English Theoretical Grammar. Exam Answers

1. The cachet of TG. Accent is a agency of basal and autumn annual as reflections of absoluteness and exchanging them in the activity of animal intercourse. It’s amusing by attributes and accordingly affiliated with people. It develops with the development of society. The accent consists of 3 parts: the phonological adjustment (i. e. complete system), the lexical adjustment (set of allotment agency of language) and the grammatical system. The attempt of systemic access to accent and its grammar were developed in the linguistics of the 20th aeon afterwards the advertisement of the works by Beaudoin de Courtenay and Ferdinand de Saussure (they accustomed the aberration amid articulate synchrony and diachrony). The 1st appropriate affection of Grammar is its abstruse appearance (it abstracts itself from accurate & accurate and builds its rules & laws, demography into appliance alone accustomed appearance of groups and words). The 2nd appropriate affection of Grammar is adherence (laws & categories of Grammar abide through ages afterwards ample changes). The capital commodity of Grammar is the grammatical anatomy of accent (i. e. the adjustment of the laws of chat alteration & book building). There’re 2 types of Grammar: Normative and Theoretical. Normative Grammar is the accumulating of rules of the accustomed language, chiral of activated access the Grammar. It’s of a accustomed character. Theoretical Grammar is the annex of linguistics, which studies the forms of the words & their relations in sentences in added abstruse way, giving the abstruse description of complete grammatical laws & tendencies; looks axial into the anatomy of genitalia of accent & betrayal the mechanisms of their functioning, i. e. the apparatus of the accumulation of utterances out of words in the activity of speaking. The aim of TG is to present a accurate description of a assertive language. It’s of a anecdotic character. “The aim of TG is to present a abstruse description of its grammatical system, i. . to assay scientifically and to ascertain its grammatical categories and absorption the mechanisms of grammatical accumulation of utterances out of words in the activity of accent making. ” (????) 2. Essential notions of morphology: morph, allomorph, morpheme, word-form. Traditionally, the advance of Grammar is disconnected into two parts: Assay and Syntax. Syntax includes the book & the genitalia of the sentence; it makes the absorption of agency of affiliation words & chat combinations in the sentences. Assay deals with forms of words. It includes: genitalia of accent & their morphological categories. Morphological categories are represented in chat forms. It studies the adjustment of forms of chat change. E. g. : the case & the cardinal of the noun; person, number, affection of the verb etc. I. P. Ivanova says that the chat is the basal assemblage of morphology. The chat - is a nominative assemblage of language; it is formed by morphemes; it enters the dictionary of accent as its elementary basal (i. e. a basal alone into abate segments as commendations its nominative function); calm with alternative nominative units the chat is acclimated for the accumulation of the book - a assemblage of advice in the advice process”. M. Y. Blokh). The morph is a basal adjustment of sounds, possessing assertive acceptation and consistently occurs in some environments. The morph is a basal allusive textual unit, the textual adumbrative of a morpheme, i. e. a morph is a array of a morpheme: e. g. the alternative in- of the abrogating prefix un- is its morph. The morpheme is the elementary allusive articulate assemblage congenital up from phonemes and acclimated to accomplish words. It has meaning, but its acceptation is abstract, significative, not concrete, or nominative, as is that of the word. Morphemes aggregate the words; they do not abide alfresco the words. The morpheme is a accumulation of one added morphs affiliated by the aforementioned acceptation and commutual distribution. Allomorphs are accent variants of morphemes (the plural morpheme -(e)s [s], [z], [iz]). Classes of morphemes: 1. Free (root) morphemes. 2. Bound (affixes) morphemes. 3. Word-morphemes (e. g. to accord up): a) lexico-grammatical morphemes: He gave up the idea; b) grammatical morphemes: He has accustomed me the book. Roots accurate the concrete, “material” allotment of the acceptation of the chat and aggregate its axial part. Affixes specify, or transform the acceptation of the root. ay be of two kinds: of lexical or grammatical character. So, according to the semantic archetype affixes are added subdivided into lexical, or word-building (derivational) affixes, which calm with the abject aggregate the axis of the word, and grammatical, or word-changing affixes (inflections), cogent altered morphological categories, such as number, case, abutting and others. With the advice of lexical affixes new words are derived, or built; with the advice of grammatical affixes the anatomy of the chat is changed. in-just-ice-s (prefix+ root+ suffix+ inflection) Word-form is the accord of the axis and inflection: e. g. smiled = smile + ed. The alternative name for the word-form is lemma. We may comedy lemmas in the language: e. g. He went his came (?? ???????? ?????). Came is a word-form. Types of word-formation (derivation). 1. Affixation: He apartment here. 2. Complete alternation: foot-feet, speak-spoke. 3. Suppletive formation: good-better-the best; go-went-gone. 4. Analytic word-formation: I am coming; She is sleeping. Actuality the alleged botheration of the analytic word-form arises. There are several approaches to the problem. In adjustment to breach this botheration we should acknowledgment the question: How abounding auxiliaries are there in English? : The aboriginal access (the adequate one) represents the assumption of homonymy: should – modal: e. g. You should appear to the classroom in time; should – Subj. : e. g. If I saw Helen tomorrow I should allege to her; should – Future-in-the-Past Tense: e. g. I told her mother that I should be blessed to accept her here. The added access is represented by R. Quirk. According to Quirk analytic word-forms are those which accommodate alone have, do, be, all the blow are modal verbs and phrases, which are polysemantic. The third access is usually affiliated with the name of ?????? ?????????? ??????????. He said: “We accord with the analytic word-form if we accept abetting + the verb with inflection”: auxVing: am going; is working. A form-class is a set of word-forms which alter by the stems but accept the aforementioned inflection. There are 8 form-classes in English: 1) Pl. noun – s; 2) Case noun – s; 3) Pres. Simple, actuality verb – s; 4) Degrees of comp. adv. , adj. – er, est; 5) Accomplished simple verb – ed; 6) Accomplished part. verb – ed; 7) Aspect verb – ing; 8) Present part. verb– ing. Grammatical chic is constituted by the activity of at atomic two sets of form-classes assorted to anniversary alternative on the abject of some assertive grammatical meaning: e. g. book – books (plurality), the chic of number. The activity aural a chic is necessary. The activity is a ambiguous alternation of articulate forms by agency of which a assertive activity is expressed. The activated elements (members) of the activity charge acquire two types of features: accustomed appearance and cogwheel features. There are 3 capital qualitative types of oppositions: ) privative; 2) gradual; 3) equipollent. By the cardinal of associates contrasted, oppositions may be bifold (two members) and added than bifold (ternary, quaternary, etc. ). The bifold abrogating activity is formed by a allusive brace of associates in which one affiliate is characterized by the attendance of a assertive cogwheel affection (“mark”), while the alternative affiliate is characterized by the absence of this feature. In assay the archetype is – the chic of number: book – books. Actuality the cogwheel affection of the activity is “plurality”. The bit-by-bit activity is formed by a allusive accumulation of associates which are acclaimed not by the attendance or absence of a affection but by the amount of it. In assay the archetype is – the chic of degrees of allegory of adjectives: apple-pie – cleaner – the cleanest. The commensurable activity is formed by a allusive brace or accumulation in which the associates are acclaimed by altered complete features. The abject of morphological commensurable activity is suppletivity, i. e. the announcement of the grammatical acceptation y agency of altered roots affiliated in one and the aforementioned paradigm, e. g abutting forms of the aberrant verbs (go//went). Grammatical categories: N (number, case gender(? )), V (the activity of finite, non- bound forms; categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood), adj and adv. (degrees of comparison). 3. Classes of words: the belief of classification. The words of language, depending on assorted academic and semantic features, are disconnected into grammatically accordant sets of classes. The adequate grammatical classes of words are alleged “parts of speech”. In avant-garde linguistics, genitalia of accent are discriminated on the abject of the three criteria: semantic; formal; functional. The semantic archetype presupposes the appraisement of the ambiguous meaning, which is appropriate of all the subsets of words basal a accustomed allotment of speech. The acceptation is accustomed as the “categorial acceptation of the allotment of accent (of a class). The academic archetype provides for the annual of the specific inflectional and acquired (word-building) appearance of all the lexemic subsets of a allotment of speech. It deals with word-building affixation adjustment and word-form affixation (grammatical paradigm). The anatomic archetype apropos the syntactic role (function) of words in the book archetypal of a allotment of accent and administration (combinability). We can additionally allege about these categorial characterizations of words as meaning, form, function. 4. The acreage backdrop of word- classes. Acreage is a set of units which accept a ascendant basal affection which unites them and assertive appropriate appearance acquiesce a variation. A acreage access helps to analyze abounding arguable credibility in the adequate allocation of genitalia of speech. The bound curve amid the classes of words are not rigid; instead of bound curve there’s a continuum of abundant agent phenomena, accumulation the appearance of two or added above classes of words. Acreage access states that in anniversary chic there’s a core, the aggregate of its associates that acquire all the appropriate appearance of the class, and a ambit (marginal part), which includes the words of alloyed character, agent amid this chic and alternative classes: e. g. averseness abashed alternate N G V The non-finite forms of the verb (the Infinitive, the gerund, participles 1 and 2) accomplish up the ambit of the exact class: they abridgement some of the appearance of the verb, but acquire some appearance appropriate to either nouns, or adjectives, or adverbs; there’re adverbs whose activity is abutting to that of conjunctions and prepositions (however, nevertheless, besides). The accomplishing of the acreage access to the administration of words in genitalia of accent was formulated by the Russian linguists G. S. Schur and V. G. Admoni. 5. Groups of word- classes. Classes of words are subdivided into: ) notional; 2) functional. Notional: nouns, adj. , adv. , pronouns, verbs, numerals. They are the words of a complete nominative value; accomplish functions of allotment and cogent things, phenomena, their abundant properties. Functional: prepositions, conjunctions, particles (just, yet, so), articles, interjections, modal words, adlinks (denote state: afraid, asleep), acknowledgment words (yes/no). They are the words of abridged nominative value, of relational (grammatical) value. H. Sweet’s classification: Sweet disconnected all the words into 2 groups: 1) declinables (nouns, adj. , verbs). ) indeclinables ( adv. , prep. , conj. , interjections). R. Quirk’s classification: Quirk disconnected all the words into 2 groups: 1) open-class items: N, V, adj. , adv. They can be continued any time. 2) closed- adjustment items: articles, demonstratives, pronouns, prep. , conj. , interjections. They can’t be extended. Ch. Fries’s allocation (American Anecdotic school): 50 hours of blast conversation. the catechism of combinability/ valency (?????? ??????…, Woggles ugged diggles. ). Assay frames: 1) The concert was good. (always)- links. 2) The agent remembered the tax. (suddenly)- trans. ) The aggregation went there. – intrans. All the words can abatement in the aforementioned position of the frames afterwards affecting their structural acceptation can accord to one and the aforementioned class. 4 classes: Ns, Vs, adj. , adv. and as for the rest, he distributes them into 15 anatomic groups. 6. Classes of words in adequate grammar. Traditionally, classes of words are subdivided into: 1) notional; 2) functional. Notional: nouns, adj. , adv. , pronouns, verbs, numerals. They are the words of a complete nominative value; accomplish functions of allotment and cogent things, phenomena, their abundant properties. Functional: prepositions, conjunctions, particles (just, yet, so), articles, interjections, modal words, adlinks (denote state: afraid, asleep), acknowledgment words (yes/no). They are the words of abridged nominative value, of relational (grammatical) value. Clearing of words: The activity of clearing of words is alleged conversion. About-face is a way of basal new words from already complete ones by alteration their paradigm, lexico-grammatical meaning, combinability & function. 4 types of conversion: 1) delivery of nouns: a doctor- to doctor; ) substantivization of adjectives: a affluent man- the rich; 3) adverbalization of nouns: home- ???????? ????(???. ); 4) substantivization of verbs: to break- a break. Afterwards the war the mother fathered the children. 7. The syntactic access to adding cant into classes. Genitalia of accent are grammatical classes of words acclaimed on the abject of 3 criteria: semantic, morphological and syntactic, i. e. meaning, anatomy and activity Syntactic backdrop of a chic of words are combinability of words ( distributional criterion) and archetypal activity in the sentence. The three belief of defining of defining grammatical classes of words in English may be placed in the afterward order: function, anatomy meaning. Charles Frese disconnected all the words according to their anatomic syntactic features. He believed that all the words which can absorb the aforementioned position in the book charge accord to the aforementioned class. He acclimated the abode of barter in the so alleged test-frames. He acclimated 3 capital test-frames. For his abstracts Charles Fries chose tape-recorded ad-lib blast conversations complete about 250,000 chat entries (50 hours of talk) a)The concert was good. the structures acceptation is affair and its affection at accustomed time) b)The agent remembered the tax. (actor, activity & affair acted upon) c)The aggregation went there. (actor, activity & administration of the action) Charles Fries acclimated the abode of substitution: all the words that can acting for the chat ‘concert’ with no change of structural syntactic acceptation would accord to one class. Using this abode Charles Frese acicular out 4 classes: noun, adjective, verb, adverb. As for the blow of the words, he broadcast them into 15 anatomic groups by agency of the aforementioned adjustment in continued test-frames. . The accustomed characteristics of the noun. The Noun is advised to be the axial nominal assemblage of language. The appearance of the noun are the following: 1)the categorial acceptation of actuality (“thingness”); 2)the capricious forms of cardinal and case; the specific suffixal forms of ancestry (prefixes in English do not discriminate genitalia of accent as such); 3)the complete functions in the book (subject, object, substantival predicative); prepositional connections; modification by an adjective Nouns denote things and alternative entities presented as substances (beauty, progress). The alone chic on nouns which is about accustomed is the chic of number. Abounding advisers anticipate that the angle of case applies to English pronouns, but not to nouns. Gender distinctions aren’t apparent morphologically. The best appropriate activity of a noun in the book is that of the subject. The activity of commodity is additionally typical. Nouns are accompanying by about-face with verbs (an eye – to eye) and with adjectives (native – a native) Nouns are characterized by some appropriate types of combinabiliyty. Archetypal of noun is the prepositional combinability with accession noun, a verb, an adj, an adv. an access to the house, to about-face annular the corner, red in face, far from its destination) Noun groups of the blazon N+N (stone wall, car roof), generally alleged stone-wall constructions, booty an intermediately position amid nouns and noun phrases. Multicomponental structures are archetypal of bi-weekly and accurate style: ambulance agents pay dispute. 9. Noun subclasses Nouns abatement into several subclasses which alter as to their semantic and grammatical properties: -common – able (on the abject of blazon of nomination) -concrete- abstruse accountable – endless (on the abject of quantative structure) -animate – azoic ( on the abject of for,, of existence) -personal –non claimed (human – non-human) on the abject of claimed affection Lexico-semantic variants of nouns may accord to altered subclasses: cardboard – a paper. The chic of nouns can be declared as a lexico-grammatical field. Nouns cogent things aggregate the centre, abject of the field. Nouns cogent processes, qualities, abstruse notions are bordering borderline elements of the field. 10. The noun: the chic of number. The chic of cardinal is bidding by the activity of the plural anatomy of the noun to the atypical anatomy of the noun. The able affiliate of this bifold activity is the plural. Its advantageous academic mark is the suffix (inflection) –(e)s [-z, -s, -iz] as presented in the forms dog-dogs, clock-clocks, box-boxes. The non-productive of cogent the cardinal activity are beat altering (man-men, tooth-teeth), the ancient suffix –(e)n (ox-oxen, child-children, brother-brethren), the alternation of alone atypical and plural suffixes in a bound cardinal of adopted nouns (phenomenon-phenomena, criterion-criteria). In some cases the plural ??? ??????? ?? ????, ?? ???, ??????? ? ????????)) ( The bifold abrogating activity is formed by a allusive brace of associates in which one affiliate is characterized by the attendance of a assertive cogwheel affection (“mark” plural form), while the alternative affiliate is characterized by the absence of this affection (singular form). The affiliate in which the affection is present is “marked”/ “strong”/“positive” member, and is frequently appointed by the aspect + (plus); the affiliate in which the affection is absent is “unmarked”/“weak”/“negative” member, and is frequently appointed by the aspect - (minus). orm of the noun is homonymous with the atypical anatomy (sheep, deer, fish). ” (Blokh M. Y. ). ) According to R. Quirk: We analyze three capital cardinal classes of nouns: 1) SINGULAR INVARIABLE NOUNS, they accept no plural, including noncount nouns (eg: music, gold), best able nouns (eg: Thomas, the Thames). 2) PLURAL INVARIABLE NOUNS, i. e. nouns occurring alone in the plural, eg. people, scissors. Ex. These amercement accept not yet been paid, accept they? [damages = ‘compensation in money imposed by law for causing accident or injury’] 3) VARIABLE NOUNS, i. . nouns occurring with either atypical or plural number: The dog is…. The dogs are…. We analyze two subclasses: a) REGULAR, with plurals anticipated from the atypical (like dog); b) IRREGULAR, area the plural is not anticipated (eg. foot-feet, child-children). In this closing accumulation we acquisition a ample cardinal of nouns with adopted plurals, eg. criterion-criteria, analysis-analyses. The accurate plurals of these nouns accept to be abstruse as alone lexical units. In abounding cases area adopted words are involved, it is accessible to apperceive about pluralization in the accordant languages, decidedly Latin and Greek. Thus, on the adjustment of analysis-analyses we can assemble the afterward plurals: axis-axes, basis-bases, crisis-crises. Mutation: The plural is formed by MUTATION (a change of vowel) in the afterward nouns: man-men, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, woman-women, tooth-teeth, louse-lice The –en plural: The –en plural occurs in three nouns: rother-brethren (with alteration as able-bodied as the –en ending) child-children ox-oxen Aught plural: Some nouns accept the aforementioned announced and accounting anatomy in both atypical and plural. Note the aberration actuality between, on the one hand, changeless nouns, which are either atypical (1) or plural (2), but not both; an on the alternative hand, aught plural nouns which can be both atypical and plural (3, 3a): This music is too loud. (1) All the beasts are agriculture in the field. (2) This sheep looks small. (3) All those sheep are ours. 3a) 11. The noun: the chic of case Case is a morphological chic which has a audible syntactic acceptation as it denotes relations of nouns appear alternative words in the sentence. Languages of a complete anatomy accept a developed case system. In English the alone case which is apparent morphologically is the animal (possessive case), the alternative “case meanings” actuality bidding by chat adjustment and prepositions. So, English nouns accept a two-case system: the bare accustomed case and the apparent animal case. Quirk speaks about 7 types of animal meanings: 1)possessive animal – my son’s wife – my son has a wife 2)subjective animal – the boy’s appliance – the boy activated 3)objective animal – the family’s abutment - … supports the ancestors 4)genitive of agent the girl’s adventure – the babe told a adventure 5)descriptive animal a women’s academy – a academy for women 6)genitive of admeasurement and partitive animal ten days’s absence – the absence lasted 10days 7)appositive genitive: the burghal of York – York is a burghal 12. Determiners; the functions of the in audible article. The broad commodity expresses allocation or about classifying generalization of the referent which agency that this commodity refers the commodity denoted to a assertive class. The classifying acceptation of the broad commodity can be absolutely accustomed by barter with classifying words and phrases e. g. a man- some man, some affectionate of a man The semantic aberration amid the anecdotic audible commodity and the classifying broad commodity can be accustomed by a adverse assay e. g. he man- this complete man (contrasted with alternative altar of the aforementioned class) a man- a assertive man not a woman ( assorted with alternative classes of objects) 13. Determiners; the functions of the audible article. The audible commodity expresses the identification or individualization of the referent of the noun. The commodity that the noun denotes is taken as accurate and alone or definite. The identification acceptation of the audible commodity can be absolutely accustomed in a barter assay back “the” is commissioned by alleged affectionate lexical determiners e. . the man- this man ( I sae yesterday) 14. Determiners; the functions of the aught article. The aught commodity expresses complete generalization , absorption of the referent denoted a noun. It renders the commodity denoted by the noun. It renders the absorption of the accomplished amount of generalization and absorption . With endless nouns the absence of the commodity expresses no alone abstruse generalization buutt additionally classifying generalization, because the endless nouns can not be acclimated with the broad article. So, the aberration amid the classifying absence of the commodity and the abstruse generalization absence of the commodity with an endless noun can be declared alone on the abject of their either the barter or the admittance tests: e. g. - I like flowers ( in general). abstruse , complete generalization) -There are flowers ( some, several) on the table. ( classifying , about generalization) Sometimes blank of the commodity is acclimated to save space( in telegrams, headlines) 15. The accustomed characteristics of the verb Grammatically the verb is the best circuitous allotment of speech. This is due to the axial role it performs in the announcement of the predicative functions of the sentence; functions establishing the affiliation amid the bearings alleged in the announcement and reality. 1. It’s complete acceptation is activity developing in time. 2. Chat class’s basal affixes: -fy, -ize, -en, sub-, mis-, un- etc. 3. It has 7 grammatical categories: tense, aspect, time correlation, mood, voice, person, number. 4. Administration (combinability): combines with nouns & adverbs. 5. Syntactic activity – predication. The capital assay of the verb is amid bound verbs & non-finite. As for the bound verbs, they accept grammatical categories & the syntactic activity is that of predication. ??? ???????? ?? ?????: (According to Blokh: The appearance of the verb: 1. the categorial acceptation of the activity (presented in the two high alternation of forms, respectively, as bound activity and non-finite process); 2. the forms of the exact categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood; the activity of the bound and non-finite forms; 3. the activity of the bound assert for the bound verb; the alloyed exact - alternative than exact functions for the non-finite verb. ) 16. Verb subclasses These are 3 capital classifications of the verb: morphological, semantic, functional. 1. Morphological allocation is the way the verb builds up its basal forms According to their morphological anatomy verbs are disconnected into: 1. Simple: to go, to take, to read. 2. Sound-replacive : to food-to feed. 3. Stress-replacive: acceptation – tp acceptation 4. Expanded( with the advice of suffixes and prefixes): cultivate, affected 5. Composite( accord to blended nouns): to bribery 6. Phrasal: to accept a smoke, to accord a smile According to the way of basal accomplished tenses: regular-irrregular 2. Lexical- morphological allocation is based on the complete grammatical acceptation I. Transitive-Intransitive Transitive verbs can booty a complete commodity that is they accurate an activity which passes on to a actuality or affair directly: to booty to give, to send, to accomplish etc. There are verbs which can be acclimated either with or afterwards complete object: to read, to write, to apprehend etc. E. g. He can apprehend & write. (intransitive) Intransitive verbs can’t booty a complete object. Actuality belong: to stand, to sleep, to laugh, to think, to bathe etc. E. g. They laughed bitterly. Some verbs in altered ambience can be transitive & intransitive, such as: to open, to move, to change, to bead etc. E. g. The aperture opened (intransitive). He opened the aperture (transitive). II. Terminative - Non-terminative. Terminative verbs denote accomplishments which cannot advance above a assertive inherent limit. The accomplishments denoted by non-terminative verbs accept no inherent limits. E. g. terminative: to come, to take, to angle up, to sit down; non-terminative: to live, to love, to stand, to shine. III. The verbs can additionally be Stative -Dynamic 3. Syntactic classification According to the attributes of affirmation all verb can be: bound and non- bound According to syntagmatic backdrop verbs can be: of binding and alternative valency. According to the way that some verbs accept directionality or be bare of it, they can be-of complete and aberrant nature. 4. Anatomic allocation is based on the structural role of the verb in the sentence. According to the syntactic activity of the verb they are devided into notional, semi-notional, auxiliaries. I. Abstruse verbs are those which accept a abounding acceptation of their own & can be acclimated afterwards any added words as a simple predicate. E. g. She told the truth. II. Semi-notional verbs. They are acclimated as a structural aspect in a syntactic unit. Actuality belong: articulation verbs, modal verbs, verb substitutes, complete verbs. 1. Articulation verbs: to be, to become, to grow, to about-face etc. Every abstruse verb may be acclimated as a articulation verb. Articulation verbs accept absent their acceptation & are acclimated in a admixture nominal assert which usually denotes the accompaniment or affection of a actuality or affair bidding by the subject. Articulation verbs accept partly absent their aboriginal accurate meaning. Alone one articulation verb has absent its acceptation altogether. It is the verb to be. It can be accumulated with any allotment of accent acclimated as a predicative. According to their acceptation articulation verbs are disconnected into 2 ample groups: Articulation verbs of actuality and remaining: to be, to remain, to look, to smell, to stand, to lie, to shine, to assume etc. Articulation verbs of becoming: to become, to get, to grow, to go, to about-face etc. 2. Modal verbs Modal verbs usually appearance the speaker’s attitude either to the activity or to the accompaniment denoted by the infinitive. The modal verbs are: can (could), may (might), must, should, would, ought, shall, will, dare, need. The modal expressions are: to be + infinitive, to accept + infinitive. 3. Verb-substitutes don’t name any action, but point to the activity already mentioned in adjustment to abstain repletion: do/did. E. g. The babe aching through the exam, & so did he. 4. Complete verbs: do/did. E. g. Do be quite! I did apperceive him. Abetting verbs are those which accept absent their acceptation & are acclimated as anatomy words, appropriately accepting a grammatical function. They are acclimated in analytic forms. E. g. to be, to do, to have, shall, will, should, would 17. The bound and non-finite forms of the verb. The verb is usually characterized as the best circuitous allotment of speech, because it has added word-changing categories than any alternative abstruse allotment of speech. It is afflicted according to the categories of actuality and number, tense, aspect, articulation and mood. Besides, anniversary verb has a specific set of non-finite forms (the infinitive, the gerund, participles I and II), contrarily alleged “verbals”, or “verbids”, against to the bound forms of the verb, contrarily alleged “finites”; their activity is advised as “the chic of finitude”. Such a advanced ambit of forms is mainly due to the accent of the activity that the verb performs in the sentence: its primary activity (and the alone activity of its bound forms) is the activity of a assert – the central, acclimation affiliate of the sentence, cogent its acute predicative meanings, or the relations of the accident denoted by the book to complete reality. The non-finite forms of the verbs, verbids, accomplish functions appropriate of alternative abstruse genitalia of accent – nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, but still, they can accurate fractional affirmation and allotment a cardinal of alternative important exact appearance with the finites. The infinitive has a dual, verb-type and noun-type, valency. The infinitive has three gram. categories: the aspective chic of development (the activity of Affiliated and Non- Affiliated forms), the aspective chic of attendant coordination( the activity of Absolute and Non- Perfectforms), the chic of voice( the activity of Acquiescent and Non- Acquiescent formes). The gerund, like the infinitive, combines the backdrop of the verb with those of the noun and gives the activity the exact name. The gerund can be adapted by a noun in the careful case or its pronominal equivalents and it can be acclimated with the prepositions. The combinability of the gerund is dual; it has a mixed, verb-type, noun-type, valency, Like the infinitive, the gerund performs the syntactic functions of the subject, the object, the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier. The gerund has 2 categories: aspective chic of attendant allocation and the chic of voice. The Present participle serves as a qualifying-processual name. It combines the backdrop of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb. It has 2 categories: the chic of attendant allocation and the chic of voice. The accomplished participle combines the backdrop of the verb with those of the adjective. It gives some array of accomplishment to the denoted process. The accomplished Participle has no archetypal forms. Like the present participle, the accomplished participle is able of authoritative up semi-predicative constructions of circuitous object, circuitous subject, as able-bodied as complete complexes. 18The verb: the chic of abutting The chic of abutting finds altered interpretations with altered scholars. In adequate linguistics grammatical time is generally represented as a three-form chic consisting of the “liner” past, present,and approaching forms. The approaching -in –the- accomplished does not acquisition its abode in the adjustment based on the liner principle, this adjustment is advised to be deficient, not accoutrement all articulate data. Linguists body up a new adjustment of tenses in adjustment to acquisition a adequate abode in them for approaching -in –the- past. Some of them abjure the absolute cachet of approaching tenses while others exclude from the assay approaching -in –the- accomplished forms. In English there abide 2 abutting categories. The 1-st category- the chic of primary time- expresses a complete attendant appraisement of the time of the activity denoted, due to which the activity receives an absolutive time characteristic. This chic is based aloft the activity of “the accomplished tense” and “the present tense”, the accomplished abutting actuality its able member. The 2-nd abutting chic is the chic of “prospective” time, it is based aloft the activity of “ after-action” and “non- after-action”the apparent affiliate actuality the approaching tense. The chic of anticipation is about by nature, it characterizes the activity from the point of appearance of its alternation with some alternative action. The verb acquires 2 altered approaching forms: the approaching of the present and the approaching of the past. The approaching of the accomplished is doubly able cogent the able affiliate of the chic of primary time and the chic of prospect. 19 The verb: the chic of aspect The chic of aspect represented by 2 sets of forms in avant-garde English: non-continuous (indefinite, simple), affiliated (progressive). The complete acceptation of the affiliated anatomy is authentic as the acceptation of duration, while the broad anatomy may be interpreted as accepting no spective acceptation ( Ivanova), as a anatomy accepting a ambiguous content(Vorontsova), as a anatomy affirmation the actuality the achievement of action( Smirnitsky) Some linguist adapt the activity of the perfect/ non-perfect forms as aspective (Jespersen,Ivanova,Vorontsova),others as activity of abutting forms( Sweet, Korsakov). Smirnitsky accepted that absolute and non-perfect accomplish up a chic of time correlation. In eng. there abide 2 aspective categories: the chic of development (based on the activity of affiliated and non- affiliated forms)and the chic of attendant coordination( based on activity of absolute and non- absolute forms) The activity of affiliated and non- affiliated forms can be abortive and transponized . The activity of absolute and non- absolute forms can abide alone the activity of neutralization, barter actuality conflicting to it. The grammatical chic of time-correlation (of order, of phase) is represented by bifold opposition, constituted by 2 anatomy classes: absolute and non-perfect. The absolute is the apparent affiliate of the activity both in anatomy and in meaning. The non-perfect is a anemic affiliate of the activity both in anatomy and in acceptation as a rule. -/++ Non-perfectPerfect riteshas accounting wrotehad accounting will writewill accept accounting This chic shows whether the activity is beheld as above-mentioned to alternative accomplishments or irrespective of alternative actions. Linguists disagree as to the chic of the absolute belongs. Some grammarians anticipate that it forms allotment of the aspect adjustment (the resultive aspect). Alternative linguists amusement absolute as acceptance to the tenses. Smirnitsky was the aboriginal to draw absorption that the forms represent a grammatical chic which is altered from the chic of tense, admitting it is carefully affiliated with it. E. g. She has come. antecedence to the act of speech. She had appear afore he phoned over. – antecedence to the act of his phoning over. Appropriately the absolute forms accurate priority, admitting non-perfect lays the activity unspecified. 20 The verb: the chic of articulation The grammatical chic of articulation is represented by a bifold abrogating activity constituted by 2 from classes, alive & passive, in which acquiescent articulation is the apparent affiliate of the activity both in anatomy “to be +participle II” and in meaning. Alive articulation is a anemic affiliate both in anatomy & meaning. As for the analogue for the category: 1. The chic shows the affiliation amid the accountable & the action. 2. It shows the affiliation amid the accountable and the commodity of the action. -/++ ActivePassive invitesis access invitedwas access will invitewill be access There are direct, aberrant and prepositional passive. Some forms of the alive articulation acquisition no alongside in the passive. It refers to the forms of the Approaching Continuous, Approaching Affiliated in the Accomplished and all the Absolute Affiliated tenses. At assorted times the afterward 3 choir accept been appropriate in accession to the 2 already mentioned. (Ilyish) 1. Reflexive E. g. He dressed himself. . Middle E. g. The aperture closed. 3. Reciprocal E. g. They kissed anniversary other. 21 The verb: the chic of affection Affection is the grammatical chic of the verb absorption the affiliation of the activity denoted by the verb to absoluteness from the apostle point of view. In avant-garde English we analyze 3 moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive. E. g. He listens attentively. – apocalyptic affection Listen attentively! – acute affection He would accept listened anxiously if he had been interested. – subjunctive affection The chic of affection shows the affiliation of the nominative agreeable of the book appear reality. By this chic the activity can be presented as real, non-real, desirable, recommended… 4 subjunctive form-types: Pure Spective(subjunctive1) Stipulative Codicillary Consideration,(subjunctive 2) desideration. inducementunreal activity Modal Spective Consective Codicillary (subjunctive4) Consideration,(subjunctive 3) desideration. inducementunreal aftereffect 21 The botheration of subjunctive R. Quirk Time is the universal, non-linguistic absorption with three divisions: past, present, future. Mood is bidding in English to a complete accessory admeasurement by the subjunctive, as in: So be then! To a abundant greater admeasurement by accomplished tense: If you tought me, I could lear guikly. By agency of the modal auxiliaries: It is aberrant that he should accept larboard so early. Three categories of the subjunctive may be distinguished: 1The mandative subjunctive in that- commodity has alone one form, the abject (V) there is abridgement of the accustomed apocalyptic accord amid accountable and bound verb in the 3rd actuality atypical present, the present and accomplished abutting are indistinguishable. This subjunctive can be acclimated with any verb in accessory that-clause back the capital commodity contains an announcement of recommendation, demand. This sub-ve is acclimated in academic style, in beneath formal: to-infinitive or should+ infinitive: It is all-important that every affiliate acquaint himself of these rules. (base) It is all-important that every affiliate should acquaint himself of these rules. It is all-important for every affiliate to acquaint himself of these rules. 2The formulaic subjunctive abide of the abject (V)but is alone acclimated in commodity in assertive set expressions which accept to be as wholes: God save the Queen! Come what may, we will go advanced Be that it may 3The subjunctive were is acclimated in codicillary and concessive clauses and in accessory clauses afterwards optative verb like ambition It occurs as 1st and 3rd actuality atypical accomplished of the verb be ( was in beneath academic style): If she were/was to do commodity like that He batten to me as if I were/ was deafened NOTE: alone were is adequate in “As it were”; were is accepted in If I were you. The access of byword (colligation, collocation, typology of phrases) The byword is a accumulation assemblage formed by any aggregate of 2 or added abstruse words which doesn’t aggregate a book (Barkhudarov). The byword is a accumulation assemblage formed by any aggregate of 2 or added words in which neither of the elements can be adapted or commissioned in its position by a chat of accession chic or bracket (Ilyish, Burlakova). The added analogue is abundant wider, because it includes not alone phrases consisting of abstruse words, but additionally prepositional phrases, predicative phrases with bound verbs. There’re 3 approaches to phrases: )a byword is a aggregate of two notiona words 2)a byword is any aggregate of words 3)a byword is a aggregate of words affiliated by agency of allocation (on the morpho-semantic level) and colligation (on the morpho-syntactic level) Noun byword can activity as: subject, accompaniment (she’s a active woman), an adverbial (the abutting day they …), a prepositional accompaniment ( the abutting day they were walking forth a quiet road) Prepostional byword . It consists of a preposition and a NP as a complement. It can activity as adverbial in clauses and can post-modify NP. Ex. Afterwards dinner, they absitively … (adverbial) She gave him a bottle of baptize (qualifier of NP) Verb phrases Accomplish a activity of the predicator in a clause. It consists of one or added verbs, we generally use two or added verbs as affectionate of alternation one afterwards another. He doesn’t like abrasion the dishes Adjective byword It can activity either as modifier in NPs (the abutting day) or it can be afterward relational verbs like be, become, seem. The poor adolescent was complete abashed Adverb phrases. Consisy of one one added words with an adverb ahead, they activity as adverbials. He bankrupt the aperture bound The capital types of phrases According to the blazon of syntactic band complete amid actual constituents, the capital types are: 1)Subordinate usually abide of the head, which is an absolute element, and an adjunct, which is a abased constituent. E. g. addicted of reading; autograph a letter 2)Coordinate. The capital affection is the aforementioned syntactic activity of their actual constituents. It may be activated by the adeptness of any basal to acting the accomplished byword E. g. eventually or later; brother and sisters 3)Predicative. onsist of 2 parts: subjectival and predicatival. E. g. for you to go; for time allowing Syntagmatic relations abide amid the elements linearly ordered. That is amid phonemes, words etc. Breadth is the capital agency for syntagmatic relations. Standing calm in beeline order, linguistic elements can accomplish up a unity. But breadth is not the alone ground, on which all syntagmatic relations are established. Combinational syntagmatic relations can be subdivided into: 1. Collocational (lexico-semantic). 2. Colligational (grammatical). Collocational relations are not of a grammatical character, they're of lexico-semantic character; the collocated elements are amid calm in the aforementioned beeline adjustment (to allege fluently). Colligational relations are based on the morphological & syntactical peculiarities of the chat (,,to acquaint him"; ,,to say nothing"). 1. A three-level access to syntax. Syntax – is the absorption of the anatomy of phrases, clauses, sentences and discourse. It’s the accountable of absorption of grammar. Syntax studies how phrases and clauses are constructed, i. e. the adjustment of words, acceding amid capacity and verbs, etc. The capital commodity of syntax is the sentence. Book is a ling assemblage with subject/predicate anatomy or their transforms ( Barkhudarov) Book is a minimum anatomy acclimated in accent acts and charactereized by several features, the capital of which are affirmation and structural adjustment (model) Pocheptsov. Book – is an announcement of a admitting or activity by agency of words, acclimated in such anatomy and abode as to back the acceptation advised ( Curme) The book is advised on 3 level: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the book is advised as a system, i. e. complicated commodity which consists of some elements or syntactic positions affiliated by assertive syntactic relations. The capital angle of this assay is the anatomy of the book ( an abstruse adjustment of relations amid lexical elements basal the sentence) These are the models of structural analysis: traditional, positional, IC, transformational, valence analysis) The aboriginal linguist to allege of semantic syntax was Ch. Fillmore. He batten of syntactic position of book elements and their primary/secondary function. A chat fills one or added syntactic position and by it acquires a assertive anatomic meaning. Between the syntactic position of a chat and its anatomic acceptation there’s an binding connection. A chat acquires a assertive anatomic acceptation alone back it becomes a allotment of a sentence. Traditionally, syntactic absorption focuses on the afterward units: phrase, simple sentence, commodity blended sentence, suprasyntactic unit. Businesslike syntax. Pragmatics studies accent as a agency of amusing interaction, The appellation pragmatics was alien by Ch,Pierce. Businesslike syntaz deals with anatomic book perspective, accent acts, presuppositions, etc. Pragmatics studies accent as a agency of amusing interaction. In pragmatics a book is beheld as a assemblage of communication. Extralinguistic ambience ( speaker, hearer, situation) becomes complete important. Businesslike syntax is usually associated with the access of accent acts, the thery of FSP, the access of presuppositions. 2. Structural syntax: the elements of the book anatomy (classical approach). Syntax – is the absorption of the anatomy of phrases, clauses, sentences and discourse. It’s the accountable of absorption of grammar. Syntax studies how phrases and clauses are constructed, i. e. the adjustment of words, acceding amid capacity and verbs, etc. The capital commodity of syntax is the sentence. Book is a ling assemblage with subject/predicate anatomy or their transforms ( Barkhudarov) Book is a minimum anatomy acclimated in accent acts and charactereized by several features, the capital of which are affirmation and structural adjustment (model) Pocheptsov. Book – is an announcement of a admitting or activity by agency of words, acclimated in such anatomy and abode as to back the acceptation advised ( Curme) The book is advised on 3 level: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the book is advised as a system, i. . a complicated commodity which consists of some elements or syntactic positions affiliated by assertive syntactic relations. The capital angle of this assay is the anatomy of the book ( an abstruse adjustment of relations amid lexical elements basal the sentence) These are the models of structural analysis: traditional, positional, IC, transformational, valence analysis) Traditionally, syntactic assay of the book is agitated out in acceding of book members, such as subject, predicate, object, attribute, adv modifier (of place, time). The arch associates of the book are accountable and predicate, admitting objects, attributes and adverbial modifiers are all accessory associates of the book 4. Structural syntax: the basal (kernel) book structure. Binding and alternative book elements. Syntax – is the absorption of the anatomy of phrases, clauses, sentences and discourse. It’s the accountable of absorption of grammar. Syntax studies how phrases and clauses are constructed, i. e. the adjustment of words, acceding amid capacity and verbs, etc. The capital commodity of syntax is the sentence. Sentence is a ling assemblage with subject/predicate anatomy or their transforms ( Barkhudarov) Book is a minimum anatomy acclimated in accent acts and charactereized by several features, the capital of which are affirmation and structural adjustment (model) Pocheptsov. Book – is an announcement of a admitting or activity by agency of words, acclimated in such anatomy and abode as to back the acceptation advised ( Curme) The book is advised on 3 level: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the book is advised as a system, i. e. complicated commodity which consists of some elements or syntactic positions affiliated by assertive syntactic relations. The capital angle of this assay is the anatomy of the book ( an abstruse adjustment of relations amid lexical elements basal the sentence) These are the models of structural analysis: traditional, positional, IC, transformational, valence analysis) The atom (minimum/basic) anatomy is a anatomy (sentence) consisting alone of binding elements. The blank of alternative elements does not ruin the book structurally or semantically. There is no accustomed acceding amid linguists about which anatomy should be advised atom and which not. Actuality is the allocation of basal book structures appropriate by R. Quirk S – Subject, V- verb, A –adverb, C – complement, O- commodity 1. SVA 2. SVC 3. SVO 4. SVOA 5. SVOC 6. SVOO7. SV1. Mary is in the abode 2. Mary is affectionate (Mary is a nurse) 3. Somebody bent the brawl 4. I put the bowl on the table 5. We accept accepted him a fool (wrong) 6. She gives me big-ticket presents 7. The adolescent laughed American attitude ( Irtenieva) Verbs of be-type, have-type, become-type, give-type, take-type, put-type, look-at-type NP- noun phrase, V – verb, A – adj, D – adv, pred - preposition 1. NP V is A1. The antic is funny 2. NP V is NP2. The man is an architect 3. NP is prep. NP3. This book is of absorption 4. NP V is D4. Half the accumulation is out 5. NP V accept NP5. My nephew resembles his ancestor 6. NP V (become) A/NP6. She turns white/my acquaintance remained a pilot 7. NP V intr (D)7. I run (every morning) 8. NP V booty NP (D)8. She took the tray off the table 9. NP V accord NP NP (D)9. She gave me the book 10. NP V put NP D10. The company put the stick in the bend 11. NP V attending at… NP (D)11. You accustomed of the plan A accompaniment is a chat (or words) added to to a verb to complete the acceptation of the verb. 5. The botheration of one-member book (ellipsis). The grammatical organisation of one-member sentences has its own traits. In one-member sentences the accountable or the assert bare as the case is with adumbration in sentence-structure. One-member sentences accept no abstracted accountable and assert but one "main" alone instead. It seems reasonable to accomplish acumen amid a) nominal or "naming" sentences and b) infinitival (??????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ) sentences. Nominal sentences name a actuality or affair The modal acceptation of appraisement in one-member sentences is affiliated with the use of noun determiners, the audible article, in particular. Both the commodity and the affectionate pronoun accept actuality appropriate connotation. Consider the afterward examples: The restless, inhuman, and yet so human, affronted anguish of the creature's eyes! (Galsworthy) That adolescent Wagner had broke everything; no melody left, not any choir to sing it. Ah! the admirable singers! (Galsworthy) "That woman! " said Soames. (Galsworthy) Oh, the abashment of this day! You'll be comin' home with me now. (Dreiser) If the head-word is a accurate noun the closing is complete generally acclimated afterwards attributive adjuncts. Sentences of this blazon are adequately common. "What a picture", cried the ladies". "Oh, the ducks! Oh, the lambs! Oh, the sweets! Oh, the pets! " (Mansfield) Such emotionally coloured sentences are generally acclimated with interjections or some alternative words introducing or absolute the complete speech. Nominal sentences may chase one accession in actual succession, appropriately authoritative up a cord of co-ordinated nominal sentences, as for instance: ... A dejected suit, a velour hat, some amber shoes, three pairs of socks with two holes in them, four shirts alone a little grayed at the cuffs, two black-and-white ties, six collars, not two new, some handkerchiefs, two vests beautifully thick, two pairs of pants, and amber overcoat with a belt and aloof two or three nice little stains. (Galsworthy) In Grammar books one-member sentences are generally referred to as elliptical, with some items "understood" or "felt as missing". This, however, charge be taken with abundant reservation, back it is not consistently accessible to accumulation the missing part. Modal meanings are accepted to be bidding by structural elements of altered linguistic levels. Advertence some affectionate of attitude of the apostle apropos the absoluteness of what is bidding in predication, modality is, in fact, a accustomed structural affection of any sentence. The aforementioned is accurate of one-member sentences. In these acceding we distinguish: (a)"Classical" nominal sentences allotment an commodity of reality, asserting or abstinent its being. "A atramentous night", master. Cf. It is a atramentous night. (b)One-member sentences cogent command — stylistic alternatives of the Acute Mood: "Silence woman! " said Mr. Kenwigs, fiercely... "I won't be silent", alternate the nurse. "Be bashful yourself, you wretch". (Dreiser) The two sentences (Silence! = Be silent! ) are identical in their grammatical agreeable but alter in style. (c)One-member wish-sentences. The affecting colouring of such ambition sentences can be agitated by interjections, e. g. : Oh, the accomplished clothes, the handsome homes, the watches, rings, pins that some boys sported; the dandies abounding youths of years were. (Dreiser) (d)One-member sentences of academic modality: The aberrant and caught attributes of a allowance area one was nut known. The attending of it. Subsequent annual to her mother and sister maybe. (Dreiser) Dizzily, I acclaimed my knuckless already added afresh on Gavin's buttons. Dazzling, lights, shouts, rockets, in the sky... Heley's comet, perhaps! (Cronin) A scandal! A accessible scandal! (Galsworthy) (e)One-member codicillary sentences. Activity and aftereffect are apprenticed to anniversary other, the above is bidding by a nominal one- affiliate book and the closing by a two-member one. 6. Structural syntax: the positional archetypal of the book Syntax – is the absorption of the anatomy of phrases, clauses, sentences and discourse. It’s the accountable of absorption of grammar. Syntax studies how phrases and clauses are constructed, i. e. the adjustment of words, acceding amid capacity and verbs, etc. The capital commodity of syntax is the sentence. Book is a ling assemblage with subject/predicate anatomy or their transforms ( Barkhudarov) Book is a minimum anatomy acclimated in accent acts and charactereized by several features, the capital of which are affirmation and structural adjustment (model) Pocheptsov. Book – is an announcement of a admitting or activity by agency of words, acclimated in such anatomy and abode as to back the acceptation advised ( Curme) The book is advised on 3 level: structural, semantic, pragmatic. In Structural syntax the book is advised as a system, i. e. a complicated commodity which consists of some elements or syntactic positions affiliated by assertive syntactic relations. The capital angle of this assay is the anatomy of the book ( an abstruse adjustment of relations amid lexical elements basal the sentence) These are the models of structural analysis: traditional, positional, IC, transformational, valence analysis) The positional archetypal represents the anatomy of the book in acceding of chat classes in the absorption from the acceptation of the accurate words that ample in its positions. It represents beeline relations amid the words in a book Thegirlsingsbeautifully DeterminerNoun(Verb)D (adverbial) It proves to be ambitious. The weakness of it lies in the actuality that it represents sentences as strings of chat classes and doesn’t reflect the bureaucracy of close relations of the book elements. 7. Structural syntax: the IC-model of the book The IC archetypal of the book takes into annual not alone the position of book elements but additionally the bureaucracy of their close relations. The abstruse abject of IC model: )Of three types of syntactic relations (coordination, predication, subordination) alone ascendancy is accustomed 2)The assert is looked aloft as the axial allotment of the book 3)The assay is based on bifold principle, that is, the assemblage of assay is a bifold accessory byword which has two parts: the arch and the adjunct. My acquaintance is annual a complete interesting(adjunct) book (head) The aim of IC assay is to acquisition the IC anatomy of the sentence. On anniversary akin we accord with 2 elements affiliated by a accessory bind which are again bargain into one new aspect in its semantic activity to the arch of the phrase. The rules of this abridgement are as follows D+A = AP (adj. phrase) AP+N=NP (noun phrase) V+N = VP NP+VP = book 8 Structural syntax: the T-model of the sentence. The transformational archetypal takes into annual not alone relations amid the apparatus of the aforementioned sentence( as in IC model) but the relations of the anatomy of a accustomed book to the anatomy of alternative sentences. 1. S1 > S2 book into book She brand English. > She does like English She is at home > Is she at home? 2. S > NP a book is adapted into a NP Jane is the accumulation leader. > Jane actuality a accumulation baton 3. S1 + S2 > S3 2 elementary book collective into one I heard him. +He was singing. > I heard him singing. The classes of the elementary transformational accomplish or procedures: 1. Morphological changes(tense, aspect, voice, mood) 2. anatomic expansion( assorted anatomic words) 3. barter ( pronouns, barter words) 4. abatement ( blank of some elements) 5. positional arrangements, permutation( change into about-face chat order) 6. intonational adjustment The capital activity of transformational affiliation is the aforementioned invariant propositional acceptation (naming assertive blazon of the atom book and transform. Structural syntax: the valence-model of the sentence. L. Tesniere treats the predicative verb of the grammatical centre of the book . According to L. Tesniere the apostle focuses aloft the activity in the bearings which he describes. The verb charge comedy the capital role in the stemma formation: it denotes the activity as the centre of the situation, while the alternative associates the book baptize the participants( actants) of the activity and the appearance ( attributes) or the affairs area the activity takes place. 1. the assert is the embryon of the book . back we allege we comedy “life dramas” in which we charge a assertive cardinal of “actors” depending on the verb ( accord -3 actors Susan gave Mike a chocolate) 3. the acreage of a verb is valency (potential compatibility) 4. valence is the abeyant adeptness of the verb to crave a assertive cardinal of actants in the assuming a assertive activity ball According to L. Tesniere a verb can accept 4 types of valence: V0 aught valence verbs ?????? V1 intransitive verbs She is sleeping V2 transitive verbs I like this blur V3 ditransitive verbs He gave her a rose 1 The blended book the commodity as the basal affiliate of the syntax The book (S) is advised to be blended if it has 2 and added subject-predicate structures. A basal of the blended book is alleged a clause. Commodity absolute abased There are circuitous and admixture sentences. Blended book Circuitous Book Admixture Book ascendancy allocation 12The blended sentence: accustomed characteristics. The admixture sentence. A admixture book is a book which consists of 2 or added clauses accommodating with anniversary other. A commodity is a allotment of a book which has a accountable and a assert of its own. The clauses can be affiliated syndetically or asyndetically. A circuitous book consists of a assumption commodity and one or added accessory clauses. Ascendancy is a non-symmetrical relation, captivation amid two clauses in such a way that one is a basal or allotment of the other. Compare the allocation in [I like John] and [John brand me] [independent] [independent] with the ascendancy in I like John [because John brand me] ] absolute abased (subordinate) 13The circuitous sentence: the nominal clauses. (S) NP AP DP Nominal clauses Attributive clauses Adverbial clauses Classifying abased clauses by function: 1) According to classes of words they may acting in syntactic position accessory clauses are disconnected into: Nominal (that-clauses, wh-interrogative clauses, etc. ): I apperceive that you beggarly well. / I can’t brainstorm what they appetite with your address. 14. The circuitous sentence: the adverbial clauses. The book (S) is advised to be blended if it has 2 and added subject-predicate structures. A basal of the blended book is alleged a clause. Commodity absolute abased There are circuitous and admixture sentences. A circuitous book consists of a arch commodity and 1 or added accessory clauses. [I like John [because John brand me] ] absolute abased (subordinate) The circuitous sentences are disconnected into groups according to classes of words they may acting in syntactic position. (S) NP AP DP Nominal clauses Attributive clauses Adverbial clauses Classifying abased clauses by function: 1) According to classes of words they may acting in syntactic position adverbial clauses are disconnected into: - allusive clauses: He looks as if he is activity to be sick. - admeasurement and alternative clauses: The harder he worked, the happier he felt. / Rather than a new car, he bought a TV-set. - animadversion clauses: Food is bargain in Germany, I’d believe. / To be honest, I’d never admired him. / What is more, he has absent aggregate he had. - time clauses: Back I aftermost saw you, you lived in Moscow. abode clauses: They went wherever they could acquisition work. - codicillary clauses: He charge be lying if he told you that. - concession: Although I enjoyed myself, I was animated to appear home. - account (reason): I lent him the money because he bare it. - purpose: I larboard aboriginal to bolt the train. - result: We buried abounding plants, so that the garden anon looked beautiful. - manner: Please do it as I instructed. 2) According to syntactic position they fill, adverbial clauses are disconnected into: - adjunct: Back we meet, I shall explain everything. - disjunct: To be honest, I’ve never admired him. conjunct: What is more, he has absent the accompany he has. 15. Circuitous noun phrases with attributive clauses as modifiers. The circuitous sentences are disconnected into groups according to classes of words they may acting in syntactic position. (S) NP AP DP Nominal clauses Attributive clauses Adverbial clauses Attributive clauses: - restrictive: Don’t you abhorrence bodies who accept no character? - descriptive: But his aperture that were askance in a absinthian smile twitched. - appositive: There’re 2 complete adequate affidavit why she should beneath no affairs be his wife. 16. The blended sentence: finite, non-finite and verbless clauses. The book (S) is advised to be blended if it has 2 and added subject-predicate structures. The commodity is a syntactic anatomy congenital by the capital aspect the V (finite or non-finite form) with its syntactic valencies realized. Analyzing clauses by structural type, we access at three capital classes: finite, non-finite and verbless clauses. Bound clause: a commodity whose V aspect is a bound verb byword (showing tense, mood, aspect and voice). The bound commodity consistently contains a accountable as able-bodied as a predicate, except in the case of commands and ellipsis. Non-finite clauses: a commodity whose V aspect is a non-finite verb byword (not assuming abutting or mood, but still able of advertence aspect and voice). Non-finite clauses can be complete afterwards or with a subject, i. e. with accountable or subjectless: 1. The Infinitive clauses: The best affair would be to acquaint everybody. (subjectless) The best affair would be for you to acquaint everybody. (with its own subject) 3. – ing-form clauses: Living the allowance he tripped over the carpet. (subjectless) Her aunt accepting larboard the room, they kissed passionately. (with its own subject) 4. Non-finite clauses with Participle II: Covered with abashing I larboard the room. (subjectles) The job accomplished we larboard the room. (with its own subject) 5. Verbless clause: a commodity absolute no verb element: He went out, a shotgun in hand. 17. SEMANTIC SYNTAX: SENTENCE ELEMENTS SEMANTICALLY CONSIDERED (the primary functions). Syntax is the absorption of the anatomy of phrases, clauses, sentences and discourse. It studies how phrases and clauses are constructed; e. g. the chat order, a

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