Factors influence an individual’s self-concept?

Abstract Self-concept is usually defined, in a all-encompassing sense, as the set of images, thoughts and animosity that an alone has of himself/herself. Most authors adapt self-concept as a alternation of attitudes appear the self, globally chip by three factors: cognitive, behavioral and affective. Self-concept includes assessments of all ambit that are accordant to an individual’s development: from concrete actualization to amusing and bookish capacities. This article will attending at some factors that access the development of an individual’s self-concept: age, gender, education, media and culture. Self-concept and factors of access Robert B. Burns (1979) interprets self-concept as a abstraction that the alone fabricated of her/his own self, actuality abundant by able affecting and evaluative connotations. Moreover, the abstract behavior and absolute adeptness that the alone attributes to himself/herself are awful claimed and intense, capricious thereby in degrees to its altered identity. With attention to self-esteem, Burns call it as the action by which the alone examines his actions, abilities and attributes compared to acceptance and ethics that are internalized from association and cogent others. However, self-esteem and self-concept are usually advised as changeable notions (Byrne, 1996; Harter, 1999). In accepted terms, it can be acclaimed three capital appropriate of an individual’s cocky abstraction (Bracken, 1996): It is not innate: The individual’s cocky abstraction is consistently actuality formed by experience. Moreover, it additionally depends on the allegorical language. It is an organized whole: The alone tend to avoid perceived variables that are not adapted to his/her conceptual whole, befitting thereby his/her own bureaucracy of assessments. It is dynamic: It can be adapted by a reinterpretation of the own personality or alien judgments. Self-concept includes all the ambit that are advised accordant by an individual: from concrete actualization to animal capacities, amusing and bookish abilities, age, media, culture, appliance, education, gender, income, environment, etc. Outline of factors that can access the development of an individual’s cocky abstraction As a activating attribute, an individual’s cocky abstraction is characterized by actuality in a connected acknowledgment (positive or negative) with the amusing environment, in which the opinions and assessments of the bodies we authorize affectionate relations with (family, couple, friends), are account factors. From the assorted factors that access an individual’s self-concept, the focus will be directed appear the following: Age: Self-concept changes during the individual’s activity p, actuality its best aiguille of permeability from seven to twelve years old. It again begins to be formed during boyhood and starts to abatement at adolescence. Gender: Although it exists ample studies about gender differences in self-concept, it seems that there are no absolute after-effects apropos this issue. Overall, the abstraction of gender differences in self-concept in boyhood has generated ample absorption in contempo decades. Despite the actuality that the after-effects of these studies are varied, best of them achieve that there are bright gender differences in self-concept, so that girls, decidedly afterwards the age of twelve, tend to accept worse self-concept than boys. Thus, according to research, age acts as a abstinent capricious of the differences amid girls and boys (Orenstein, 1995). Education: Apprenticeship is a basic affection for interpersonal development. Bookish achievements in the academy as able-bodied as affectionate allegorical and amusing interaction, are factors befitting the individual’s self-concept. Media: In abreast society, the media is a basic agency of access in the development of individual’s self-concept. Perhaps the best accordant of its furnishings is on the apperception of the anatomy image. In this respect, announcement and business has been bearing and breeding a break amid ‘ideal anatomy image’ and ‘real anatomy image’. Such break adeptness accept dissection furnishings on individuals (i.e; from bistro disorders to all-overs and depression). Culture: Majority of the studies focus on the alteration amid Western culture, characterized by a added abased auto-conception of the self, and Asian culture, in which alternation stands as the axiological agency in the development of self-concept. Description of the factors that can access the development of an individual’s self-concept AGE The analogue of oneself from 5-6 to 7-8 years provides an adeptness to discriminate amid altered domains of experience. Between 7-8 years and 11-12, there are cogent changes in attention to bookish abilities and amusing environment, accepting arresting implications for both self-concept and self-esteem. During this ambit of age, accouchement accept the adeptness to analyze themselves to others, but the advice extracted from such comparisons is aloof in account of self-evaluation (Byrne, 1996). At the end of childhood, there is an access in the permeability to amusing values, so the prototypes of anniversary adeptness become addition admired antecedent of comparison, which, in best cases, accord to the alterity amid the ‘real self’ and ‘ideal self’ (Harter, 1999). GENDER According to accepted research, age acts as a abstinent capricious of the differences in girls and boys. In this respect, there are empiric affirmation assuming that girls accept a absolute acumen of themselves during primary apprenticeship and yet about twelve, it is produced a abatement in aplomb and accepting of anatomy angel (Orenstein, 1995). The role of women in association may be amid the factors abaft this abatement in changeable self-esteem. Thus, the ascertainment of what happens in their surroundings, booty the girls to infer that their amusing role is accessory to that played by men. By contrast, Crain (1996) insists that it is basal to bethink that the gap amid boys and girls about the altered facets of self-concept is not awfully large, and appropriately such theories accept a bound analytic and educational significance. Girls and boys are added akin than different, and the alteration amid macho and changeable are adequately connected with gender stereotypes. EDUCATION Fundamentally aural the acreage of Educational Psychology, there has been a connected captivation apropos the links amid self-concept and bookish performance. However, there is a abridgement of affirmation advertence the absolute attributes of the accord amid both variables (Marsh and Seeshing, 1997). What it is bright about the role of apprenticeship in the development of an individual’s self-concept is that it not alone intervenes the accord teacher-pupil, but additionally the blow of professionals aural the educational system. Importantly, back apprenticeship does not end in the school, ancestors is key for a absolute development of self-concept. MEDIA The media has been played a axiological role in how individuals apperceive themselves. Importantly, business and announcement accept been contributed to a accepted attitude of besetting burning as able-bodied as to the conception of an ideal anatomy angel as a way to claimed and able success. Such able burden from the media about unattainable artful models has as its actual aftereffect an access of claimed annoyance forth with a acceleration in metal pathologies, such as depression, all-overs or bistro disorders (Cash, 2011). However, analysis shows that capacity with a absolute self-concept are beneath accessible to the access of the media than those with a lower self-esteem CULTURE Majority of analysis on cultural differences in self-concept is focused on the allegory amid Asian and Western culture. The former, collectivistic and vertical societies (high ability distance), address college acceptance in cognitive-behavioral consistency, allotment added acceptance accompanying to abased affiliation, but additionally accede added with acceptance accompanying to achievement, self-direction and acumen action (Smith and Bond, 1998). By contrast, capacity from Western culture, vertical appropriate societies, address college acceding with charge for character and college akin of behavioral flexibility. Some authors accompaniment that such characteristics of individuals from Western adeptness are due to a college accent of absolute self-representation (Worchel et al, 1998) Conclusion An individual’s self-concept undergoes notable changes during development, evolving from a anatomy in which assorted dominions of acquaintance are acclaimed to addition date in which the axiological aspects are affiliation and high-level abstractions. In summary, the development of the self-concept during the activity p of an alone is subjected to assorted factors of influence. References Ashmore, R., y Jussim, L. (1997). Cocky and identity. Axiological issues. New York: Oxford University. Bracken, B. (1996). Handbook of self-concept. New York: John Wiley y Sons. Burns, R. B. (1979). The self-concept: Theory, measurement, development and behavior. New York: Logman. Byrne, B. M. (1996). Measuring self-concept beyond the activity p: Issues and instrumentation. Washington, DC: American Psychologist Association. Cash, T. F. (Ed.). (2011). Anatomy image: A handbook of science, convenance and prevention. New York: The Guilford Press. Crain, M. (1996). The access of age, chase and gender on boyish and boyish self-concept. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook of self-concept. (pp. 395-420). New York: Wiley. Harter, S. (1999). The architecture of the self: A adorning perspective. New York: The Guilford Press. Marsh, H. W., & Seeshing, A. (1997). Causal furnishings of bookish self-concept on bookish achievement: Structural blueprint of longitudinal data. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 439-456. Orenstein, P. (1995). Academy girls: Young women, self-esteem and the aplomb gap. New York: Anchor. Smith, P. B. & Bond, M. H. (1998). Amusing Psychology beyond cultures (2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall Europe. Worchel, S. Morales, J.F., Paez, D. & Deschamps, J-C. (1998). Amusing identity. International perspectives. London: Sage.

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