Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition)

Exam 1 Introduction to Anatomy  What is the analogue of anatomy? What is the analogue of physiology? What is homeostasis? What are the two means in which homeostasis is maintained? What are the directional agreement acclimated to acquisition things in the body? For example, what are the medical agreement for the following?  What are the aloft cavities of the body? What are the planes of the body? What are the anatomy regions?  What are the four belly quadrants and what aloft organs are begin in anniversary quadrant? What are the levels of the alignment and what is the order? Chemistry What are the four aloft elements of the body? What are the bottom or trace elements of the body? What are the three subatomic particles and what allegation do they carry? What is an isotope? What is the aberration amid an atom and an element? What are the three aloft types of actinic bonds? How do they differ?  Give examples for each. What three atoms are associated with hydrogen bonding? What are the two aloft types of actinic reactions? Do you accomplish or use activity back you accomplish a bond? Break a bond? What is the aberration amid a agitator and an enzyme? What is the aloft atom/element independent in amoebic compounds? What is acid? What is the base? What is pH the admeasurement of? If aspirin is a abominably acerb drug, area is it best acceptable to be captivated in the gastrointestinal tract? Why? Is auto abstract an archetype of an acerbic or a base? Is domiciliary chlorine an archetype of an acerbic or a base? What are the four aloft types of amoebic compounds? What are examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides? What are the examples of lipids? What are the examples of proteins? What are the architecture blocks of proteins? What do proteins accommodate that carbohydrates and lipids do not? What are the two aloft types of nucleic acids? What are the two aloft types of purines? What are the three aloft types of pyrimidines? Which purines are affirmed to which pyrimidines? How abounding hydrogen bonds authority them together? What is DNA? What is RNA? What are the nucleotides (chains of nucleic acids) composed of? What are the two aloft genitalia of metabolism? What are the aerial compounds which abundance energy? Cells What is the claret film composed of? What is the action of the claret membrane? What are the two altered types of claret film proteins? What are the three functions of film proteins? Where are glycolipids alone found? What are the three aloft types of film junctions? What are their functions? What is osmosis? What is diffusion? What are the two aloft types? What is alive transport? What are the aloft types? What is endocytosis/exocytosis? What are the altered types of endocytosis? What is phagocytosis? What is pinocytosis? What is clathrin-mediated/receptor-mediated endocytosis? What is the cytoplasm? Cytosol? What are the aloft organelles of the cell? What are their functions? For example, what is the action of the afterward organelles?  Mitochondria o Peroxisomes o Lysosomes o Endoplasmic reticulum? Smooth? Rough o Golgi accoutrement o Cytoskeleton o Centrioles o Ribosomes o Etc. (Maybe more) What are cilia? What is the nucleus? What does it contain? What is chromatin? What is the corpuscle cycle? When is DNA replicated? What does the corpuscle abide corpuscle division? What is mitosis? What are the phases of mitosis? What occurs during anniversary phase? What is meiosis? How does it alter from mitosis? What are the phases of meiosis? What is transcription? From what to what? What is translation? From what to what? Tissues What makes up tissues? What are the 4 altered types of tissues? What are the altered types of epithelial tissues? How do you name the epithelial tissues? o Simple o Stratified o Pseudostratified o Transitional o Squamous o Cuboidal o Columnar o Etc. (look for more) Where are these epithelial tissues located? What are the aloft functions of each? What is the aberration amid exocrine and endocrine glands? Area do you acquisition beaker cells? What is the action of beaker cells? What are the altered types of exocrine glands? (Structures) What is the aberration amid merocrine and holocrine glands? What are the altered types of affiliation tissues? What are their (above) functions and area are they found? What 3 structural elements accomplish up affiliation tissue? What are the characteristics of afraid tissue? What are the 3 altered types of beef tissue? What the differences? What are the similarities? What are the characteristics of each? What happens in tissue repair? Bark Tissue What are the 3 aloft regions of the skin? What are the 4 beef of the epidermis? What are their functions? What are the 4 or 5 layers of the epidermis? Where do you acquisition degree lucidum? What is additionally alleged the basal layer? What is additionally alleged degree germinativum? o What do you acquisition in this layer? What is additionally alleged the annoying layer? What do you acquisition in this layer? What is additionally alleged the diminutive layer? Where do you acquisition anniversary type? What are the altered types of advance for cartilage and which administration do they occur? Appositional o Interstitial  Is cartilage vascular? What are the 2 aloft capacity of the skeleton? What are the 4 aloft appearance classifications for bone? What are some aloft functions of bone? What are the aloft cartilage arrangement and how are they described?  Tuberosity o Crest o Trochanter o Band o Tubercle o Epicondyle o Spine o Process Head o Facet o Condyle o Ramus o Meatus o Sinus o Fossa o Groove o Fissure o Foramen What is: o Diaphysis? o Epiphysis? o Metaphysis?  Epiphyseal line? o Periosteum? o Medullary cavity? Is cartilage vascular? What blazon of tissue is bone? What makes up cartilage tissue? o Ground substance?  Fibers?  Cells? What types of basal accommodate absorptive bone? What is the action of red cartilage marrow?  In infants?  In adults? What is the action of chicken cartilage marrow? What is the anatomic (or basic) assemblage of the bone? What are Haversian systems (or osteons)? What are the anatomic zones in continued cartilage growth? o What are the 3 zones? How does advance hormone (GH) affect cartilage advance afore adolescence (and epiphyseal advance bowl closure? How does advance hormone (GH) affect cartilage advance afterwards adolescence (and epiphyseal advance bowl closure)? What are the two hormones appear at puberty?  What blazon of cease occurs as a result? what blazon of advance does this cease end? What is the aberration amid cartilage degradation and resorption? What is calcium acclimated for? What is the action of calcitonin? Where does it appear from? What is the action of the parathyroid hormone? What is Wolff’s law? Fractures? Comminuted o Compression o Spiral o Epiphyseal o Depressed o Greenstick What are the stages of cartilage healing?

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