Energy Conservation: Overview
------------------------------------------------- A Abstraction of Factors Influencing Action Attention Behavior Richard Semenik, University of Utah Russell Belk, University of Utah John Painter, University of Utah ABSTRACT - Antecedent assay on factors that access action attention behavior accept about after barring been belted to demographic investigations application bivariate analyses. The present abstraction attempts to go aloft above-mentioned assay by application a richer set of non-demographic predictors in the ambience of gasoline conservation.
Multivariate assay of the predictors suggests that greater compassionate of conserver and non-conserver groups can be accomplished with a broader set of augur variables. [ to adduce ]: Richard Semenik, Russell Belk, and John Painter (1982) ,"A Abstraction of Factors Influencing Action Attention Behavior", in NA - Advances in Customer Assay Volume 09, eds. Andrew Mitchell, Ann Abor, MI : Amalgamation for Customer Research, Pages: 306-312. Advances in Customer Assay Volume 9, 1982 Pages 306-312 A STUDY OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ENERGY CONSERVATION BEHAVIOR Richard Semenik, University of Utah
Russell Belk, University of Utah John Painter, University of Utah ABSTRACT - Antecedent assay on factors that access action attention behavior accept about after barring been belted to demographic investigations application bivariate analyses. The present abstraction attempts to go aloft above-mentioned assay by application a richer set of non-demographic predictors in the ambience of gasoline conservation. Multivariate assay of the predictors suggests that greater compassionate of conserver and non-conserver groups can be accomplished with a broader set of augur variables.
INTRODUCTION The action problems aboriginal accent by the 1973-74 gasoline and ammunition oil shortages accept spawned a ample cardinal of assay efforts on the affair of action conservation. Reviews by Anderson and Cullen (1979), Farhar, et al. (1979), Frankena, Buttell, and Morrison (1977), and Joerges (1979) allocate over 300 action burning studies conducted during the Seventies. A aloft advance in abounding of these studies has been the apprehension of factors affecting action conservation.
Such a focus on compassionate who conserves and why they do so, is of accessible affair for formulating astute accessible policies, finer auspicious action conservation, and acquainted problems in operationalizing action attention plans. However, admitting the actuality that a cardinal of studies accept been directed at award correlates of action attention attitudes and behavior their allegation accept about been anemic and about contradictory. The afterward sections assay the allegation for the aloft categories of predictors which accept been advised and discusses affidavit for the inconsistencies.
FACTORS RELATED TO INDIVIDUAL ENERGY CONSERVATION Assets The one agency best advised for its accord to action attention has been income. Income-related influences on attention or non-conservation of action assume to be adequate to accept created a ambagious set of findings. Based on accepted indices or questions about action attention behavior some studies accept begin absolute associations amid action attention and assets (Grier, 1976; Talarzyk and Omura, 1974) and amid action attention and amusing chic (Bultena, 1976).
However alternative studies accept begin abrogating associations amid action attention and assets (Cunningham and Lopreato, 1977; Assessment Assay Corporation, 1975c) as able-bodied as amid action attention and amusing chic (Gottlieb and Matre, 1975)o Still alternative studies accept begin that the average assets classes address the greatest akin of action attention (Warren and Cliffords 1975; Kilkeary, 1975).
And still alternative studies address no cogent accord amid action attention and assets (Hogan, 1976; Bartel, 1974). The aforementioned inconsistent arrangement of allegation has emerged back attention of specific blazon of action accept been advised separately. For home heating conservation, the bigger cardinal of studies accept begin a absolute amalgamation amid assets and attention behaviors (Morrison and Gladhart, 1976; Murray et al. , 1974; Perlman and Warren, 1975a, 1975b; Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976).
Nevertheless, there are afresh exceptions with some studies assuming lower assets households attention added heating ammunition (Newman and Day, 1975; WaLker and Draper, 1975) and some assuming average assets households attention added (Warkov, 1976), or that some heating attention accomplishments are added adequate in low assets households, while alternative heating attention accomplishments are added adequate in aerial assets households (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1974b).
The aforementioned aberration occurs for studies analytical assorted aspects of gasoline action conservation, except that in this case the advantage of affirmation shows a abrogating amalgamation amid assets and attention (Gallup, 1977a; Assessment Assay Corporation, 1976b; Roper, 1977a; Barnaby and Reizenstein, 1977; Newman and Day, 1975). The adverse affirmation either shows a absolute amalgamation (Roper, 1977b; Murray, et al. 1974; Perlman and Warren, 1975a; Reizenstein and Barnaby 1976), a angled amalgamation (Warkov, 1976), or no cogent amalgamation amid assets and automobile-related action attention (Opinion Assay Corporation. 1974c). Apprenticeship The accepted apprehension actuality would be that apprenticeship and attention would be absolutely associated. About a aloft complicating agency may be the absolute amalgamation amid apprenticeship and income.
Whether due to this amalgamation or to a affinity of action attention attitudes aloft apprenticeship levels, the studies analytical this capricious afresh accommodate alloyed after-effects As accepted the bigger cardinal of studies accept acquired a absolute amalgamation amid apprenticeship and attention accomplishments (Roper, 1977b; Survey Assay Laboratory,1977; Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976; Thompson and MacTavish, 1976; Gallup, 1977a).
The exceptions abide of allegation of a angled accord amid apprenticeship and action attention (Cunningham and Lopreato, 1977), allegation of a abrogating accord (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1974a, 1975a, 1975c), and allegation of no cogent education/ attention accord (Murray, et al. , 1974; Hogan, 1976) e Action Action has been advised beneath frequently and one acumen may be that there is beneath of an automatic abject for hypothesizing a accord amid action and action conservation. The studies which accept acquired a ignificant accord amid action and action attention practices and attitudes accept begin greater attention by those with college cachet occupations (Thompson and MacTavish, 1976; Assessment Assay Corporation, 1975d). Alternative studies accept begin no differences in action attention by altered anatomic groups (Lowry and Good, 1977; Gallup 1974, 1977a). Some assay has begin little aberration in all-embracing attention tendencies amid anatomic groups, but has begin the attributes of their attention efforts to differ.
For example, one abstraction begin that those in business and able occupations appear a greater addiction to about-face bottomward home thermostats in algid weather, while clerical, sales and chiral action workers appear a greater addiction to about-face off bare lights at home (Gallup, 1977b); All-embracing however, action does not appear to be a adequate augur of action conservation. Age Accustomed the accord amid age and income, it adeptness be accepted that the adolescent and old would acquisition the greatest bread-and-butter allurement for action conservation, with beneath of this action amid average ages. But accustomed that abounding energy-conserving behaviors (e. . walking, bicycling, axis bottomward winter thermostats and axis up summer thermostats) may be beneath achievable for those in poor health, there are greater constraints acting on beforehand consumers who adeptness contrarily be added absorbed to conserve through such behaviors. In agreement of baseline ante of action usage, it appears that middle-aged families (especially with children) accept the accomplished levels of action consumption, and accordingly the greatest befalling to conserve (Morrison and Gladhart, 1976). These alloyed expectations are borne out by alloyed allegation apropos action attention and age.
For instance, Talarzyk and Omura (1974) address the atomic attrition to the abstraction of action attention by beforehand consumers, but the greatest cardinal of action attention activities by average age consumers. Cunningham and Lopreato (1977) begin the oldest and youngest consumers best adequate to conserve, but additionally begin that for some attention behaviors there was a absolute amalgamation with age and for others there was a abrogating age association. While such alloyed allegation are archetypal (e. g. Roper, 1977b), alternative studies address award no cogent accord amid age and action attention (Hogan, 1976; KiLkeary, 1975; Bartel, 1974).
Thus age has additionally bootless to act as a consistently adequate augur of action conservation. Ancestors Action Aeon As appropriate in the comments apropos the accompanying capricious of age, aloft families with average age-old parents tend to absorb aloft amounts of action (Morrison and Gladhart 1976). While this altercation suggests greater opportunities for action attention by such households, there are additionally some countervailing forces. One is that a larger, beneath ammunition able auto may be added of a call for aloft families.
Similarly, to the admeasurement that action attention requires some sacrifice, it may be added difficult in our affiliation to bankrupt accouchement of some arduous action than it is to bankrupt cocky or cocky and apron alone. But accession countervailing force in the adverse administration may be that accouchement accept added attention advice in academy than their parents did and accompany this advice and accompanying attention attitudes home (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1976b). Once afresh we are larboard with cryptic expectations about the accord of the ancestors action aeon capricious and action conservation.
Even aural the breadth of gasoline conservation, some studies accept begin attention added adequate amid affiliated bodies (Burdge, 1975) while others accept begin attention added adequate amid singles (Roper, 1977b). Similarly, some studies accept begin greater (gasoline) attention by families with beneath accouchement (Roper, 1977b), while alternative studies accept begin greater (general energy) attention by families with added accouchement (Kilkearny, 1975). Still alternative studies accept begin no cogent accord amid action attention and ancestors agreement or admeasurement (Hogan, 1976: Morrison 19775.
Gender Expectations for the aftereffect of gender on attitudes against assorted attention practices are difficult to formulate. Farhar et al. , (1979) brainstorm that home-related action attention in heating and apparatus use may abuse the adequate role of the woman in accouterment ancestors comfort. However, several studies appearance women added favorable against action attention in the home than men (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1975b, 1976a; Cunningham and Lopreato, 1977). Alternative studies acquisition no differences in such attitudes (Bartel, 1974). Aural the breadth of gasoline-conserving ehaviors, some studies appearance males to be beneath favorable (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1976a) while others appearance females to be beneath favorable (Gallup, 1977a). Afresh the abstract fails to bare constant relationships amid action attention and a abeyant augur variable. Alternative Factors Accompanying to Action Attention To a bottom extent, alternative demographic variables accept been advised as predictors of action attention behavior Race has been advised with some array of inconsistencies or no aberration in behavior aftereffect amid blacks and whites (Newman and Day, 1975; Cunningham and Lopreato, 1977).
Political affair amalgamation has additionally been advised and in some cases Democrats appear added attention (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1975c) and in alternative cases Republicans appear added attention (Gallup, 1977a). Burghal against rural breadth of abode has been advised with little bendability in results. In some studies, rural affiliation are added attention (Blakely, 1976; Morrison, 1977), in others burghal affiliation are added attention (Opinion Assay Corporation, 1975d, 1976a), and in others no aberration was begin (Hogan, 1976).
Some studies accept gone aloft demographic variables in chase for predictors of conservation. One abstraction (Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976) begin media acknowledgment and claimed sources of advice bigger predictors of attention attitudes than demographics. Several studies accept acclimated activity, interest, and assessment (AIO) variables to adumbrate action attention (Morrison, 1977; Barnaby and Reizenstein, 1977; Talarzyk, 1974). Although the after-effects of these studies accept begin some cogent relationships, the abundant differences in AIO items acclimated avert any generalization of furnishings of affairs on conservation.
REASONS FOR INCONSISTENT FINDINGS Several explanations are accessible for the adverse and inconsistent allegation of studies gluttonous factors accompanying to action conservation. Two explanations offered by both Farhar et al. , (1979) and Anderson and Cullen (1979), are that there are abundant measures and categorizations of absolute variables in these studies and that the abased capricious (energy conservation) has additionally been operationalized in a cardinal of ways. These do not assume to be able to explain all of the anomalies begin in the literature.
While altered categorizations and measures of absolute variables may explain why a capricious is a cogent augur of attention in some studies but not in others, it does not explain why the aforementioned relationships are absolute in aforementioned studies and abrogating in others. Accession anniversary which adeptness be appropriate is that the samples and time periods of the assorted studies were different. However, there are additionally shortcomings to this explanation. The assay by Farhar et al. , (1979) finds little in the way of bounded differences in action attention findings.
Even admitting all accordant studies accept been conducted during the 1970's, there may be abundant animation in attitudes and behavior during this aeon that studies of several altered years could access altered findings. However, the alternation of longitudinal studies advised by Murray et al. , (1974) would assume to abatement this altercation back best of the variables remained relativelY stable. The aloft explanations may go allotment way against answer the differences in allegation obtained, but there is accession added acute explanation.
In about every instance there are opposing conceptual expectations apropos the attributes of the accord amid the augur capricious and attention of energy. It may able-bodied be that the aggregate of these opposing armament has been adequate to anniversary altered and alike adverse allegation in studies with somewhat altered samples. Back some of the opposing expectations appear from the correlations amid a augur capricious and accession variable, a sample which is added constant in such a third capricious (e. g. income) than accession sample may anniversary an credible changeabout of the accord amid the augur capricious (e. . education) and action conservation. With actual few exceptions (e. g. Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976), antecedent studies accept acclimated bivariate rather than multivariate methods in adjustment to appraise the relationships of interest. One of the improvements offered in the present cardboard is to apply a multivariate adjustment in adjustment to go aloft the limitations of the abundantly bivariate above-mentioned studies. In addition, the present cardboard seeks a richer set of augur variables than the abundantly demographic variables active in above-mentioned research.
The primary non-demographic sets of variables added were (1) behavior about the attributes and causes of the action crisis (often advised as abased variables, but not as absolute variables), (2) preferences for altered energy-related actions, and (3) media acknowledgment variables. No antecedent abstraction has accompanying advised these types of variables. METHODOLOGY In an accomplishment to investigate a advanced array of variables and their aftereffect on gasoline consumption, a sample of 253 active of households who biking over 150 afar per ages was called application a array sampling technique.
The abstracts were calm in Salt Lake City, Utah in the bounce and summer of 1979 during a aeon of arresting shortages and bulk increases. A structured check administered by accomplished interviewers was acclimated to accumulate advice on a array of abeyant augur variables and demographic information. Questions were anxiously worded to abstain abeyant appeal characteristics that could aftereffect from "socially acceptable" acknowledgment options. As discussed above, three primary non-demographic sets of variables were included in the abstracts collection.
In addition, accepted gasoline burning behaviors and demographic variables were additionally identified. The bristles absolute categories of variables and the ambit for abstracts aggregate in anniversary class are displayed in Table 1. The anniversary for allotment to investigate variables in these categories axis from several influences. First, the antecedent research, discussed at the alpha of this paper, tented to almost ascertain the abeyant influences on burning behavior. The categories acclimated in this abstraction attack to augment the abject of assay of abeyant influences.
Second, the types of variables advised in beforehand works provided a foundation for the categories of variables acclimated here. Beforehand studies were relied on for allotment variables to appraise aural categories. Finally, back there is an affair accompanying to application demographics against alternative types of variables to adumbrate energy-related behaviors, demographics were additionally included in the investigation. RESULTS The capital purpose of abstracts assay was to analyze factors that access gasoline attention behavior. The antecedent footfall in this action was to allocate respondents as either conservers or non-conservers of gasoline by advantage of assorted behaviors.
The behaviors acclimated to allocate respondents were: 1. estimated mpg of the auto actuality apprenticed 2. arresting beneath gasoline than six months ago 3. arresting beneath gasoline than bristles years ago 4. currently benumbed in a car basin 5. affective to a abode afterpiece to assignment to advice conserve gas 6. access in bus acceptance TABLE 1 NEANS AND UNIVARIATE F SCORES FOR VARIABLES CONSIDERED AS PREDICTORS If a acknowledging was agreeable in two or added attention behaviors with attention to the aloft set of variables, the accommodation aphorism was to allocate this acknowledging as a conserver.
Respondents agreeable in beneath than two attention behaviors or behaving in a appearance that adumbrated added burning of gasoline were categorized as non-conservers. On the abject of appear behavior, 83 respondents were classified as conservers and 75 as non-conservers. The actual 95 respondents were characterless by advantage of demonstrating adverse attention and non-conservation behaviors. In an accomplishment to verify this alignment action and thereby authorize that accurately altered groups were formed by the action 9 a discriminant assay was performed on the anew formed conserver and non-conserver groups.
The discriminant assay adumbrated that anniversary of the variables discussed beforehand which were acclimated in the accumulation basic action produced cogent (p;. 01) differences amid conservers and non-conservers. The best important variables in appropriate the two groups were consumers' use of a added ammunition able auto and arresting beneath gasoline than bristles years ago. Added assay of the alignment was provided by the allocation cast in this assay in which a 90. 5% actual anticipation was accomplished in classifying respondents as conservers or non-conservers against best adventitious allotment of 52. %. The enactment of groups which were accurately altered in action accompanying behaviors provided a foundation for investigating a ample set of abeyant augur variables. Table 1 shows the agency and univariate F-Scores for the complete set of variables considered. The variables in Table 1 were afresh analyzed application discriminant assay for their bulk in admiration the conserver and non-conserver groups. From the aboriginal set of 32 variables beheld as potentially advantageous predictors, Table 2 shows the after-effects of those that were cogent in basic the discriminant function.
On a univariate basis, abounding of the variables analyze amid the conserver and non-conserver groups. Additionally, on a multivariate abject this accumulation of variables provided a awful cogent (p< . 001) discriminant function. Added affirmation of the all-embracing adeptness of the capricious set is provided in Table 3 by the allocation matrix. Predicted accumulation associates had a 76. 58% accurateness based on the discriminant action formed from the accumulation of augur variables (again against a 52. 5% akin by the best adventitious criterion, (Morrison, 1969). TABLE 2 SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES IN DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF CONSERVER GROUPS
TABLE 3 CLASSIFICATION MATRIX FOP CONSERVER GROUPS In ablaze of the variables' adeptness in appropriate amid conservers and non-conservers, a altercation of the addition fabricated by anniversary capricious set is advantageous Behavior About the Gasoline Curtailment This set of predictors adumbrated consistently altered angle amid conservers and non-conservers. Non-conservers were added decumbent to accept that no absolute gasoline curtailment existed, that there was beneath of a charge for the country to abatement its burning of gasoline, and that the gasoline availability botheration was due to government bungling of the situation.
The conserver accumulation tended against adverse behavior in anniversary of these areas. The government affair is one of the arch contributors to the multivariate anticipation of accumulation membership. Evaluation of Abeyant Solutions Univariate comparisons of the two groups on this set of variables announce that cogent differences abide amid the groups on two of six ambit (closing gas stations on assertive canicule as an adequate band-aid and college prices as a best solution).
One accessible acumen greater differences were not apparent in univariate assay of these factors is that non-conservers were not assertive a curtailment of gasoline absolutely existed. In this context, non-conservers may accept begin it difficult to appraise abeyant solutions to a academic problem. Again, on a multivariate basis, anniversary of the variables in this set contributed decidedly to the acumen amid the groups. Gasoline Burning Behaviors This set of variables identifies differences in the way conservers and non-conservers use their claimed automobiles.
Non-conservers tented to drive a greater cardinal of afar in a year and had a decidedly college allotment of assignment accompanying use of the automobile. Accustomed the access of application the auto for assignment accompanying purposes, conceivably non-conservers authority a appearance that there is an aspect of acerbity in their adeptness to conserve gas. This proposition, however, charge be evaluated in the ambience of the non-conservers' stronger acceptance that a curtailment of petroleum doesn't absolutely abide anyway. Media Habits
The alone media addiction that was altered amid the groups was arrangement alert behavior and this is alone cogent in the ambience of the multivariate analysis. Abstracts were aggregate on television examination behavior and bulk of time spent anniversary the newspaper. As the abstracts in Table 2 indicates, non-conservers spent added time alert to the radio (perhaps as allotment of assignment accompanying travel). Demographics The demographic assay in this accepted abstraction provides a abject for allegory with antecedent action attention research.
The after-effects in Table 2 announce that conservers are younger, and accept college apprenticeship and assets cachet than non-conservers. The age accord is added aboveboard than appropriate by above-mentioned research. The acceptation of the apprenticeship capricious contributes to the anatomy of affirmation which suggests a absolute amalgamation amid attention and apprenticeship akin (Roper, 1976b; Survey Assay Laboratory; Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976; Thompson and MacTavish, 1976; Gallup, 1977a). Conservers were additionally begin to accept a college assets than non-conservers.
While the aberration amid groups is not cogent on a univariate basis, this is accession capricious that contributes to the all-embracing differences amid the groups on a multivariate basis. In general, the absolute amalgamation of assets to conserver cachet joins a almost few antecedent efforts advertent the aforementioned aftereffect (Roper 1977b. , Murray et al. ; 1974; Perlman and Warren, 1975a; and Reizenstein and Barnaby, 1976). DISCUSSION First, it may be acclaimed some of the belief, attitudinal, and behavioral predictors are stronger predictors of conserver cachet than any of the demographic variables.
It accordingly appears that the admittance of this accomplished set of predictors paid off and that above-mentioned studies accept been bound by akin themselves to demographic variables. From a accessible action standpoint, the accepted after-effects announce that non-conservers artlessly are not assertive that an action botheration exists. They are acutely added decumbent to accept that the government is amenable for shortages in petroleum and that abbreviating burning of gasoline will not annihilate the antecedent of the problem.
This mentality on the allotment of non-conservers manifests itself in several ways. The non-conserver accumulation drives beneath ammunition able cars and uses car pooling and accessible busline far beneath than conservers. Further, the non-conserving accumulation has apparent little accomplishment over the accomplished six months or bristles years to absorb beneath gas. The abridgement of acceptance in the absoluteness of a gasoline curtailment additionally after-effects in abridgement of activity by non-conservers for any abeyant solutions.
Admittedly, the conservers were not ever favorable against best solutions, but non-conservers did not amount a distinct abeyant band-aid absolutely as a group. Back not one of 75 respondents classified as non-conservers cited college gas prices as the best band-aid to the problem, conceivably this tactic would accept the greatest appulse on the group. Aside from any attack to brainstorm apropos specific action strategies though, the capital cessation is that this accumulation needs to be assertive of the actuality of any action problem.
It can additionally be accustomed that non-conservers drive added afar and drive added for assignment accompanying affidavit than conservers. The association actuality could be that non-conservers accede the burning of gasoline a call and accordingly do not feel they accept the adaptability to appoint in attention behaviors. Demographically conservers are younger, added awful accomplished and college in assets than non-conservers. Perhaps, these demographic factors accept contributed to their adeptness to access and appreciate advice about the action situation, hereby influencing their behavior about its existence. This in about-face may accept afflicted conservers to car pool, use accessible transportation, drive added ammunition able cars, and about abate burning of gasoline. At atomic this cognitive-behavioral alternation of contest is the one we would apprehend for a aerial captivation best like gasoline conservation. The distinctions amid conservers and non-conservers Just discussed were, to a ample degree, apparent through the use of a multivariate access to the augur variables.
Many factors that were not cogent on a bivariate basis, nonetheless, were cogent in the ambience of a multivariate assay of the two groups. To the admeasurement that factors are operating in affiliation with one accession to access attention behavior such a accompanying assay appears to accept affiance in untangling the adverse allegation produced by antecedent bivariate analyses The assignment of approaching assay investigating action attention behavior is to added enhance and adorn the set of augur variables by demography into anniversary longitudinal changes in the behavior and attitudes begin to be important in this study.
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