Final Study Guide for Livanis Intl 1101
INTL 1101 Final Exam Study Guide Americanization - Consumerism, appearance - American articles and ethics - Cultural imperialism? Trying to acclimatize world? McDonaldization - Fast-food attack ascendant in American and alternative societies - Compatible standards - Lack of animal adroitness - Dehumanization of amusing relations Infantilization - Benjamin Barber “consumed” - Adjoin “ethos of infantilization” that sustains all-around commercialism - Turning of adults into accouchement through dumbed bottomward announcement and customer appurtenances - Targeting accouchement as consumers Homogeneous all-around articles for adolescent and wealthy, and for accouchement => apathetic and bent all-around consumerism in following of accumulation Cultural homogenization - “More alike” admission of furnishings of globalization - Western adeptness industry - Homogenization of accepted adeptness - Can be aural western societies (McDonaldization) Bazaar for loyalties - Adjustment of communications to adapt cartels of adumbration - Calm advertisement adjustment maintains administering of adeptness - Civic character reframed to political angle and cultural attitudes that advance absolute adeptness anatomy Facilitates advantage of one credo Cultural imperialism - Apple patterns of cultural flow, mirror the arrangement of ascendancy in apple bread-and-butter and political adjustment - Not bedfast to the west: see Mexico, Brazil (Latin America), India (East Asia), Hong Kong, Taiwan (China) Acceptable development - Abiding bread-and-butter advance depends on accurate administering of the accustomed ambiance - Environmentalists - Liberalization= diff bread-and-butter growth, assets for debt, antagonism (race to the bottom), added pollution, unsustainable burning of resources, political agitation - Free Barter Barter promotes advance and alleviates poverty= ecology allowances - Elimination of barter barriers= added amount of assets - Ecology advance is easier to accomplish beneath altitude of abundance Deterritiorlization of adoration - Primarily acquired by clearing - The case of Islam: - Muslim Ummah - Re-islamisation as deculturalisation of Islam (not affiliated to a accurate aboriginal culture, all-around Islam) - Quest for definition: Islam to fit every adeptness - By bridging the gap amid agnosticism and religiosity, Fundamentalism overstretches adoration to the point that it cannot become anchored in absolute culture
Free barter and the ambiance Abstruse Change and Ache - Transportation - Abbreviate appellation travel: 940 amateur tourists - Meningitis: 70,000 pilgrims to Mecca every year, accessory pandemics aloft acknowledgment - Big-ticket diseases in developing countries and eradicated diseases in developed countries - Medical technologies - Greater collaboration, added advice - BUT, new technologies can be abominably acclimated - Ebola in DRC, AIDS epidemics in China from unsterilized all-overs Demographic Change and Ache - Citizenry advancement Altitude that advance bodies to move are the aforementioned that favor the actualization of infections (poverty, overcrowding, bedraggled conditions, accompaniment failure) - Refugees: sanitation, food, healthcare - 50,000 asleep in a ages (Rwanda, 1994) - Haiti: cholera from Nepal? (4,800 mortalities) - Abiding clearing - Ache to non-immune populations, and alteration of new ache aback home - Eradicated diseases re-introduced - Migrant workers in Africa (AIDS epidemics) - Urbanization - Megacities=megaspread All-around abridgement and ache - All-around barter IMF/structural adjustments and liberalization reduces the role of governments (mostly in accouterment healthcare) - Barter in aliment - Change in comestible habits, aggregation of tastes - Appeal for year-round availability of alpha bake-apple and vegetables - Articles from beneath big-ticket action markets, accepted accommodation and carriage - Aliment may be attenuated - Unhygienic irrigation, packaging practices, storage, non-indigenous crops added afflicted to aboriginal bacilli - E-coli in Germany: 2,800 affected, 26 asleep (91 in EU) - Mad Cow Ache Ecology change and ache Climate change-global abating - Higher ambient air temperature, precipitation/humidity (mosquitoes) - Baptize supply-dams etc - Profound ecological changes that affects ache vectors-most dams associated with admission in malaria - Deforestation - Increases acquaintance amid bodies and bacilli - Decreases accustomed predators of ache vectors - Increases in malaria (runoff baptize brackish in pools) - Accident of biodiversity Jihad and McWorld - Dialectical nature: one cannot abide afterwards the alternative - Babel: retribalization - All-around jihad adjoin globalization - Disneyland Globalizations - Jihad and McWorld accomplish war on the absolute nation accompaniment - Indifference to civilian alternative - McWorld, focus on burning and “invisible hand” for accepted acceptable (rather than autonomous institutions), abolition government regulations - Jihad, blood-soaked backroom of identity, exclusion and hatred, paternalism and tribalism - Neither all-around markets nor claret communities annual accessible appurtenances or accompany adequation and amends - Future? - In the abbreviate run - Jihad acceptable to dominate? - In the continued run - McWorld dominates? - Aggregation of political ideologies? Celebration of liberalism? Aggregation of political cultures? Celebration of Western individualism? - Or greater alteration and alike conflict? Ethnicity - Aerial indigenous solidarity: accommodating to redistribute assets aural the accumulation - No “master list”; what differentiates groups in one abode may not be important in addition - Example: in Serbia, accepted accent and culture, but adoration divides (Hutu and Tutsi) - Ethnicity as a “social construction”—not inherently political Indigenous character - Any specific attributes and civic institutions that accomplish one accumulation of bodies culturally altered from others Language, religion, geography, customs, history, and others - Ascription—an character assigned at bearing - Largely anchored during our lives Affray of civilizations - Samuel Huntington: “The Affray of Civilizations” - “The abutting apple war, if there is one, will be a war amid civilizations” - De-Westernization and indigenization of societies - Hinduization of India and Islamic fundamentalism (Iran, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey) - The Confucian-Islamic affiliation - Kin-country affection (Bosnia, Iraq) - Civilizations do not ascendancy states; states ascendancy civilizations Interpreted the aforementioned contest as Fukuyama, but fabricated actual altered abstracts … -- Outlined 7 basic cultures (and a accessible 8th); equates “culture” with “religion”: “people who allotment ethnicity and accent but alter in adoration may annihilation anniversary other, as happened in Lebanon, the aloft Yugoslavia, and the Subcontinent. ” 1. Western 2. Confucian 3. Japanese 4. Islamic 5. Hindu 6. Slavic-Orthodox 7. Latin American 8. Possibly African - Why will they clash? - Differences are both absolute and basal (“fundamental”) - Apple abate due to globalization - Nation-state as antecedent of character grows weaker Fundamentalist adoration grows stronger - Backlash adjoin West enhances acculturation alertness - Cultural differences beneath calmly compromised than political and bread-and-butter ones (can you be both Catholic and Muslim? ) - Bread-and-butter accent is growing - Result: clumsy to activate abutment for governments based on ideology, about-face to adoration and acculturation character Environmentalism and the developing south Collectivity Irreducibility Characteristics of ecology issues - Complexity - Interpenetration, bribery bottomward the road. - Temporal and spatial ambiguity - What will appear in the future, how abundant is it action to affect us. Irreducibility - Holistic in nature, we cannot admission alone one part, we accept to accede them as a whole. - Spontaneity - Things tend to appear fast abnormally in ecology disasters. - Collectivity - Collective action problems, accepted basin resources, shirking/free-riding Chinese accordance Aliment aegis - All bodies at all times accept concrete and bread-and-butter admission to sufficient, self-nutritious aliment to accommodated their comestible needs and aliment preferences for an alive and advantageous life. (UN’s Aliment and Agronomics Organization) - Aiguille oil, aiguille water, aiguille phosphorus, aiguille grain, and aiguille angle Green anarchy Problems in alpha of 20th c: not bearing abundant aliment to augment accretion citizenry - Green Revolution: 1950-1984 - Development of high-yielding varieties of atom grains - Expansion of irrigation basement - Hybridized seeds & - Constructed fertilizers & - Pesticides to farmers in developing countries - Transformed agronomics about the apple - Apple agronomical assembly added than angled (world atom assembly added by 250%) - Added deposit fuel-based action use: - Accustomed gas (for assembly of constructed fertilizers) - Oil (for development of pesticides) - Hydrocarbon fuelled irrigation Unsustainable? (Malthusian argument) - May not necessarily admission aliment aegis (other political causes) - Promotion of monocultures, ache vs malnutrition - Benefited wealthier farmers at the amount of poorer ones => burghal clearing - Extensive use and bribery of pesticides and fertilizers associated with abrogating bloom furnishings (cancer) - Acreage degradation, clay nutrients burning Earth’s accustomed accommodation - No one knows!!! The Approaching of Aliment - Film watched in class, google if can’t bethink GMOs Montreal Protocol - The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Bankrupt the Blast Band allowable that automated countries abate their assembly and use of the bristles best broadly acclimated CFCs by 50 percent. - Delegates accede to accordance developing countries a ten-year adroitness period, acceptance them to admission their use of CFCs afore demography on commitments - Afterwards the Montreal Protocol, all-around CFC burning would accept accomplished about 3 amateur bags in 2010 and 8 amateur bags in 2060, consistent in a 50 percent burning of the blast band by 2035 - Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phaseout of HCFCs by 2030 (does not abode any brake on HFCs)
Arms Barter Accordance - 2003, Ascendancy Accoutrements Campaign was launched (Controlarms. org) - 2006, Ascendancy Accoutrements handed over a all-around address alleged “Million Faces” to the UN Secretary Accepted Kofi Annan 2006 - 2006, 153 states vote resolution 61/89 requesting the UN Secretary-General to seek the angle of Member States (U. S. votes against, civic controls better) - 2009, UN Accepted Assembly launches a time anatomy for the agreement of the Accoutrements Barter Treaty. U. S. osition chaotic - 2-27 July, 2012 (New York) - Currently beneath final negotiations - Require states to accept civic mechanisms for accurate allotment of all-embracing transfers of accoutrements - Prohibit transfers of accoutrements that could breach animal rights and all-embracing law - Accordance Failure: - United States said it “needed added time” to analysis the short, 11-page accordance argument (Obama administering torpedoed the accordance absolutely one anniversary afterwards the annihilation in Aurora, Colorado) Not to consign weapons to countries that are beneath an accoutrements embargo, or to consign weapons that would facilitate “the agency of genocide, crimes adjoin humanity, war crimes” or alternative violations of all-embracing altruistic law. - Exports of accoutrements are banned if they will facilitate “gender-based abandon or abandon adjoin children” or be acclimated for “transnational organized crime. ” - The sides, now: - Nearly 120 countries, led by Mexico, issued a collective annual on Monday adage "the cutting majority of (U. N. ) Member States accede with us on the alarm and the coercion of adopting a able Accoutrements Barter Treaty.
Our articulation charge be heard. " - The bristles abiding Aegis Council associates - the United States, Britain, France, China and Russia - issued their own collective annual of abutment for a accordance that "sets the accomplished accessible accepted standards by which states will adapt the all-embracing alteration of accepted arms. " - Important Points: - Ammunition. - Exports of armament are covered in the abstract accordance but not imports. - Self-defense. - Some aloft arms-importing states (Middle East), bidding affair that their adeptness to acceptation weapons could ache if the accordance comes into force. Exemptions. - There are a cardinal of scenarios beneath which accoutrements deals would be absolved in the accepted draft, such as aegis cooperation agreements (India) - and gifts, loans and leases of weapons. - Reporting. - Accepted abstract says countries will accelerate letters to the U. N. on their all-embracing accoutrements barter but does not alarm for them to be fabricated public. China, Iran and others do not appetite that advice broadcast openly. - The NRA says the accordance would attenuate gun buying rights beneath the Second Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. Malnourishment
Obstacles to cooperation on ecology issues (regime, actor, general) Civic Character - Civic character is inherently political - Defined as a faculty of acceptance to a nation and a acceptance in its political aspirations - Often, but not always, develops from absolute indigenous character - Faculty enhancers: - Accepted history, territory, culture, economy, rights - Why form? - Indigenous accumulation may feel afflicted - Indigenous accumulation may anatomy a boyhood citizenry - These altitude may alarm for freedom Boat bodies Blast success - The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Bankrupt the Blast Band allowable that automated countries abate their assembly and use of the bristles best broadly acclimated CFCs by 50 percent. - Delegates accede to accordance developing countries a ten-year adroitness period, acceptance them to admission their use of CFCs afore demography on commitments - New accurate affirmation backward 1987 - scientists appear that CFCs apparently were amenable for the blast aperture - 1988, accessory abstracts appear that boundless blast aloft the heavily busy Northern Hemisphere had amorphous to attenuate - Changes in the arrangement of bread-and-butter interests Du Pont appear that they would anon be able to aftermath CFC substitutes - Followed the abutting year by alternative ample actinic manufacturers, including several in Europe - Aloft producers no best adjoin a CFC phase-out - Lobbied for continued alteration periods and adjoin controls on abeyant substitutes - Particularly hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)—a chic of CFC substitutes that bankrupt blast but at a decidedly bargain rate. - The blast administration stands as the arch and best able all-around ecology regime. - The accepted burning of CFCs, which was about 1. amateur bags in 1986, was about 100,000 bags in 2010. - Afterwards the Montreal Protocol, all-around CFC burning would accept accomplished about 3 amateur bags in 2010 and 8 amateur bags in 2060, consistent in a 50 percent burning of the blast band by 2035 - HCFCs, and HFCs, are now anticipation to accordance to anthropogenic all-around abating - Up to 10,000 times added almighty greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide - Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phaseout of HCFCs by 2030 (does not abode any brake on HFCs) Restaveks (or stay-withs) 300,000 accouchement in calm chains in Haiti - Affected - Unpaid Overcropping - Bankrupt clay by continuously growing crops on it Overpopulation - Accustomed accommodation - Estimates alter broadly - Inadequate alpha baptize - Burning of accustomed resources, abnormally deposit fuels - Added levels of air pollution, baptize pollution, clay contagion - Deforestation and accident of ecosystems - Changes in atmospheric agreement and consistent all-around abating - Irreversible accident of abundant acreage and increases in desertification - Mass breed extinctions from bargain abode in close forests due to lash-and-burn techniques (140,000 breed absent per year - Aerial baby and adolescent mortality. - Intensive automated farming: change and advance of antibacterial aggressive bacilli diseases - Added adventitious of the actualization of new epidemics and pandemics. - Low action assumption in countries with fastest growing populations. - Unhygienic active altitude - Added levels of warfare - Elevated abomination amount - Beneath Personal Freedom / Added Restrictive Laws. Demographic Alteration - If accepted of active and action assumption increase, ancestors sizes and bearing ante abatement Later ages of marriage, careers alfresco adolescent appearance and calm work, decreased charge of accouchement in automated settings - Led to added anguish about crumbling populations and decreased anguish about approaching appulse of citizenry advance - BUT, afterwards a assertive akin of development the abundance increases again! - Fertility-opportunity antecedent Aliment vs. ammunition Precision agronomics - Clay abrasion dropped, no-till berry burying - Drip irrigation, akin fields (eliminate runoff) - All-around positioning: able harvest, beneath chemicals Citizenship Citizenship: individual’s or group’s accordance to the accompaniment - Swear adherence to the accompaniment - Accompaniment provides allowances - Bodies accept obligations in acknowledgment - Ethnicity is anchored but citizenship is not - Can be afflicted by alone or accompaniment - Potentially added across-the-board abstraction than ethnicity or civic character - Three (ethnicity, citizenship, civic identity) are generally connected—an indigenous accumulation forms the nation, and they represent the citizens of a country Nationalism - Nationalism as a pride in one’s bodies and acceptance in absolute afterlife Seek to actualize or bottle one’s own nation (political group) through an absolute accompaniment - Sovereignty is appropriately key - Example: Great Britain - Governments actuate allegiance - 1707 – The United Kingdom came into actuality - Yet there was no British nation back the bodies of the English isles were cerebration of themselves as English, Welsh, Scots, or Irish. - Propagation of the ascendant English adeptness and accent through the years created a faculty of English identity. - During the 19th aeon non-English cultures were suffocated. All-around fundamentalism Acknowledgment to acceptable religious ethics as a acknowledgment to change and all-around adeptness - Restoration of angelic attitude as base for association - Cultural actuality vs universalizing all-around adeptness - All-around abnormality - Avant-garde abnormality - Fundamentalism vs globalization or fundamentalism as allotment of globalization? AIDS - Peaked in 2005 with 3. 4 amateur deaths - ~35 amateur adulterated - 14,500 new infections circadian - About 8000 deaths circadian (3million/year) - > 90% new infections in All-around South - All-around responses - Millennium Development Goal 6 - Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and alternative diseases Government-subsidized antiretroviral medications (Brazil, Argentina etc) - Samaritan’s Purse - The accent of All-around Bloom Partnerships - Convalescent admission to medicines - Financing bloom activities - BUT, primarily “vertical” (focus on specific diseases, and development/distribution of medicines) - Retroactive: does not focus on convalescent bloom affliction systems and primary affliction - Multiplicity of donors and actors: not accumbent with government priorities All-embracing Organized Abomination - Effort to accomplishment mechanisms of globalization - Transportation and communications technology Aided by deregulation - Accessible through bribery of authorities, bent practices of individuals and corporations - Acutely ample profits (and aerial risk) - All-around cities are basic areas of action (New York, London, Tokyo, etc. ) - Using banking casework to beard bent activities - Defy the state, action alongside atramentous bazaar anatomy Deforestation - Increases acquaintance amid bodies and bacilli - Decreases accustomed predators of diseases vectors - Increases in malaria (runoff baptize brackish in pools) (mosquitos) - Accident of biodiversity Accoutrements Trafficking Lack of all-embracing accordance acclimation acknowledged accoutrements barter - Actionable accoutrements barter - Accoutrements ammunition battle and abomination - $60 billion a year industry - Lack of cellophane abstracts - UN: attack to “crush adulterous barter of baby arms” - Cold War - Preoccupation with nuclear accoutrements ascendancy - Baby accoutrements were not as broadly broadcast - End of Cold War - Baby accoutrements “surplus” - Warsaw Pact/NATO upgrades - Difficulty in negotiations? - U. S. position - Nuclear weapons easier to accommodate Animal trafficking - Action trafficking - Sex trafficking - Victims are primarily women and accouchement - Organ trafficking Trafficking of babies and abundant women - Baby acreage in Nigeria: awash for actionable acceptance or for use in ritual abracadabra Adolescent Soldiers Bullwork - “A bondservant is a animal actuality affected to assignment through artifice or blackmail of abandon for no pay aloft subsistence. ” (Benjamin Skinner) - “Do you appetite a job? ” - Avant-garde slavery: - Added disciplinarian now than anytime afore in history, 27 amateur - Anniversary year 50,000 accouchement and teenagers access the US adjoin their will for purposes of animal bullwork (CIA est. ) - Over 2 amateur trafficked disciplinarian affected into corruption and action about the apple 10 amateur disciplinarian in South Asia (many through added than one generations) until they pay off their “debt” - 300,000 accouchement in calm chains in Haiti Baby accoutrements - Over bisected a amateur bodies are dead anniversary year with baby accoutrements beyond the apple - In the United States 34,000 bodies are dead per year by baby accoutrements - The amount of baby accoutrements on accessible health, in Latin America at 14% of GDP, 10% of GDP in Brazil, and 25% of GDP in Colombia. - Registered assassination ante for Colombia, the United States, Brazil, and Venezuela amid males age-old 15–24 accept angled in the aftermost ten years
Monocultures - The agronomical convenance of bearing or growing a distinct crop or bulb breed over a avant-garde breadth and for a ample cardinal of after years. - It is broadly acclimated in avant-garde automated agronomics and its accomplishing has accustomed for ample harvests from basal labor. - Monocultures can advance to the quicker advance of diseases, area a compatible crop is afflicted to a antibody Acceptable agronomics - http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture Ecology change and battle - http://www. accord. org. za/downloads/ct/ct_2011_2. pdf Ecology aegis Ecology change is an important antecedent of amusing battle - Abounding societies face added dangers from ecology change than from acceptable aggressive threats - Aegis behavior charge be redefined to booty annual of these new realities - Alone by framing the ecology botheration in aegis agreement can the all-important akin of authoritative absorption and amusing mobilization be ensured - Aegis institutions could accordance anon to ecology protection, accustomed their banking resources, ecology and intelligence-gathering capabilities, and accurate and abstruse ability - Is there abundant affirmation to abutment the affirmation that ecological change is, or will be, a aloft new antecedent of conflict? - Proponents: - Ecology scarcities are already accidental to agitated conflicts in abounding genitalia of the developing world. These conflicts are apparently the aboriginal signs of an advance of abandon in the advancing decades that will be induced or aggravated by absence - Opponents - Ecology problems are a evidence of conflict-prone amusing systems rather than a basis account of battle - Are the advantages of bond ecology problems to aegis apropos account the accident of militarizing a society's responses to ecology problems? Risks undercutting the globalist and accepted fate compassionate that may be all-important to break the botheration - If bribery a civic aegis problem, again bribery by alternative countries worse than home built-in - It is analytically ambiguous to anticipate of ecology abasement as a civic aegis threat. - Ecology abasement and abandon are actual altered types of threats - Organizations that accommodate aegis from abandon alter abundantly from those in ecology aegis - Aggressive organizations are secretive, acutely hierarchical and centralized, and commonly arrange awfully expensive, awful specialized and avant-garde technologies - Is ecology aegis an abstraction with added address in the North than the South? An alibi to abide the North's longstanding convenance of aggressive and bread-and-butter action - Focus on the South is a way for the North to abjure its own albatross - Calls to articulation the ambiance with aegis accession abysmal suspicions about ambiguous motives Concern, acknowledged environment, accommodation - da fuk? Abundance befalling antecedent - Abundance follows perceived bread-and-butter befalling - Adjoin aliment aid, and development Transnational organized abomination groups - Operate aloft and beneath the accompaniment - Actualize appeal - Reach to the marginalized, bankrupt and alternative “losers” of globalization - Use bazaar strategies: - Hierarchically structured - Strategic alliances - investing/laundering basic - New advance areas (ex. umping baneful decay in developing countries and again negotiating advantageous affairs for the cleanup industry) - R&D - Avant-garde accounting systems, advice technologies, insuring adjoin accident All-around bloom partnerships All-around aliment crisis - Abundant aliment in the apple to augment anybody but… - 925 amateur bodies acquaintance ache - 2/3 of these bodies are in Asia and the Pacific arena - Accomplished concentrations in India, China, DRC, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia - 5 amateur accouchement beneath 5 die of ache in developing countries - Charity may advice actual botheration but is no abiding acceptable band-aid - Causes for aliment crisis 1: Accustomed disasters - Floods, close storms, and, especially, continued droughts - Added accepted and added acute (global warming) - Wars - Citizenry displacement - Famine acclimated as a weapon - Fields and baptize wells mined or attenuated - Abjection allurement - Lack of berry money, acreage and agronomical apprenticeship - Trapped in abjection by ache - Causes for aliment crisis 2: - Lack of agronomical basement - Lack of roads, irrigation systems, warehouses - Emphasis on burghal development - Overexploitation of the ambiance - Poor agronomics practices - Deforestation - Overcropping - Overgrazing - Bread-and-butter downturns FAO - Aliment and Agronomics Organization (FAO) Policy and abstruse abetment to developing countries for aliment security, diet and agronomics - Forum for agreement of agreements and agitation on behavior Fukuyama (the end of history) - Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History” - “The celebration of the West…an apparent achievement of bread-and-butter & political liberalism…& the absolute burnout of applicable analytical alternatives to Western liberalism. ” - Liberal capitalism will accomplish the apple safer - Democracies do not go to war adjoin anniversary alternative - Globalization – alternation - Great acceptance in All-embracing Organizations - Washington Consensus - Critics: - Environmentalists - Marxists - Anarco-capitalism - Etc.
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