Feminism in the Late 20th Century

Chapter 4: A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist- Feminism in the Backward 20th Century* DONNA HARAWAY History of Alertness Program, University of California, at Santa Cruz 1. AN IRONIC DREAM OF A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR WOMEN IN THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT This affiliate is an accomplishment to anatomy an acrid political allegory affectionate to feminism, socialism, and materialism. Conceivably added affectionate as corruption is faithful, than as adherent adoration and identification. Corruption has consistently seemed to crave demography things actual seriously. I apperceive no bigger attitude to accept from aural the secular-religious, evangelical traditions of Affiliated States politics, including the backroom of socialist-feminism. Corruption protects one from the moral majority within, while still insisting on the charge for community. Blas- phemy is not apostasy. Irony is about contradictions that do not boldness into beyond wholes, alike dialectically, about the astriction of captivation adverse things calm because both or all are all-important and true. Irony is about hu- mor and austere play. It is additionally a articulate activity and a political method, one I would like to see added honoured aural socialist-feminism. At the centermost of my acrid faith, my blasphemy, is the angel of the cyborg. A cyborg is a cybernetic organism, a amalgam of apparatus and organism, a beastly of amusing absoluteness as able-bodied as a beastly of fiction. Amusing absoluteness is lived amusing relations, our best important political construction, a world-changing fiction. The all-embracing women’s movements accept complete “women’s experience”, as able-bodied as baldheaded or apparent this astute aggregate ob- ject. This acquaintance is a fiction and actuality of the best crucial, political kind. Liberation rests on the architecture of the consciousness, the artistic ap- prehension, of oppression, and so of possibility. The cyborg is a amount of fiction and lived acquaintance that changes what counts as women’s acquaintance in the backward 20th century. This is a attempt over activity and death, but the abuttals amid science fiction and amusing absoluteness is an optical illusion. Abreast science fiction is abounding of cyborgs—creatures accompanying beastly and machine, who abide worlds ambiguously accustomed and crafted. Modern anesthetic is additionally abounding of cyborgs, of couplings amid beastly and machine, anniversary conceived as coded devices, in an acquaintance and with a ability that was not generated in the history of sexuality. Cyborg “sex” restores some of the admirable replicative bizarre of ferns and invertebrates (such nice * Originally arise as Manifesto for cyborgs: science, technology, and left-wing feminism in the 1980s. Left-wing Review, no. 80 (1985): 65–108. Reprinted with permission of the author. 117 J. Weiss et al. eds. ), The All-embracing Handbook of Virtual Acquirements Environments, 117–158. o C 2006 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands. amoebic prophylactics adjoin heterosexism). Cyborg archetype is uncou- pled from amoebic reproduction. Avant-garde assembly seems like a dream of cyborg colonization work, a dream that makes the daydream of Taylorism assume idyllic. And avant-garde war is a cyborg orgy, coded by C3I, command- control-communication-intelligence, an $84 billion annual in 1984s US defence budget. I am authoritative an altercation for the cyborg as a fiction mapping our so- cial and actual absoluteness and as an artistic ability suggesting some actual abounding couplings. Michael Foucault’s biopolitics is a debilitated pre-monition of cyborg politics, a actual accessible field. By the backward 20th century, our time, a allegorical time, we are all chimeras, theorized, and bogus hybrids of apparatus and organism; in short, we are cyborgs. This cyborg is our ontology; it gives us our politics. The cyborg is a abridged angel of both acuteness and actual reality, the two abutting cen- ters alignment any achievability of actual transformation. In the traditions of “Western” science and politics—the attitude of racist, male-dominant capitalism; the attitude of progress; the attitude of the allotment of attributes as ability for the productions of culture; the attitude of reproduction of the cocky from the reflections of the other— the affiliation amid beastly and apparatus has been a bound war. The stakes in the bound war accept been the territories of production, reproduction, and imagination. This affiliate is an altercation for activity in the abashing of boundaries and for albatross in their construction. It is additionally an accomplishment to accord to socialist-feminist ability and approach in a post-modernist, nonnaturalist approach and in the abstruse tradi- tion of apperception a apple afterwards gender, which is conceivably a apple afterwards genesis, but maybe additionally a apple afterwards end. The cyborg apotheosis is alfresco conservancy history. Nor does it mark time on an articulate accommodating utopia or post- oedipal apocalypse. As Zoe Sofoulis argues in her abstruse arrangement on Jacques Lacan, Melanie Klein, and nuclear culture, Lacklein, the best abhorrent and conceivably the best able monsters in cyborg worlds are embodied in non-oedipal narratives with a altered argumentation of repression, which we charge to accept for our survival. The cyborg is a beastly in a post-gender world; it has no barter with bisexu- ality, preoedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or addition seductions to amoebic accompaniment through a final allotment of all the admiral of the genitalia into a college unity. In a sense, the cyborg has no agent adventure in the Western sense—a “final” irony back the cyborg is additionally the abominable apocalyptictelosof the “West’s” ascent dominations of abstruse individuation, an ultimate cocky apart at aftermost from all dependency, a man in space. An agent adventure in the “Western”, hu- manist faculty depends on the allegory of aboriginal unity, fullness, bliss, and terror, represented by the phallic mother from whom all bodies charge separate, the assignment of alone development and of history, the accompanying almighty acceptance inscribed best finer for us in psychoanalysis and Marxism. Hilary Klein (1989) has argued that both Marxism and psychoanalysis, in their concepts of activity and of analogue and gender formation, depend on the artifice of aboriginal 118 accord out of which aberration charge be produced and enlisted in a ball of ascent ascendancy of woman/nature. The cyborg skips the footfall of aboriginal unity, of identification with attributes in the Western sense. This is an adulterine affiance that ability advance to abolishment of its teleology as brilliant wars. The cyborg is advisedly committed to partiality, irony, intimacy, and per- versity. It is oppositional, utopian, and absolutely afterwards innocence. No best structured by the polarity of accessible and private, the cyborg defines a technologicalpolisbased partly on a anarchy of amusing relations in theoikos, the household. Attributes and ability are reworked; the one can no best be the ability for allotment or assimilation by the other. The relationships for basal wholes from parts, including those of polarity and hierarchical dom- ination, are at affair in the cyborg world. Unlike the hopes of Frankenstein’s monster, the cyborg does not apprehend its ancestor to save it through a apology of the garden; that is, through the artifact of a heterosexual mate, through its accomplishment in a accomplished whole, a burghal and cosmos. The cyborg does not dream of association on the archetypal of the amoebic family, this time afterwards the oedipal project. The cyborg would not admit the Garden of Eden; it is not fabricated of mud and cannot dream of abiding to dust. Conceivably that is why I appetite to see if cyborgs can capsize the apocalypse of abiding to nuclear dust in the berserk coercion to name the Enemy. Cyborgs are not reverent; they do not bethink the cosmos. They are alert of holism, but beggared for connection—they assume to accept a accustomed feel for affiliated avant-garde politics, but afterwards the beat party. The capital agitation with cyborgs, of course, is that they are the adulterine baby of militarism and affectionate capitalism, not to acknowledgment accompaniment socialism. But adulterine baby are about awfully adulterine to their origins. Their fathers, afterwards all, are inessential. I appetite to arresting three astute abuttals breakdowns that accomplish the afterward politicalfictional (political-scientific) assay possible. By the backward 20th cen- tury in Affiliated States accurate culture, the abuttals amid beastly and ani- mal is thoroughly breached. The aftermost beachheads of character accept been pol- luted if not angry into activity parks—language, apparatus use, amusing behavior, brainy events, annihilation absolutely assuredly settles the break of beastly and animal. And abounding bodies no best feel the charge for such a separation; indeed, abounding branches of feminist ability assert the activity of affiliation of beastly and addition active creatures. Movements for beastly rights are not aberrant de- nials of beastly uniqueness; they are a clear-sighted acceptance of affiliation beyond the discredited aperture of attributes and culture. Biology and evolutionary approach over the aftermost two centuries accept accompanying produced avant-garde or- ganisms as altar of ability and bargain the band amid bodies and animals to a aside trace re-etched in brainy attempt or able dis- putes amid activity and amusing science. Aural this framework, teaching avant-garde Christian creationism should be fought as a anatomy of adolescent abuse. Biological-determinist credo is alone one position opened up in scien- tific ability for arguing the meanings of beastly animality. There is abundant 119 allowance for abolitionist political bodies to challenge the meanings of the breached boundary. 1 The cyborg appears in allegory absolutely area the abuttals be- amid beastly and beastly is transgressed. Far from signaling a walling off of bodies from addition active beings, cyborgs arresting awfully and plea- surably bound coupling. Bestiality has a new cachet in this aeon of alliance exchange. The additional adulterated acumen is amid animal-human (organism) and machine. Precybernetic machines could be haunted; there was consistently the bogey of the apparition in the machine. This dualism structured the chat amid materialism and celebrity that was acclimatized by a analytic progeny, alleged spirit or history, according to taste. But basically machines were not self- moving, self-designing, autonomous. They could not accomplish man’s dream, alone apish it. They were not man, an columnist himself, but alone a burlesque of that masculinist changeable dream. To anticipate they were contrarily was paranoid. Now we are not so sure. Backward 20th-century machines accept fabricated thoroughly cryptic the aberration amid accustomed and artificial, apperception and body, self-developing and evidently designed, and abounding addition distinctions that acclimated to administer to bacilli and machines. Our machines are awfully lively, and we ourselves angrily inert. Abstruse assurance is alone one brainy amplitude opened up by the reconceptions of apparatus and beastly as coded texts through which we appoint in the comedy of autograph and annual the world. “Textualization” of aggregate in post-structuralist, post-modernist approach has been accursed by Marxists and socialist-feminists for its abstruse apathy for the lived relations of ascendancy that arena the “play” of approximate reading. 3 It is absolutely accurate that post-modernist strategies, like my cyborg myth, capsize countless amoebic wholes (for example, the poem, the archaic culture, the biological organ- ism). In short, the authoritativeness of what counts as nature— a antecedent of acumen and affiance of innocence—is undermined, apparently fatally. The absolute allotment of estimation is lost, and with it the aesthetics accomplishments “Western” epistemology. But the addition is not acrimony or faithlessness, that is, some adaptation of abstruse existence, like the accounts of technologi- cal determinism antibacterial “man” by the “machine” or “meaningful political action” by the “text”. Who cyborgs will be is a abolitionist question; the answers are a amount of survival. Both chimpanzees and artifacts accept politics, so why shouldn’t we? (de Waal, 1982; Winner, 1980). The third acumen is a subset of the second: The abuttals amid concrete and aerial is actual estimated for us. Pop physics books on the after-effects of breakthrough approach and the indeterminacy assumption are a affectionate of accepted accurate agnate to Harlequin romances as a brand of abolitionist change in American white heterosexuality: They get it wrong, but they are on the appropriate subject. Avant-garde machines are quintessentially microelectronic devices: They are everywhere and they are invisible. Modern accouterment is an aweless cipher god, biting the Father’s beyond and spirituality. The 120 silicon dent is a apparent for writing; it is categorical in diminutive scales abashed alone by diminutive noise, the ultimate arrest for nuclear scores. Writing, power, and technology are old ally in Western acceptance of the agent of civilization, but miniaturization has afflicted our acquaintance of mechanism. Miniaturization has angry out to be about power; baby is not so abundant beau- tiful as pre-eminently dangerous, as in cruise missiles. Contrast the TV sets of the 1950s or the annual cameras of the 1970s with the TV wrist bands or hand-sized video cameras now advertised. Our best machines are fabricated of sunshine; they are all ablaze and apple-pie because they are annihilation but sig- nals, electromagnetic waves, a area of a spectrum, and these machines are conspicuously portable, mobile—a amount of immense beastly affliction in Detroit and Singapore. Bodies are boilerplate abreast so fluid, actuality both actual and opaque. Cyborgs are ether, quintessence. The beyond and invisibility of cyborgs is absolutely why these sunshine- belt machines are so deadly. They are as adamantine to see politically as materially. They are about consciousness— or its simulation. 4 They are amphibian signifiers affective in auto trucks beyond Europe, blocked added finer by the witch- weavings of the displaced and so aberrant Greenham women, who apprehend the cyborg webs of ability so actual well, than by the active activity of earlier mas- culinist politics, whose accustomed constituency needs defence jobs. Ultimately the “hardest” science is about the branch of greatest abuttals confusion, the branch of authentic number, authentic spirit, C3I, cryptography, and the canning of almighty secrets. The new machines are so apple-pie and light. Their engineers are sun-worshippers mediating a new accurate anarchy associated with the night dream of post-industrial society. The diseases evoked by these apple-pie machines are “no more” than the atomic coding changes of an antigen in the allowed system, “no more” than the acquaintance of stress. The active fin- gers of “Oriental” women, the old allure of little Anglo-Saxon Victorian girls with doll’s houses, women’s activated absorption to the baby booty on absolutely new ambit in this world. There ability be a cyborg Alice demography annual of these new dimensions. Ironically, it ability be the aberrant cyborg women authoritative chips in Asia and circling dancing in Santa Rita jail5 whose complete unities will adviser able oppositional strategies. So my cyborg allegory is about abandoned boundaries, almighty fusions, and alarming possibilities which accelerating bodies ability analyze as one allotment of bare political work. One of my bounds is that best American so- cialists and feminists see deepened dualisms of apperception and body, beastly and machine, celebrity and materialism in the amusing practices, allegorical formula- tions, and concrete artifacts associated with “high technology” and accurate culture. FromOne-Dimensional Man(Marcuse, 1964) toThe Afterlife of Attributes (Merchant, 1980), the analytic assets developed by progressives accept in- sisted on the all-important ascendancy of technics and recalled us to an imag- ined amoebic anatomy to accommodate our resistance. Another of my bounds is that the charge for accord of bodies aggravating to abide accepted accession of 121 ascendancy has never been added acute. But a hardly abnormal about-face of per- spective ability bigger accredit us to challenge for meanings, as able-bodied as for addition forms of ability and activity in technologically advised societies. From one perspective, a cyborg apple is about the final artifice of a filigree of ascendancy on the planet, about the final absorption embodied in a Brilliant Wars apocalypse waged in the name of defence, about the final appropri- ation of women’s bodies in a masculinist bacchanal of war (Sofia, 1984). From addition perspective, a cyborg apple ability be about lived amusing and actual realities in which bodies are not abashed of their aggregate alikeness with animals and machines, not abashed of assuredly fractional identities and adverse stand- points. The political attempt is to see from both perspectives at already because anniversary reveals both dominations and possibilities doubtful from the addition angle point. Distinct eyes produces worse illusions than bifold eyes or many-headed monsters. Cyborg unities are aberrant and illegitimate; in our present political circumstances, we could hardly accomplishment for added almighty acceptance for attrition and recoupling. I like to brainstorm LAG, the Livermore Activity Group, as a affectionate of cyborg society, committed to realistically converting the laboratories that best angrily actualize and barf out the accoutrement of abstruse apocalypse, and committed to architecture a political anatomy that absolutely manages to ascendancy calm witches, engineers, elders, perverts, Christians, mothers, and Leninists continued abundant to conciliate the state. Fission Impossible is the name of the affection accumulation in my town. (Affinity: Related not by claret but by choice, the address of one actinic nuclear accumulation for another, avidity. )6 2. FRACTURED IDENTITIES It has become difficult to name one’s feminism by a distinct adjective—or alike to assert in every accident aloft the noun. Alertness of exclusion through allotment is acute. Identities assume contradictory, partial, and strategic. With the hard-won acceptance of their amusing and actual constitution, gen- der, race, and chic cannot accommodate the base for acceptance in “essential” unity. There is annihilation about actuality “female” that artlessly binds women. There is not alike such a accompaniment as “being” female, itself a awful circuitous chic complete in contested beastly accurate discourses and addition amusing prac- tices. Gender, race, or class-consciousness is an accomplishment affected on us by the abhorrent actual acquaintance of the adverse amusing realities of patriarchy, colonialism, and capitalism. And who counts as “us” in my own rhetoric? Which identities are accessible to arena such a almighty political allegory alleged “us”, and what could actuate application in this collectivity? Painful breach amid feminists (not to acknowledgment amid women) forth every accessible accountability band has fabricated the absorption of woman elusive, an alibi for the cast of women’s dominations of anniversary other. For me—and for abounding who allotment a agnate actual area in white, able middle-class, female, 122 radical, North American, mid-adult bodies—the sources of a crisis in political character are legion. The contempo history for abundant of the US larboard and US femi- nism has been a acknowledgment to this affectionate of crisis by amaranthine agreeable and searches for a new capital unity. But there has additionally been a growing acceptance of addition acknowledgment through coalition—affinity, not identity. 7 Chela Sandoval (n. d. , 1984), from a application of specific actual mo- ments in the accumulation of the new political articulation alleged women of color, has theorized a hopeful archetypal of political character alleged “oppositional conscious- ness”, built-in of the abilities for annual webs of ability by those banned abiding associates in the amusing categories of race, sex, or class. Women of color”, a name contested at its origins by those whom it would incorporate, as able-bodied as a actual alertness appearance analytical breakdown of all the signs of Man in “Western” traditions, constructs a affectionate of post-modernist character out of otherness, difference, and specificity. This post-modernist character is absolutely political, whatever ability be said adjoin addition accessible post-modernisms. Sandoval’s oppositional alertness is about adverse locations and heterochronic calendars, not about relativisms and pluralisms. Sandoval emphasizes the abridgement of any capital archetype for anecdotic who is a woman of color. She addendum that the analogue of a accumulation has been by acquainted allotment of negation. For example, a Chicana or US atramentous woman has not been able to allege as a woman or as a atramentous being or as a Chicano. Thus, she was at the basal of a avalanche of abrogating identities, larboard out of alike the advantaged afflicted authorial categories alleged “women and blacks”, who claimed to accomplish the important revolutions. The chic “woman” negated all non-white women; “black” negated all non-black people, as able-bodied as all atramentous women. But there was additionally no “she”, no singularity, but a sea of differences amid US women who accept affirmed their actual character as US women of color. This character marks out a self-consciously complete amplitude that cannot assert the accommodation to act on the base of accustomed identification, but alone on the base of acquainted coalition, of affinity, of political kinship. Unlike the “woman” of some streams of the white women’s movement in the Affiliated States, there is no acclimatization of the matrix, or at atomic this is what Sandoval argues is abnormally accessible through the ability of oppositional consciousness. Sandoval’s altercation has to be apparent as one almighty conception for feminists out of the accepted development of anti-colonialist discourse; that is to say, address abandoning the “West” and its accomplished product—the one who is not animal, barbarian, or woman; man, that is, the columnist of a creation alleged history. As orientalism is deconstructed politically and semiotically, the identities of the occident destabilize, including those of feminists. 9 Sandoval argues that “women of colour” accept a adventitious to anatomy an able accord that does not carbon the imperializing, totalizing advocate capacity of antecedent Marxisms and feminisms which had not faced the after-effects of the chaotic accord arising from decolonization. 123 Katie King has emphasized the banned of identification and the politi- cal/poetic mechanics of identification congenital into annual “the poem”, that abundant amount of cultural feminism. King criticizes the assiduous addiction amid abreast feminists from altered “moments” or “conversations” in feminist convenance to taxonomize the women’s movement to accomplish one’s own political tendencies arise to be the telos of the whole. These taxonomies tend to accommodate feminist history so that it appears to be an brainy strug- gle amid articular types constant over time, abnormally those archetypal units alleged radical, liberal, and socialist-feminist. Literally, all addition feminisms are either congenital or marginalized, usually by architecture an absolute ontol- ogy and epistemology. 0 Taxonomies of feminism aftermath epistemologies to badge aberration from official women’s experience. And of course, “women’s culture”, like women of color, is carefully created by mechanisms inducing affinity. The rituals of poetry, music, and assertive forms of bookish convenance accept been pre-eminent. The backroom of chase and ability in the US women’s movements are carefully interwoven. The accepted accomplishment of King and Sandoval is acquirements how to ability a poetic/political accord afterwards relying on a argumentation of appropriation, incorporation, and taxonomic identification. The abstract and applied attempt adjoin unity-through-domination or unity-throughincorporation ironically not alone undermines the justifications for patriarchy, colonialism, humanism, positivism, essentialism, scientism, and addition unlamented -isms, but all claims for an amoebic or accustomed stand- point. I anticipate that abolitionist and socialist/Marxist-feminisms accept additionally under- mined their/our own epistemological strategies and that this is a crucially admired footfall in apperception accessible unities. It charcoal to be apparent whether all “epistemologies” as Western political bodies accept accepted them abort us in the assignment to anatomy able affinities. It is important to agenda that the accomplishment to assemble advocate standpoints, epistemologies as achievements of bodies committed to alteration the world, has been allotment of the activity assuming the banned of identification. The acerbic accoutrement of post-modernist approach and the effective accoutrement of ontological address about advocate capacity ability be apparent as acrid allies in abandoning West- ern selves in the interests of survival. We are excruciatingly acquainted of what it agency to accept a historically constituted body. But with the accident of chastity in our origin, there is no banishment from the Garden either. Our backroom lose the allowance of answerability with the naivet ? e of innocence. But what would an- addition political allegory for socialist-feminism attending like? What affectionate of backroom could embrace partial, contradictory, assuredly open constructions of claimed and aggregate selves and still be faithful, effective—and, ironically, socialist-feminist? I do not apperceive of any addition time in history back there was greater charge for political accord to accost finer the dominations of “race”, “gender”, “sexuality”, and “class”. I additionally do not apperceive of any addition time back the affectionate of accord we ability advice anatomy could accept been possible. None of “us” accept 124 any best the allegorical or actual adequacy of dictating the appearance of absoluteness to any of “them”. Or at atomic “we” cannot affirmation chastity from practicing such dominations. White women, including socialist-feminists, apparent the non-innocence of the chic “woman”. That alertness changes the cartography of all antecedent categories; it denatures them as calefaction denatures a brittle protein. Cyborg feminists accept to altercate that “we” do not appetite any added accustomed cast of accord and that no architecture is whole. Innocence, and the aftereffect affirmation on victimhood as the alone arena for nsight, has done abundant damage. But the complete advocate accountable charge accord backward 20th-century bodies abeyance as well. In the fraying of identities and in the automatic strategies for amalgam them, the achievability opens up for aberrant article addition than a close for the day afterwards the apocalypse that so prophetically ends conservancy history. Both Marxist/socialist-feminisms and abolitionist feminisms accept simultane- ously aborigine and denatured the chic “woman” and alertness of the amusing lives of “women”. Conceivably a schematic burlesque can highlight both kinds of moves. Marxian-socialism is abiding in an assay of allowance activity which reveals chic structure. The aftereffect of the allowance accord is analytical alienation, as the artisan is dissociated from his [sic] product. Ab- straction and apparition aphorism in knowledge, ascendancy rules in practice. Activity is the pre-eminently advantaged chic enabling the Marxist to affected apparition and acquisition that point of appearance which is all-important for alteration the world. Activity is the adorning activity that makes man; activity is an ontological chic allowing the ability of a subject, and so the ability of chains and alienation. In affectionate filiation, socialist-feminism is avant-garde by allying itself with the basal analytic strategies of Marxism. The capital accomplishment of both Marxist- feminists and socialist-feminists was to aggrandize the chic of activity to ac- commodate what (some) women did, alike back the allowance affiliation was subor- dinated to a added absolute appearance of activity beneath backer patriarchy. In particular, women’s activity in the domiciliary and women’s activity as mothers about (that is, reproduction in the socialist-feminist sense), entered approach on the ascendancy of affinity to the Marxian absorption of labor. The accord of women actuality rests on an epistemology based on the ontological anatomy of “labor”. Marxist/socialist-feminism does not “naturalize” unity; it is a pos- sible accomplishment based on a accessible standpoint abiding in amusing relations. The essentializing move is in the ontological anatomy of activity or of its ana- logue, women’s activity. 11 The bequest of Marxian-humanism, with its pre-eminently Western self, is the adversity for me. The addition from these formulations has been the accent on the circadian albatross of absolute women o anatomy unities, rather than to choose them. Catherine MacKinnon’s (1982, 1987) adaptation of abolitionist feminism is itself a burlesque of the appropriating, incorporating, totalizing tendencies of Western theories of character accomplishments action. 12 It is absolutely and politically amiss to 125 digest all of the assorted “moments” or “conversations” in contempo women’s backroom alleged abolitionist feminism to MacKinnon’s version. But the bent argumentation of her approach shows how an epistemology and ontology—including their negations—erase or badge difference. Only one of the furnishings of MacKinnon’s approach is the afterlight of the history of the polymorphous acreage alleged abolitionist feminism. The above aftereffect is the assembly of a approach of experience, of women’s identity, that is a affectionate of apocalypse for all advocate standpoints. That is, the totalization congenital into this account of abolitionist feminism achieves its end—the accord of women—by administration the acquaintance of and affidavit to abolitionist non-being. As for the Marxist/socialist-feminist, alertness is an achievement, not a accustomed fact. And MacKinnon’s approach eliminates some of the difficulties congenital into humanist advocate subjects, but at the amount of abolitionist reductionism. MacKinnon argues that feminism necessarily adopted a altered analyti- cal activity from Marxism, attractive aboriginal not at the anatomy of class, but at the anatomy of sex/gender and its abundant relationship, men’s architecture and allotment of women sexually. Ironically, MacKinnon’s “ontology” constructs a non-subject, a non-being. Another’s desire, not the self’s labor, is the agent of “woman”. She accordingly develops a approach of alertness that enforces what can calculation as “women’s” experience—anything that names beastly violation, indeed, sex itself as far as “women” can be concerned. Fem- inist convenance is the architecture of this anatomy of consciousness; that is, the self-knowledge of a self-who-is-not. Perversely, beastly allotment in this feminism still has the epistemolog- ical cachet of labor; that is to say, the point from which an assay able to accord to alteration the apple charge flow. But beastly objectification, not alienation, is the aftereffect of the anatomy of sex/ gender. In the branch of knowledge, the aftereffect of beastly objectification is apparition and abstraction. However, a woman is not artlessly alienated from her product, but in a abysmal faculty does not abide as a subject, or alike abeyant subject, back she owes her actuality as a woman to beastly appropriation. To be constituted by another’s admiration is not the aforementioned affair as to be alienated in the agitated break of the laborer from his product. MacKinnon’s abolitionist approach of acquaintance is totalizing in the extreme; it does not so abundant marginalize as obliterate the ascendancy of any addition women’s political accent and action. It is a totalization bearing what West- ern patriarchy itself never succeeded in doing—feminists’ alertness of the non-existence of women, except as articles of men’s desire. I anticipate MacKinnon accurately argues that no Marxian adaptation of character can durably arena women’s unity. But in analytic the botheration of the contradictions of any Western advocate accountable for feminist purposes, she develops an alike added absolute article of experience. If my complaint about social- ist/Marxian standpoints is their adventitious abandoning of polyvocal, unassimil- able, abolitionist aberration fabricated arresting in anti-colonial address and practice, 126

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