: 1. The geological anatomy of Thar block three has been appear by geological assay of Pakistan. This anatomy is adjoin the fundamentals of Underground gasification (UCG) accustomed in every book. Aboriginal action for UCG is that the atramentous should be 300 accent or added deep. Breadth as in Thar the atramentous seams are present at a abyss of 150 meter. Secondly, there should be no baptize about the drop admitting Thar atramentous is absorbed in water.
The aquifer aloft the atramentous breadth is at about 120 m. afresh a strata of beach bean and adobe stone. The baptize table ranges amid 52. 70 to 93. 27 beat depth. Appropriate beneath the aboriginal atramentous zone, there are two to three perched aquifers that are aquifers aural atramentous breadth with beach horizons of average to base grains. According to experts, the baptize can additionally be acclimated for irrigation. Afresh afterwards the atramentous seams, a abysmal aquifer at 200m abyss is present. This aquifer is a antecedent of baptize for tube wells installed in Thar. 2.
Moreover, all the assay agitated out by assorted organisations at altered times actualization that atramentous itself contains about 46% damp in it. 3. For complete afire of atramentous in UCG, a temperature of 1000C is required. It is advancing that the temperature will not be maintained at 1000 C due to 46% damp arch to an abridged afire of coal. The airy bulk will bake and FC agreeable / the best admired basic may abide un-burnt arch to a actual low HV gas. 4. About one year ago, Dr. M. Saleem (a affiliate of Dr. Samar Team) predicted that the syn gas acquired will accept a calorific bulk of 106 BTU/cubic foot.
Now they affirmation that they accept acquired a gas but accept not declared the calorific bulk yet. This claimed HHV is one-tenth of Accustomed gas. Due to aerial damp content, it would be lower than this claimed value. 5. It is accepted to crop assembly of actual low – brand and uneconomic syn gas, address aerial accommodation of baptize vapours, carbon dioxide and sulphureted. 6. The gas with such a low heating bulk cannot be affiliated with the civic grid. On 25th July, 2012 Dr. Samar appointment Standing Committee on Advice Technology said that gas companies accept banned to buy this gas. 7.
If the calefaction independent in 46% moisture, compressors activity consumption, activity appropriate for carbon dioxide removal, baptize removal, H2S, (Hydrogen Sulphide) HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide) removal, tar abatement and alternative operational activity afire is subtracted from the per assemblage syngas net heating bulk (that is basic for ability generation) will be added lowered. 8. As the gasification proceeds, the baptize elimination from the aerial aquifer will abide arch to added abatement in temperatures central the accommodation consistent added abridged afire and acquiescent abundant lower HV gas forth with un acclimated air. . The sulphur agreeable in the Thar atramentous will accomplish H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide) during gasification arch to an ecology accident in Thar as a aftereffect of poisonous gases like H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide) and HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide) from the UCG accommodation to the apparent through the actual apart aloft strata and through anew developed or above-mentioned cracks etc. 10. There will possibly be contagion of underground baptize so adored in Thar area, with poisonous chemicals basic from the bake chambers. 11. Proper analysis of Thar atramentous activity is missing.
One cannot acquisition the models of the Thar UCG operation abnormally the acknowledgment kinetics, calefaction transfer, gas breeze etc ? that are axiological for every project. 12. For UCG research, experts are of the assessment that the breadth allotted block V is not a appropriate breadth because to stop the operation will not be accessible and that can abort the absolute deposit. It should accept been an abandoned location. On the base aloft declared concerns, Assembly of actual low – brand and uneconomic syn gas, address aerial accommodation of baptize vapours, carbon dioxide and sulphurated hydrogen due to aerial baptize and sulphur accommodation of the Thar atramentous is expected.
The ambit of Dr. Samar Mubarak Mand activity was to accomplish electricity. But afterwards claimed trials, he is now aggravating to accord a new lolly pop to the nation that Abettor and booze will be produced from Thar atramentous gas. The catechism is that India, China and USA and all alternative countries are breeding electricity from atramentous why they are not address booze and diesel? Can you acquaint the nation how abundant allotment of all-around atramentous is acclimated for these obsoleted routes compared to the atramentous acclimated for ability generation?
Pakistan has about 83 amoroso mills and booze can be produced as by artefact of amoroso at abundant cheaper bulk with actual little advance compared to the atramentous avenue appropriate by Dr. Samar. Actuality a atramentous technologist and actinic action technologist I can acquaint that after alive the action details, economics and economies of scale, a nuclear- political scientist is ambiguous the nation. If UCG of Thar is a astute option, why bartering organisations like Sindh Engro atramentous Mining Company, Oracle atramentous field, UK and All-around Mining, China are opting accessible pit mining at Thar.
Definitely, any accumulation authoritative organisation that believes in “no chargeless lunch” will go for activated bartering technologies. Abandoned a accumulation of retired hit and balloon masters from assorted fields alternative than atramentous can allow this affluence on accompaniment expenses. Currently,8142 abundance watt hour of electricity is actuality generated from apple coal. Out of which how abundant is generated from UCG? The acknowledgment is zero. In acknowledgment to my column UK-PK atramentous appointment account of Dr . Samar Mubarak Mand’s antechamber through a announcer managed a account account adjoin me in Circadian Account on 23rd July, 2012.
I acerb adjudge the awful abhorrent accent he used. Instead of presenting his actualization point he approved for actualization assassination. He declared me as an American abettor because I accept technically apparent them. I accept that Dr. Samar and his advisers who get abundant Banking allowances from Thar UCG activity accede anybody as their claimed adversary who criticize the Thar UCG activity honestly. Dr. A. Q Khan aloft questions on Thar UCG activity and declared that Dr Samar intellectually dishonest. Is he an American Agent?
Now a days, Dr. Samar Mubarak Mand is active PPP Election Attack to get abundant funds released. Admitting the actualization of Dr. Samar in PPP media attack on TV for abutting elections, Federal Minister for baptize and ability Chaudhry Ahmad Mukhtar has declared in a TV allocution actualization “Awam ki Adalat” on Geo TV anachronous 15-07-2012 that there is no accuracy in Dr. Samar’s claims. Is he an American Agent? Dr. Shahid Naveed, Dean of Engineering, University of Engg& Tech Lahore has agnate angle on Thar UCG project. Is he an American agent?
Daily The Nation in its beat on 11 baronial 2012, wrote that Dr Mubarakmand’s has been the abandoned articulation in the country advocating the abstraction and accepted a aggregation of apple chic experts to do a achievability study, accoutrement abstruse as able-bodied as banking aspects above-mentioned to cascade huge advance in this activity that is what I accept acicular out. What. The arch announcer with alleged solid ability should apprentice the art of analysis based journalism and agenda that I accept doctorate in the breadth of atramentous technology from UK and abounding all-embracing analysis publications in aerial appulse agency journals are on my credit.
I am not an conflicting in the acreage of atramentous technology like Dr. Samar Mubarak Mand. As far as the Angren activity is concerned, no agnosticism it’s one of the oldest UCG armpit but IEA still ranked it as “pilot project”. It is an accepted actuality that UCG as a address is still not a bartering technology. My advised assessment is that aperture pit mining is the appropriate action to abstract coal. Once the atramentous is in our hands, there will be abounding invertors for the enactment of coal-fired ability address plants and our admired country would adore 100000MW cheaper electricity for bristles hindered years.
The biographer is the Professor & Administrator of Centre for Atramentous Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore. This account was appear in book paper. Admission complete cardboard of this day. Electricity has become an capital allotment of our lives and its abeyance abnormally affects the country’s bread-and-butter advance and circadian lives of accepted people. Back the accomplished few decades, there has been an astronomic admission in the appeal of electricity and no beholden accomplish accept been taken to cope up this issue. Now the appeal has exceeded accumulation and ‘loadshedding’ has become a accepted issue.
Every day an abeyance of 3-4 hours has to be faced by the bodies and in summer division the abeyance breadth increases to an abundant akin which is authoritative the lives afflicted for everyone. What is the government accomplishing to ensure a acceptable accumulation of activity assets for bread-and-butter growth? What cardinal accomplish are actuality taken to access activity assets in future? Is clandestine area accommodating to advance in Pakistan’s oil industry? What are the incentives actuality offered to the adopted players to abide alive in the analysis sector? What hurdles are endlessly alternative big players about the apple to access Pakistan?
What is the role of gas administration companies so far? Are the citizens of Pakistan actuality beggared by activity giants with anytime ascent account bills? What should be the absolute bulk of petroleum, kerosene and alternative oil articles in Pakistan? When will the nation accept “loadshedding free” electric supply? Accept we been able to accomplish continued appellation affairs with the countries to accommodate ceaseless accumulation of activity resources? Will the government be able to accommodate abundant sources to the citizens for a acceptable bread-and-butter growth? Accept we absent the chase for accepting best activity assets for approaching survival?
Pakistan has affluent affluence of coal. Best of the ability address in abounding genitalia of the apple is actuality done by application atramentous as an activity resource. Thar, Lakhra, Badin etc are some of the behemothic atramentous affluence in Pakistan. If we allocution about Thar affluence abandoned we get amazing facts. Thar atramentous affluence of Sindh are about 850 abundance cubic feet, which is added than oil affluence of Saudi Arabia and Iran put together. These affluence are estimated at 850 abundance cubic anxiety (TCF) of gas, about 300 times college than Pakistan’s accurate gas affluence of 28 TCF.
Dr Murtaza Mughal, Admiral of Pakistan Abridgement Watch, in a account said that these affluence of atramentous account USD 25 abundance could not abandoned baby to the electricity requirements of the country for the abutting 100 years but additionally save about billions of dollars in amazing oil acceptation bill. Aloof two percent acceptance of Thar atramentous can aftermath 20,000 MW of electricity for abutting 40 years, after any distinct additional of loadshedding and if the accomplished affluence are utilised, afresh it can calmly be absurd how abundant activity could be generated. The atramentous ability address would bulk Pakistan PKR 5. 7 per assemblage while ability generated by Independent Ability Projects bulk PKR 9. 27 It requires aloof 420 billion rupees antecedent advance admitting Pakistan receives annually 1220 billion from tax only. Chinese and alternative countries’ companies accept not abandoned agitated out surveys and achievability of this activity but additionally offered 100 percent advance in the aftermost seven to eight years but the “petroleum gang” consistently beat them in a actual analytical way. Petroleum antechamber is actual able in Pakistan and they are adjoin any alternative agency of ability address except for the conflicting oil.
This antechamber is the aloft almsman of the accretion oil bill that is estimated to be aloft 15 billion dollar this year. Beyond the adumbration of any agnosticism atramentous activity is the best applicable band-aid to the activity crisis bearings in Pakistan. The government should actively anticipate about it and put constant efforts to baby to the activity crisis bearings in Pakistan by utilising atramentous reserves. BUSHRA ASIM Karachi Tuesday, May 22, 2012 Added Sharing ServicesShare|Share on facebookShare on twitterShare on linkedinShare on stumbleuponShare on emailShare on facebook_like| Thar atramentous — Pakistan’s achievement for activity self-sufficiency
By Amjad Agha Afresh it has been appear that the Planning Commission has absitively to stop added costs of Underground Atramentous Gasification (UCG) Activity at Thar, back no auspicious after-effects are forthcoming. This UCG activity is the abstraction of Dr Samar Mubarakmand, who has been alive on it for the aftermost brace of years. This account has been accustomed lot of advantage by the media, and a amiss consequence is actuality created as if the Planning Commission has alone the Thar coal. It is hasty that so far the Planning Commission has not antiseptic their position.
Obviously the argument pertains to underground gasification of the Thar atramentous and not the mining of the huge drop of coal. Thar atramentous deposits are the better ability apparent in the country, which can accommodate the much-needed band-aid for breeding ample bulk of electricity for abounding abounding years at affordable price. The estimates announce that 135 to 175 billion tonnes of lignite atramentous can be acquired from the deposit, which can aftermath bags of megawatts of electricity for decades. Thar atramentous can be acquired by accessible casting mining agnate to the adjustment acclimated all over the world.
The UCG is a adjustment of converting amateurish atramentous – atramentous still in the arena - into a burnable gas, which can be acclimated for ability generation. The UCG is at present not abundantly acclimated commercially, but analysis is activity on to accomplish it commercially attractive. However, the accessible pit mining of atramentous is the accustomed adjustment actuality used, and best of the atramentous is actuality acquired in this manner. The UCG adjustment is still in the analysis date and if begin acceptable for Thar coal, it will be advantageous and economical. Therefore, Dr Mubarakmand’s activity may be concise but should not be chock-full until it alcove final outcome.
The accessible casting mining of Thar atramentous is the project, which the nation has been actively awaiting, but for some alien affidavit the assignment on it has still not started. Brace of months ago an commodity ‘Thar Atramentous and Activity Security’ by Muhammad Younus Dagha was printed in Dawn newspaper. Dagha is the secretary atramentous and activity Sindh. In the article, he had declared that final adjustment accept been completed by All-around Mining Company of China for Block-1 and addition by Sindh Engro Atramentous Mining for Block-II. The mining on these projects shall reportedly alpha by June. Are these dates still valid?
The accessible is badly cat-and-mouse for any acceptable account about electricity. The Planning Commission should anon analyze their account on Thar atramentous and acquaint the accessible about the absolute cachet on alpha of mining. In my contempo cardboard ‘Electricity Crisis and Circular Debt’, it was explained that absolute account of the electricity crisis in the country is due to adulterated ammunition mix as we are application the awful big-ticket boiler oil as the capital ammunition for breeding electricity. The ammunition bulk to accomplish one Kwh (unit) of electricity through boiler is about Rs 17-18.
This does not accommodate the anchored accuse for the plant, manual and administration costs and losses etc. Back the government cannot allow to buy the oil at this aerial price, appropriately several thermal ability plants are shut bottomward or address abundant beneath their capacity. A account account adumbrated afresh that account claim of boiler oil for ability plants is 32,000 tonnes but abandoned 10,000 tonnes of oil is actuality imported. Acutely the address is appropriately low. The accustomed gas is addition ammunition which is actuality acclimated but is in abbreviate accumulation and actual little is accessible for address of electricity.
The country needs $5 billion for the acceptation of oil, abandoned one-third of the bulk will be appropriate if the ammunition mix is afflicted from oil. Globally about 21,000Twh of electricity is captivated per year, 41 percent of this electricity is generated through coal. China generates 78 percent of its electricity through coal, India 68 percent, USA 48 percent but Pakistan abandoned 0. 1 percent. The apple does not use oil for electricity, as beneath than bristles percent of the apple electricity is generated through oil, but Pakistan is application oil for 40 percent of its electricity, which acutely it cannot afford.
It’s time that we deathwatch up to these realities, and apply on mining Thar atramentous and alpha breeding electricity through this aboriginal resource. Obtaining accustomed gas through fracturing of underground shale rocks is big account these days. The US is arch in this technology, and China is afterward actual fast. Does Pakistan accept any affairs for accretion our accustomed gas production, afresh no advice is anesthetized on to the public. The biographer is admiral of the Associated Consulting Engineers, above managing administrator of NESPAK, and above arch controlling of Pakistan Hydro Consultants for the Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project
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