Example Of Nursing Case Study Essay
Response Cards in Classrooms Acknowledgment Cards (ARC) accept boomed as a teaching adeptness with classrooms throughout Australia and internationally. Their aim is to absolute the bulk of accidental disruption that occurs in the acquirements ambiance by allowance to accumulate acceptance affianced and on-task. Supporters of ARC accomplishing in classrooms address acute apprentice participation, in turn, arch to bigger bookish accomplishment of students.
Heard (1994) proclaims that 'response cards are cards, signs or items that are captivated up accompanying by all acceptance to affectation their acknowledgment to a catechism or botheration presented by the teacher. This new anatomy of "low-tech" acquirements technology can be acclimated beyond abounding key acquirements areas as they accommodate according befalling for all acceptance to actively participate and accord during lessons.
Furthermore, ARCS accomplish an agreeable and alive classroom ambiance adverse to the abridgement of accord that is adapted of added teacher-centered classrooms. Furthermore, the airheadedness of activities that ARCS acquiesce for advice to accomplish a added absolute and advantageous teacher-student relationship. Rationales and Affirmation Base A abundant bulk of analysis has been conducted on ARC use to actuate the outcomes they improve, and how cogent these improvements may be.
Current analysis purports agnate rationales and findings, including that ARCS activate assurance from an absolute chic during a lesson, acquiesce acceptance to acutely acquaint their compassionate of specific advance content, acquiesce the drillmaster to ascertain aback a apprentice does not absolutely appreciate a authentic abstraction aural advance material, and advice abatement disruption and the prevalence of off-task behavior (Blackwell & McLaughlin, 2005; Heard, 1994; Maroon, 2007; Randolph, 2007). In The Classroom Experiment, William argues that ARCS are an abundantly important educational development.
William accepted that Arcs, such as "mint-whiteboards" would advice agents to bound analyze aback pupils did and did not accept a solid compassionate of specific advance content. Further, William accepted that these ARCS would advance the assurance of every apprentice in the classroom, as they would accept no adventitious to "hide" an incorrect response. It was bright from the observations and reflections of the acceptance and the teaching staff, that the accomplishing of these "mint-whiteboards" was accomplishing Williams goals.
Teachers at the academy appear that the "mint-whiteboards" were allowable in bound anecdotic the students' misconceptions and that they thoroughly added classroom participation. It was added begin that acceptance additionally had a absolute acquirements acquaintance through the use of this blazon of ARC, with some accouchement adage that on the whole, the use of this new acquirements technology bigger their time aural the classroom, by acceptance them to advice anniversary alternative with their work.
One apprentice proclaimed it was an easier adjustment of accepting information, and added absorbing than account it out of a book. In adjustment for ARCS to be able they charge multitudinously appoint and absorb all associates of the class, and abjure for any biases apropos abandoned differences in adeptness (Heard, 1994). In the Classroom Experiment, Williams accomplishing of the "mint-whiteboards" is circumstantial with this. ARCS crave all learners to accommodate a response, thereby eliminating the teacher's claiming of agreeable and including all students.
Previous pedagogies, such as the "raise your hands" approach, acknowledgment college adeptness acceptance to consistently activity their answers, abrogating the befalling for lower adeptness acceptance accept their misconceptions realigned. This provided a difficult assignment for the agents as they were clumsy to actuate the cerebral ability, and acquirements of some crescents. In the Classroom Experiment, William rationalists the use of Arcs, such as "motherboards", by purporting that they acquiesce agents to acutely analyze who does and does not understand, so that no apprentice is larboard behind.
Further, this anatomy of ARC accustomed the acceptance who frequently gave responses, in the antecedent hand-raising environment, to still participate in classroom activities. Moreover, the acceptance who, previously, did not about participate get the adventitious to appearance what they do know, and eave their misconceptions corrected. Heard (1994), in his assay of Arcs, letters identical hypotheses to those of William in the Classroom Experiment. It is discussed that ARCS accommodate all acceptance the befalling to respond, and further, they are able to apprentice by celebratory anniversary other.
Following this, Heard (1994) suggests that ARCS acquiesce agents to added calmly ascertain compassionate of the students, through abandoned response. Heard (1994) discusses the arrangement of beginning paradigms that accept activated these hypotheses, one such is the Nary Experiment. This agreement acutely portrayed how able ARCS are aural he classroom setting. Aback acceptance began to use the Arcs, every apprentice fabricated about 30 responses during the lesson, this is compared to the boilerplate two responses from anniversary adolescent per assignment aback application the "raise your hands" approach.
Extrapolating these findings, Heard (1994) highlights that by replacing the "raise your hands" access with Arcs, for abandoned 20 account during the day, advance to about 5000 added responses from a apprentice per year. It is accordingly axiomatic that Warhead's (1994) account purporting that ARCS advance college apprentice assurance and acknowledgment was begin to accept cogent empiric support. Addition of Warhead's (1994) key rationales for the use of ARCS is his affirmation that ARC accomplishing will advance college analysis scores.
In adjustment to abutment this rationale, Heard (1994) looked at the circadian quiz arrangement of students, award that aback ARCS were used, boilerplate quiz arrangement were college than those begin during the use of the "raise your hands" approach. Thus, the absolute aftereffect of ARCS on convalescent pupils' grades is awful evident. By Stanchion's Principle of Connectivity, in adjustment for the new apprenticeship to be accounted efficacious, it charge be founded on, and embodied by, empiric chase (Stanchion & Stanchion, 2003).
There is cogent statistical abutment in the abstract to advance that boundless accomplishing of ARCS is all-important to advance students' acquirements outcomes (Randolph, 2007; Blackwell & McLaughlin, 2005). There is a all-inclusive arrangement of analysis that supports the claims that ARCS abatement classroom disruptions, abatement students' off-task behavior and increases apprentice engagement, all of which advance to bigger bookish results. Aback comparing the "raise your hands" access to the accomplishing of Arcs, Randolph (2007) letters some acceptable findings.
The admeasurement of acceptance accomplishing 80% or bigger in the "hand-raising" activity was 41. 8% for analysis scores, and 29. 7% for quiz scores. However, through the use of Arcs, the accumulation of aerial accomplishing acceptance rose to 52. 1% for analysis arrangement and a amazing 62. 2% for quiz scores. Finally, acceptance able application ARCS able analysis arrangement 0. 8 accepted deviations college than those able application the "raise your hands" approach. Not abandoned alive in convalescent bookish performance, ARCS accept been approved to accommodate cogent reductions in classroom disruption and off-task behavior of students.
In his ARC condition, Randolph (2007) begin that apprentice accord was 35. 6% college in the ARC activity than in the "raise your hands" condition. Blackwell and McLaughlin (2005) added address that fatsos behavior, in the "raise your hands" condition, was accustomed 56% of the time, compared to 6% in the ARC condition. Finally, it is additionally appear that the use of ARCS led to 8% confusing behavior, compared to 33% in the "raise your hands" approach. Thus, the affirmation suggests that ARC accomplishing has abundant aftereffect in abbreviation the bulk of classroom disruption and off-task apprentice behavior.
Further, ARCS accept been always apparent to access the accord and assurance of students, compared to the "raise your hands" acknowledgment technique. Appropriately the empiric analysis on ARCS is bright in acknowledging the rationales declared by educational experts. In the Classroom Experiment, William was able to authenticate that ARCS are abundantly benign for both apprentice and teacher, through the added absolute atmosphere generated in the classroom, and the bookish achievements of the students. As appear above, the abstract is all-embracing in its abutment of the claims of
ARC advocates (Blackwell & McLaughlin, 2005; Heard, 1994; Maroon, 2007; Randolph, 2007). This new, "low-tech" acquirements technology has been apparent to access apprentice participation, abatement the bulk of off-task behaviors, absolute the bulk of classroom disruption and accept an all-embracing absolute aftereffect on the analysis arrangement of learners. Apprentice Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Activity Aback acclimated in any classroom environment, acknowledgment cards are a actual able apparatus in announcement the acquirements of all acceptance in the class, behindhand of ability, as their apriorism is heavily founded on inclusively and participation.
Not abandoned do ARCS abetment in the students' akin of assurance aural the classroom environment, but they additionally abetment the abecedary in their behavior administration of the chic (good discipline), the aplomb and mindset of the acceptance (student welfare) and the adeptness of the acceptance to activity the advice (effective learning). The "motherboards" featured in the Classroom Experiment, act as an important determinative appraisal aural all classrooms to acquiesce the agents to actively self-assess.
Teachers are able to bound appraise whether their accepted teaching adjustment and appearance is acceptance the acceptance to get the best out of the Essen and conduct their behavior in a address that meets the goals of the policy. This is accustomed through the actual formatively adjourned acknowledgment provided by ARCS (Heard, 1994; Maroon, 2007). The aboriginal allotment of the activity that can be addressed through the use of the ARCS is the apprentice abundance component. The abundance of acceptance is ascendant aural any educational facility.
Wanes (1996) stresses the accent of a abundance arrangement to be a arrangement that provides amusing and affecting support. ARCS are an able way of compassionate how the acceptance are advanced and how they are activity about ACH affair and additionally academy life, and thus, amuse Wanes' (1996) assertion. By application ARCS in altered environments in the school, agents are able to bigger acclimate apprentice behavior (Blackwell & McLaughlin, 2005). This is important as it links in with the conduct basic of the abundance policy.
Student abundance is heavily codicillary on the behaviors and attitudes of the students, and ARCS advice to actualize a greater faculty of association as the acceptance are accustomed added albatross in their learning, and adorning of the academy environment. No best are they able to sit abandoned in class, ARCS force anniversary and every apprentice to be answerable for their compassionate of the content. Activities that absorb ARCS may be accompanying to advertisement the best absorbing affair in the academy in their opinion.
This allows the acceptance to acquisition their own affiliation to the academy and their community, ultimately accessible their behavior due to their association pride, and creating a bigger apprentice abundance arrangement in the academy environment. Abounding of the "good discipline" goals, presented aural the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy', can be able and able through the use of ARCS in a arrangement of ways. Arcs, actuality an alternate and absorbing adeptness can be presented to the chic as a privilege, with bad behavior consistent in beneath time with the resource.
This promotes the students' albatross to their behavior and the resource, and further, increases their on-task assurance (Skinner & Belmont, 1993). Aural the Classroom Experiment, William argued that by presenting the "mint-whiteboards" to the acceptance as a privilege, area misbehaver led to abatement of this privilege, and aback acclimated in affiliation with alternative teaching techniques ("lollipop-sticks", "traffic-light cups") agents were able to actualize a cher and alive acquirements classroom ambiance for all the students.
Initially, in the Classroom Experiment, article displayed agnosticism and agnosticism during Williams addition of the "mint-whiteboards". Aback the acceptance were aboriginal presented with this anatomy of ARC there was a about absolute reaction. However, their absorption bound wavered and the advantage was agilely revoked by the teacher. This activity acclimated the "mint-whiteboards" as a anatomy of discipline.
All acceptance were accustomed the albatross to appropriately use the "mint-whiteboard", however, they did not et the objectives categorical aural the policy, which states that 'students will be able to apprentice after disruption from assertive behavior' (New South Wales Department of Academy Education, 1996, p. 7). In turn, the advantage was removed, appropriately the acceptance had to apprentice from this punishment, so that they would accept added account for the ARC adeptness in the abutting opportunity.
Furthermore, Arcs, such as "mint-whiteboards", finer advice agents and acceptance adeptness the goals of the "Student welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy' by accepting the albatross of their acquirements and abundance actuality put aback on the student. The New South Wales Department of Academy Apprenticeship (1996) highlights the accent of acceptance accommodating as equals in all facets of their ancestry life. This goal, actuality a amount aspect to apprentice welfare, is able by growing apprentice confidence, addition absolute aftereffect of Arcs.
Within the academy environment, aplomb is of astronomic accent aback analytical apprentice assurance and in turn, apprentice welfare. In Shuck and Sears's (2007) allusive study, agents appear that aback primary academy acceptance were accustomed alternate whiteboards or agnate resources, the acceptance thrived. One abecedary declared 'Students re "exhibitionists" and appropriately admired to use the whiteboard for "projecting" their assignment and their thinking. ' (p. 52). Here, it is axiomatic that the accomplishing of Arcs, such as alternate whiteboards acquiesce acceptance to confidently, and proudly, affectation their work.
This adjustment of teaching is awful able in accretion students' action and absorption maintenance. An abettor arch appear that 'shy acceptance now appetite to allotment and present their work... They're Just advisedly talking because they accept the beheld prompt' (Carney & Shuck, 2007, p. 52). The albatross is confused to the dents to get the best out of the assignment and use the adeptness productively, thereby creating a bigger acquirements environment. Further, agents are able to bigger administer conduct and behavioral issues aural the classroom.
Effective acquirements is an capital basic of the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy'. As such, there are abounding outcomes and objectives to be addressed, and best of these can be assisted by the use of a acquirements resource, particularly, Arcs. Arguably, the best important and accordant objectives are the 'establishing [of] well-managed teaching and acquirements environments... And] auspicious acceptance to booty albatross for their own acquirements (New South Wales Department of Academy Education, 1996, p. ). These acute objectives of able acquirements are centered on the classroom ambiance and the adeptness of the abecedary to actualize an agreeable lesson. In classroom settings, assurance is decidedly important because it functions as a behavioral alleyway through which students' motivational processes accord to their consecutive acquirements and development (Connell & Hellebore, 1991). Thus, any acquirements adeptness charge advance apprentice assurance and motivation, and this is the Tara aftereffect of ARC implementation.
The use of a "mint-whiteboard" actively accouterment the onus of acquirements assimilate the acceptance as they apperceive that they are actuality formatively adjourned during the advance of their learning. ARCS such as "mint-whiteboards" animate the acceptance to participate in the lesson, and added can highlight to the abecedary area their teaching styles may charge adapting. The abecedary is able to bound and finer see aback acceptance are accommodating and accessory to the content, and area misconceptions may lie.
Therefore, they are able to booty the apprentice aside, after the abasement of the blow f the chic alive they are struggling, and assignment to access performance. The advantage of this address is its adeptness in a ambit of classrooms, at any brand akin (Randolph, 2007). In the Classroom Experiment, the "mint-whiteboards" were accounted able by the mathematics, English and abstract teachers. Further, William argued that ARCS are adapted for all adeptness levels, allowance under-confident acceptance to authentic their abilities and knowledge.
This is cogitating of the outcomes in the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy' in which Acceptance will advance competencies which enhance the affection of their relationships with others... [and] acceptance will feel admired as learners' (New South Wales Department of Academy Education, 1996, p. 5). Alternative forms of determinative assessment, such as blockage workbooks as the assignment progresses are beneath advantageous than Arcs.
This adjustment has none of the agreeable capabilities of ARCS and added disrupts the accent of the lesson, creating opportunities for aberration and misbehaver. Thus, the accomplishing of Arcs, such as the "mint-whiteboards" acclimated in the Classroom Agreement are able in announcement the able acquirements of students, in turn, announcement bigger results, and greater advantageous work. There are abounding altered techniques that can be alive by teachers, with the use of Arcs, to finer accommodated and beat the goals of the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy'.
Using altered teaching styles and methods, agents can appoint acceptance of all abilities in the agreeable of anniversary assignment while actuality able to formatively appraise anniversary apprentice during the acquirements of the content. Acclimated effectively, ARCS can act as a action for the acceptance to acclimate beneficiary own acquirements and behavior, and acquiesce agents to conduct aural the chic and academy environment. Strengths and Weaknesses of Acknowledgment Cards As appear above, the strengths of ARCS are absolutely substantial. The abstract has empirically authentic the claims of abounding educational practitioners that acceptation the absolute outcomes associated with Arcs.
Implementing ARCS in classrooms leads to greater apprentice accord and assurance in on-task behaviors, bigger bookish performance, the abecedary is able to analyze students' misconceptions, and acceptance apprentice from anniversary alternative at a college amount than in a hand-raising access Blackwell & McLaughlin, 2005; Heard, 1994; Maroon, 2007; Randolph, 2007). Furthermore, as discussed previously, ARCS are able in acceptable the agreement in the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy'.
ARCS accept been begin to be about admired by students, and this is arguably one of the greatest strengths of Arcs. Heard (1994) discusses that ARCS are a almost bargain acquirements technology, and hence, do not present a abundant amount for schools. By application Arcs, the abecedary can formatively appraise not abandoned the students' compassionate of the content, UT their own teaching appearance and efficacy. Analysis emphasizes that able agents appoint in connected absorption of their teaching, adapting it so to advance the acquirements of their acceptance (Thus, 2009).
ARCS acquiesce agents to bound and finer barometer how able-bodied the majority of the acceptance are affectionate the lesson, and can acclimate their access if needed. Further, Maroon (2007) discusses the accent of balmy burden in announcement apprentice action and engagement, and ARCS finer acquiesce agents to do so. Anniversary apprentice knows that their abandoned acknowledgment will be apparent by he teacher, and potentially their peers, and as a aftereffect engages added in the lesson, and attempts to accommodate a added authentic response. Finally, ARCS accept been apparent to be alive in a ample ambit of contexts (Randolph, 2007).
ARCS accept been attributed to college accomplishment in test, quiz and article arrangement in all stages of apprenticeship (primary, secondary, tertiary), beyond altered key acquirements areas (I. E. Mathematics, English, science, etc. ) and for both disabled and accepted acquirements environments. Although ARCS accept a abundance of associated advantages, there are some applied limitations of this technology (Randolph, 2007). Heard (1994) highlights that whilst accretion alive apprentice responding is important, it is abandoned one third of the broader acquirements balloon involving the content, acknowledgment and abecedary feedback.
It is appropriately appear that in adjustment for ARCS to be finer implemented into classrooms, they charge be authentic by a able and absolute class that helps to abutment the students' learning. Furthermore, the acknowledgment the abecedary provides during anniversary acquirements balloon charge be antidotal and constructive, admitting non-humiliating. It is accordingly axiomatic that Arcs, alone, will not bear on bookish and behavioral assets unless supplemented by a wallpapered class and adapted abecedary response. Herein lies addition limitation of Arcs, one aggregate by any new pedagogy.
New technologies are bound by the teacher's adeptness to acclimate the technology to their classroom, acclimate their teaching appearance to the technology, advance their pace, and accept backbone abundant to acquiesce the acceptance to convenance with the technology afore it becomes able (Randolph, 2007). As apparent in the Classroom Experiment, agents are about afraid to apparatus these new strategies as it requires added assignment and practice. Teachers' apropos lie in the time-consuming activity of handing out the Arcs, and the claim of added anchored to use the resource, I. E. Whiteboard markers for the "mint-whiteboards".
Furthermore, ARCS are bound by the time it takes for acceptance to codify their answer, and again address it bottomward (Heard, 1994). Additionally, some forms of ARC use depends on a assertive akin of articulacy amidst the students, the charge be able to address bottomward their answers which can account animosity amidst college adeptness acceptance who charge delay for the lower adeptness students. In his meta-analysis, Randolph (2007) letters that in some cases, earlier acceptance bank the use of ARCS to be somewhat childish, and thus, it is bright the ARCS are bound by how the abecedary introduces and uses the technology in the classroom.
Arguably the greatest limitation of ARCS is accent by Maroon (2007) in his analysis of the types of questions ARCS are advantageous for, and the acknowledgment acceptance can provide. Apprentice responses charge be kept to a about minimum aback application ARCS such as "mint-whiteboards". Due to the bound amplitude and the call of the abecedary actuality able to apprehend the responses, acceptance are clumsy to address annihilation best than a few words. This is ambiguous in that the abecedary can abandoned finer utilities ARCS in the classroom aback forced-choice appearance questions (I. . True/false, altered choice, etc. ) are used. This may crave added assignment for the abecedary to appear up with pre- planned altered best questions and answers. Thus, whilst primarily absolute in outcomes, ARCS accept applied limitations associated with amplitude to address answers, time spent agreeable in handing out of the resource, and the adeptness of the abecedary to advance a classroom ambiance that stimulates a alive clip and allows acceptance the aplomb to abandonment their responses. Randolph, 2007).
Response Cards in the Teaching of Federal Government The adventures of educational professionals application ARCS in the classroom accept been hallucinated. In an Internet blob, Waxier (n. D. ) discusses his use of pre-printed acknowledgment cards in the teaching and reviewing of the three branches of the federal government. Anniversary apprentice receives three cards, pre-printed with either Legislative, Judicial, or Executive. The abecedary again asks questions apropos the admiral captivated by anniversary of these branches. Acceptance are to accept to the question, and aback signaled, authority up the adapted card.
Waxier uses the archetype of "Which annex has the ability to veto laws? ", acquainted that the actual apprentice acknowledgment is the Executive. If the majority of acceptance are actual in captivation up that authentic ARC, the abecedary repeats the actual answer, and moves on to the abutting question. However, if added than a third of the acceptance are incorrect in their response, Waxier stresses the accent of alteration how the antecedent actual was taught, and planning afterward acquaint to be added adaptive to the students' learning.
This is a acute basic to the teaching process. Determinative appraisal is abundantly advantageous in highlighting to the abecedary hat the acceptance appreciate during the teaching of content, rather than testing compassionate at the end of the unit, as is the case with accretion appraisal (Heard, 1994). This helps agents like Waxier to analyze aback their teaching is successful, and aback important changes charge to be made. Washer's (n. D. ) use of these pre-printed acknowledgment cards coincides with abounding of the strengths of a ARC system.
In the blob, Waxier letters that all his acceptance were added actively involved, rather than Just the added assured students, and this supports the after-effects begin by William in the Classroom Experiment. Further, Washer's ARCS are a acknowledged archetype of a bargain and low-tech teaching adeptness in that they are artlessly laminated bedding of paper. Addition backbone of his adjustment is the acceleration and affluence of use. Waxier is able to ask altered questions apropos the branches of the government, and acceptance are able to all acknowledge application the cards.
As the ARCS are pre-printed, apprentice responses are quick and efficient, and could be calmly apprehend by Waxier, a all-important application aback application ARCS (Heard, 1994). Furthermore, this use of ARCS allows the acceptance to apprentice from anniversary other, rather than accepting the coacher, abandoned acquaint them of their misconceptions (Randolph, 2007). Maroon (2007) stresses the accent of balmy burden in allowance accumulate acceptance engaged, and Washer's use of ARCS optimists this, by ensuring that anniversary apprentice is fabricated answerable for their acknowledgment and thus, classroom participation. As with all pre- printed Arcs, Washer's (n. D. Are bound by the baby cardinal of altered acquirements trials they can be acclimated for. In this example, Washer's ARCS can abandoned be acclimated for questions specific to the appearance of the branches of the federal government, thus, added cards would charge to be created to analysis alternative topics. Alternatively, write-on Arcs, such as the "mint-whiteboards" featured in the Classroom Experiment, abate the charge to actualize a advanced arrangement of pre-printed responses, and would appropriately be an adapted adeptness to use. As Heard (1994) argues, pre-printed Arcs, such as Washer's, absolute the arrangement of actual the abecedary is able to assess.
In this example, acceptance could still acknowledgment with the actual branch, however, alternative questions could be included in the quiz, I. E. "Name the two houses of parliament", with actual acceptance autograph "Lower - House of Representatives and Upper - Senate", or some aberration thereof on their Arcs. Summary Arcs, whether pre-printed or write-on, are an able low-tech, bargain teaching resource, and accept been able-bodied authentic by empiric affirmation and research. In implementing "mint-whiteboards" in the Classroom Experiment, William was able to acquisition empiric abutment for his claims of the advantages of Arcs.
Students account from the determinative appraisal that ARCS allow, as apparent through bigger bookish performance, added apprentice accord and about absolute reactions to ARC accomplishing in classrooms. Agents address that ARCS accomplish added on-task, and abate disruptive, behavior, and acquiesce them to not abandoned admit and actual detent misconceptions during the teaching of the content, but additionally analyze area modifications to their teaching appearance are all-important to activate greater classroom understanding.
As discussed, ARCS are an important development as they amuse the agreement categorical in the "Student Welfare, Acceptable Conduct and Able Acquirements Policy'. Whilst agents and acceptance address the arrangement of strengths associated with Arcs, there are limitations. Agents charge accept backbone to acquiesce acceptance to become accustomed with the resource, and advance the aplomb to affectation their answers. Further, agents charge to ensure that they advance a alive clip in the classroom, and use ARCS as a privilege, rather than a right. In this way, acceptance are added acceptable to see the abatement of the ARCS as a abuse for misbehaver.
ARCS are bound by the styles of questions they are adapted in answering, and as such assignment best in bike with alternative pedagogical strategies. As Washer's (n. D. ) balloon demonstrates, agents are finer utilizing ARCS in their classrooms to activate greater acquirements in their students, bigger bookish performance, and acute apprentice engagement.
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