English for Specific Purposes
2 The development of ESP The best laid schemes o' mice and men Gang aft a-gley. (Robert Burns) From its aboriginal ancestry in the 1960s ESP has undergone three capital phases of development. It is now in a fourth appearance with a fifth appearance starting to emerge. We shall call anniversary of the bristles phases in greater detail in after chapters, but it will accommodate a advantageous angle to accord a abrupt arbitrary here. It should be acicular out aboriginal of all that ESP is not a caked accepted phenomenon.
ESP has developed at altered speeds in altered countries, and examples of all the approaches we shall call can be begin operating about in the apple at the present time. Our arbitrary must, therefore, be absolute accepted in its focus. It will be apparent in the afterward overview that one breadth of action has been decidedly important in the development of ESP. This is the breadth usually accepted as EST (English for Science and Technology). Swales (1985) in actuality uses the development of EST to allegorize the development of ESP in general: 'With one or two exceptions...
English for Science and Technology has consistently set and continues to set the trend in abstract discussion, in agency of analysing language, and in the array of absolute teaching materials. ' We accept not belted our own illustrations to EST in this book, but we still charge to acknowledge, as Swales does, the pre-eminent position of EST in the ESP story. 1. The abstraction of appropriate language: annals assay This date took abode mainly in the 1960s and aboriginal 1970s and was associated in authentic with the assignment of Peter Strevens (Haliiday, Mcintosh and Strevens, 1964), Jack Ewer (Ewer and Latorre, 1969) and John Swales (1971).
Operating on the basal assumption that the English of, say, Electrical Engineering constituted a specific annals altered from that of, say, Biology or of Accepted English, the aim of the assay was to analyze the grammatical and lexical appearance of these registers Teaching abstracts again took these linguistic appearance as their abridgement A acceptable archetype of such a abridgement is that of A Advance in Basal Scientific-English by Ewer and Latorre (1969) (see beneath p. 26). In fact, as Ewer and Latorre's abridgement shows, egister assay appear that there was absolute little that was appropriate in the book grammar of Authentic English aloft a addiction to favour authentic forms such as the present simple tense, the acquiescent articulation and nominal compounds. It did not, for example, acknowledge any forms that were not begin in Accepted English. But we charge be alert of authoritative arbitrary criticism. Although there was an bookish absorption in the attributes of registers of English per se, the capital motive abaft annals analyses such as Ewer and Latorre's was the bookish one of authoritative the ESP advance added accordant to learners' needs.
The aim was to aftermath a abridgement which gave aerial antecedence to the accent forms acceptance would accommodated in their Science studies and in about-face would accord low antecedence to forms they would not meet, Ewer and Hughes-Davies (1971), for example, compared the accent of the texts their Science acceptance had to apprehend with the accent of some broadly acclimated academy textbooks. They begin that the academy textbooks alone some of the accent forms frequently begin in Science texts, for example, admixture nouns, passives, conditionals, aberrant finites (i. e. mod-.! verbs).
Their cessation was that the ESP advance should, therefore, accord antecedence to these forms. 2. Aloft the sentence: articulate or address or assay There were, as we shall see, austere flaws in the annals analysis-based syllabus, but, as it happened, annals assay as a assay action was rapidly overtaken by developments in the apple of linguistics. Whereas in the aboriginal date of its development, ESP had focussed on accent at the book level, the additional appearance of development confused absorption to the akin aloft the sentence, as ESP became carefully complex with the arising acreage of address or articulate analysis.
The arch lights in this movement were Henry Widdowson in P<ritain and the alleged Washington Academy of Larry Seiinker, Louis Trimble, John Lackstrom and iMary Todd-Trimble in the United States. The basal antecedent of this date is succinctly bidding by Allen and Widdowson (1974): 'We booty the appearance that the difficulties which the acceptance appointment appear not so abundant from a abnormal ability of the arrangement of English, but from an benightedness with English use, and that appropriately their needs cannot be met by a advance which artlessly provides added convenance in the agreement of sentences, but alone by one which evelops a ability of how sentences are acclimated in the achievement of altered candid acts. ' Annals assay had focussed on book grammar, but now absorption confused to compassionate how sentences were accumulated in address to aftermath meaning. The affair of research, therefore, was to identity"-"the organisational~patterns in texts and to specify the linguistic agency by which these patterns are signaled. These patterns would again anatomy the abridgement of the ESP course. The Rhetotical Action Chart beneath (from EST: A Address Access by L. uis Trimble (1985)) is adumbrative of this approach: LevelDescription ol akin A The objectives fl the absolute address EXAMPLES 1. Detailing an agreement 2. Authoritative a advocacy 3. Presenting new hypotheses or Theory 4. Presenting alternative types of EST advice B The genera! articulate functions that advance the objectives of Akin A EXAMPLES 1. Staling purpose 2. Reporting accomplished assay 3. Staling the botheration 4. Presenting advice on accoutrement acclimated in an agreement - a) Description b) Operation 5.
Presenting advice on beginning proceaures C. The specilic articulate functions that advance the accepted articulate functions of Akin B EXAMPLES' 1. Description: physical, function, and action 2. Definition 3. Classification 4. instructions 5Visuat-verbal relationships D. The articulate techniques thai accommodate relationships aural and amid the articulate units of Akin C EXAMPLES: I Orders 1. Time adjustment 2. Space adjustment 3. Causality and aftereffect II Patterns 1. Causality and aftereffect 2. Adjustment of accent 3. Comparison and adverse . Analogy 5. Exemplification 6. Illustration articulate patterns of altercation organisation differed decidedly amid specialist areas of use: the thetorical anatomy of science texts was tegarded as altered from that of bartering texts, for example. However, this point was never absolute acutely advised (see Swales, 1985, pp. 70-1) and absolutely paradoxically, the after-effects of the tesearch into the address of subject-specific bookish texts were additionally acclimated to accomplish obsetvations about address in accepted (Widdowson, 1978).
The archetypal teaching matetials based on the address access accomplished acceptance to recognise textual patterns and address markers mainly by agency of text-diagramming contest (see beneath p. 36). The English in Focus alternation (OUP) is a acceptable archetype of this approach. 3 Ambition bearings assay The date that we appear to accede now did not absolutely add annihilation new to the ambit of ability about ESP. What it aimed to do was to booty the absolute ability and set it on a added authentic basis, bv establishing procedures for apropos accent assay added carefully to learners' affidavit for learning.
Given that the purpose of an ESP advance is to accredit learners to action abundantly in a ambition situation, that is, the bearings in which the learners will use the accent they are learning, again the ESP advance architecture action should advance by aboriginal anecdotic the ambition bearings and again accustomed out a authentic assay of the linguistic appearance of that situation. The articular appearance will anatomy the abridgement of the ESP course. This action is usually accepted as needs analysis. However, we adopt to take
Chambers' (1980) appellation of 'target bearings analysis', back it is a added authentic description of the action concerned. The best absolute account of ambition bearings assay is the arrangement set out by John Munby in Candid Abridgement Architecture (1978). The Munby archetypal produces a abundant contour of the learners' needs in agreement of advice purposes, candid setting, the agency of communication, accent skills, functions, structures etc. (see beneath p. 55). The ambition bearings assay date apparent a assertive 'coming of age" for ESP.
What had ahead been done absolute abundant in a piecemeal way was now systematised and abecedarian charge was allegedly placed at the centre of the advance architecture process. It accepted in the accident to be a apocryphal dawn. As we shall see in the afterward chapters, the abstraction of needs that it was based on was far too simple 4. Abilities and strategies We acclaimed that in the aboriginal two stages of the development of ESP all the assay had been of the apparent forms of the accent (whether at book level, as in annals analysis, of above, as in address analysis).
The ambition bearings assay access did not absolutely change this, because in its assay of abecedarian charge it still looked mainly at the apparent linguistic appearance of the ambition situation. The fourth date of ESP has apparent an attack to attending beneath the apparent and to accede not the accent itself but the cerebration processes that underlie accent use. There is no ascendant amount in this movement, although we ability acknowledgment the assignment of Francoise Grellet (1981), Christine Nuttall (1981) and Charles Alderson and Sandy Urquhart 19S4 as accepting fabricated cogent contributions to assignment on account skills.
Most of the assignment in the breadth of abilities and strategies, however, has been done abutting to the arena in schemes such as the National ESP Project in Brazil (see beneath p. 171) and the University of Malaya ESP Project I see ELT Documents 107 and Abilities for Acquirements appear by Nelson and the University of Malaya Press). Both these projects were set up to cope with abstraction situations area the average of apprenticeship is the mother argot but acceptance charge to apprehend a cardinal of specialist texts which are accessible alone in English. The projects have, therefore, concentrated their efforts on account strategies. The arch abstraction belli rid the skills-centred access is that basal all accent use there are accepted acumen and interpreting processes, which, behindhand of the apparent forms, accredit us to abstract acceptation from discourse. There is, therefore, no charge to focus carefully on the apparent forms of the language. The focus should rather be on the basal analytic strategies, which accredit the abecedarian to cope with the apparent forms, for archetype bookish the acceptation of words from context, application beheld blueprint to actuate the blazon of text, base cognates (i. e. ords which are agnate in the mother argot and the ambition language) etc. A focus on specific accountable registers is accidental in this approach, because the basal processes are not specific to any accountable register. ' It was argued that account abilities are not language-specific but accepted and that there is a amount of accent (for example, assertive structures of altercation and forms of presentation) which can be articular as " bookish " and which is not subject-specific' (Chitravelu, 1980) * It is absorbing to note, however, that not all such projects accept such a locus.
The ESP proiect at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology in Bangkok, Thailand, for example, has to cope with a absolute agnate abstraction situation, but the focus actuality is on the abounding ambit of abilities (reading, writing, listening, speaking). As kas bee»-noted, in agreement of abstracts this access about puts the enpkaszs on account or alert strategies. The appropriate contest get the learners to reflect on and analyse how acceptation is i»iOfJTTr1 in and retrieved from accounting or announced discourse.
Taking burn cue bom cerebral acquirements theories (see beneath p. 43), the accent kaifJS are advised as cerebration beings who can be asked to beam and ve*fcalrse the mtetpretive processes they apply in accent use. 5 A learning-centred access in analogue the origins of ESP (pp. 6-8), we articular three forces, which we ability characterise as need, new account about accent and new account about learning. It should accept become bright that in its consecutive development, however, bare absorption has been paid to the aftermost of these armament - learning.
All of the stages categorical so far accept been fundamentally flawed, in that they are all based on descriptions of accent use. Whether this description is of apparent forms, as in the case of annals analysis, or of basal processes, as in the abilities and strategies approach, the affair in anniversary case is with anecdotic what bodies do with language. But our affair in ESP is not with accent use - although this will advice to ascertain the advance objectives. Our affair is with accent learning. We cannot artlessly accept that anecdotic and allegorical whar bodies do with accent will accredit addition to apprentice it.
If that were so. we would charge to do no added than apprehend a grammar book and a concordance in adjustment to apprentice a language. A absolutely accurate access to ESP charge be based on an undetstandmg of the processes of accent learning. This brings us to the fifth date of ESP development - the learning-centred approach, which will anatomy the^nbii^t^oftJTis _bopk. The accent and the implications oTtfie acumen that we accept fabricated amid accent use and accent acquirements will hopefully become bright as we advance through the afterward chaptets.
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