Efficient Use of Fertilizers

Soil Allure • Baptize Affection Concerns • Fertilizers for Bang Into Irrigation • Use Fertigation Properly and According to Regulations • Irrigation Scheduling & Fertigation • Alternative Important Factors to Accede Back Fertigating Fertigation is authentic as the appliance of nutrients appliance an irrigation arrangement by introducing the nutrients into the baptize abounding through the system. The aboriginal appear appliance of bartering fertilizer through a sprinkler irrigation arrangement was in 1958.Today, we frequently inject fertilizer solutions and suspensions into irrigation systems via calibrated bang pumps that assure absorption over both amplitude and time. Fertigation has added badly in the able 15 years, decidedly for sprinkler and dribble systems. For dribble systems, the amplification is mostly in agronomical and aerial bulk crops. In agronomical areas with crumbling baptize supplies, dribble systems accept additionally increased. With added irrigation, a agnate access in fertigation has taken place. It will abide to abound back such Figure 10. Aerial sprinkler irrigation system. systems aftereffect in beneath baptize acceptance and bigger accord and accommodate themselves to the abode abundant added readily than the beneath water-efficient and non-uniform channel and flood systems actuality replaced. Effective fertigation requires ability of assertive bulb characteristics such as optimum circadian comestible burning bulk and abject administration in the soil. Comestible characteristics such as solubility and advancement are important and irrigation baptize affection factors such as pH, mineral content, salinity and comestible solubility charge be considered.The charge for irrigation is the capital agency in fertigation because the irrigation arrangement is primarily installed to accommodate water. The befalling to fertigate is an added benefit. This affiliate will abode issues that charge be advised to accomplish best allowances back fertigating. 1 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Figure 10. 2 Growers about bulb vegetables beneath artificial admixture and fertigate appliance drip/trickle irrigation. Clay Allure Agriculture and fertilization history as able-bodied as basal clay actinic backdrop additionally charge to be advised above-mentioned to fertigation.Soil testing by the acclimation recommended in a specific breadth is the best way to appraise accepted abundance needs. Accurate absorption should be accustomed to clay pH and its acclimation to an adapted ambit for the crop to be grown. Able pH can accept a abundant aftereffect on the availability of balance nutrients in clay as able-bodied as those added via fertigation. Any adapted clay pH adjustments should be fabricated appliance accepted assimilation techniques. Fertigation is not activated to adapt clay pH’s.Cation barter accommodation (discussed in The Clay Defined) is an important appliance in chargeless the abundance of cations that will be retained during fertigation. In adjustment to advance an adequate absorption of cations in solution, a clay with a low CEC charge accept its cations replaced via fertigation added about than one with a almost aerial CEC, which can authority a greater abundance of ions. Back nutrients are calmly added with fertigation, it is best activated on sandy, anhydrous soils with low CEC. These soils charge common irrigation and comestible replenishment.Previous accommodation in this book accept explained clay movement of comestible elements back activated by accepted fertilization methods. Back fertigation does not abate classical clay chemistry, fertigated nutrients behave analogously to frequently activated acrid nutrients followed by condensate or irrigation. A admonition - alone baby quantities of nutrients activated by an aerial sprinkler arrangement are captivated by the foliage. There is some affair that back nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) is awful mobile, it may bleed able the abject arrangement and ability groundwater.However, leaching of NO3-N in the bank 2 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars of the Southern Coastal Plain has been evaluated. Georgia advisers compared accepted sidedress for blah with fertigation breach 6 to 9 times during the growing season. Clay NO3-N with abyss was evaluated in backward July (near maturity). Clay NO3-N for the fertigated treatments was greater in the apparent and to abject of 2 inches than for the accepted treatment. At a abyss of 2 feet, greater concentrations of NO3-N were begin for the accepted application.Data such as these abutment the appliance of abate amounts of N added frequently in adjustment to betrayal bottom quantities to the achievability of leaching. In adverse to nitrate N, phosphorus (P) fertilizer moves actual little in the soil. Back advertisement on the clay surface, it will not frequently move added than l to 2 inches beneath the clay surface. Therefore, fertigation of P is awful inefficient back appliance sprinkler or flood irrigation techniques. However, P fertilizer activated in dribble systems may be rather efficient. An advantage of dribble irrigation is that bulb nutrients can be activated anon in the abject zone.Since the majority of roots in drip-irrigated crops are amid aural the wetting zone, dribble activated P will be placed in the clay arena absolute the able abject density. Therefore, the P activated in this address is about acclimated added calmly by plants than if the aforementioned bulk of P were apparent applied. Baptize Affection Considerations For acknowledged fertigation, accurate absorption charge be accustomed to baptize quality. The affection of baptize adapted depends on several factors, but foremost is the blazon of fertigation. Dribble fertigation requires the able affection water, i. . , chargeless of abeyant debris and microorganisms that bung baby orifices in emitters. Alone solutions should be acclimated for drip/trickle fertigation. As the breach admeasurement increases, e. g. on sprinkler systems, suspensions can be tolerated. Precipitation of fertilizers aural the irrigation systems can be a actual austere botheration if solubilities are exceeded. One such botheration frequently encountered is with calcium concentrations beyond about 100 ppm. As calcium absorption increases and phosphates are injected, the anticipation of precipitation increases.When the baptize contains actual aerial levels of calcium and magnesium, an bang of ammonium phosphates will aftereffect in precipitates deposited on aqueduct walls as able-bodied as in orifices and sprinklers. About this will absolutely bung the irrigation system. If apparent salts are in the baptize acclimated for fertigation, one needs to accede the absolute bulk of salts activated to the crop amid leaching rains rather than alone the bulk activated in a distinct fertigation. Crops alter broadly in their altruism to salts; therefore, the cardinal of irrigations as able-bodied as the alkali absorption charge be considered. In some areas, aerial levels of boron (B) in irrigation baptize is a problem. Some acute crops can abide alone about 1 ppm B. Absolute irrigation with baptize absolute l ppm B activated to acute crops on ablaze textured soils should not beat 3 acre-inches amid leaching rains. 3 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Fertilizers For Bang Into Irrigation Three qualities are all-important for a acceptable antecedent of fertilizer for fertigation: (1) it charge accommodate the bare comestible elements in a anatomy accessible to plants or in a anatomy that is readily adapted (i. e. urea is readily adapted to accessible NH4- and NO3-N forms in acceptable clay conditions); (2) it charge be analogously distributed--either analogously advertisement for sprinkler, furrow, or flood or analogously advertisement amid emitters for drip/trickle; and (3) the allure of the appliance charge be such that plants are not austere or bantam and irrigation lines, emitters, or orifices are not belted or plugged. Considering these limitations, a rather continued account of comestible sources can still be used. In adjustment to accommodate for the closing two limitations listed, the abstracts charge either be in band-aid or be in suspension.For dribble systems, band-aid is consistently bare and alone bright aqueous should be used. Nitrogen is the best fertigated aspect due to aerial bulb comestible needs, to its abundant advancement in clay afterward actinic and biological transformation to NO3-N, and because of the abounding acrid sources of N fertilizers accessible for fertigation. Abounding forms of N accept been acclimated in fertigation. Urea and UAN solutions are apparently best frequently used, but best any acrid anatomy of dry fertilizer can be used. Anhydrous ammonia or any alternative N fertilizer that has chargeless ammonia should not be activated through sprinkler systems. Phosphoric acid, and ammonium phosphate solutions can be acclimated as sources of phosphorus in dribble systems. Ammonium phosphate solutions are accountable to precipitation if injected into baptize with aerial calcium and/or magnesium concentrations. Potassium fertigation is usually able with potassium chloride (muriate of potash) due to its solubility and about low bulk per batter of K. For best crops, foliage burns are not a botheration due to the abundant dilutions in irrigation systems. Almost authentic grades of potassium chloride (white, 62% K 2O equivalent) are frequently acclimated in fertigation.Potassium nitrate has been acclimated as a antecedent of K and N, and potassium sulfate as a antecedent of K and S. These K sources are beneath acrid and bulk added per batter of K than potassium chloride. Sulfur, back needed, can additionally be provided as ammonium thiosulfate, ammonium sulfate or flowable S. It can be readily alloyed with UAN and several alternative acrid fertilizer grades and injected. Magnesium sulfate (Epson salts) is about acclimated to accumulation Mg and S. Micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese may (if activated in forms such as sulfates or chlorides) acknowledge with salts in the irrigation baptize and account precipitation and clogging.However, abounding of the micronutrients can be activated as chelates - such as adamant or zinc EDTA. Chelates are about awful baptize acrid and consequently, will account little bottleneck or precipitation. 4 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Use Fertigation Properly And According To Regulations Fertilizer nutrients accept the abeyant of accepting into the irrigation baptize antecedent if able operating procedures and assurance accessories are not installed or maintained by the operator. Some states crave a admittance for fertigation. Be abiding you are in acquiescence with your bounded regulations.Reputable fertilizer and actinic dealers should be able to accommodate the blazon of accessories apparent in Figure 10. 3. Figure 10. 3 Assurance accessories and arrange for fertigation through an agent powered irrigation system. Figure 10. 3 shows a recommended blueprint for absolute bang of nutrients into irrigation pipelines. The afterward apparatus are allotment of the system: 1. Backflow blockage accessory (check valve) in baptize band upstream of fertilizer bang - this prevents about-face flows from the irrigation arrangement bottomward a able-bodied or alternative baptize source. 2. Exhaustion abatement valve - prevents a exhaustion from basic upstream of the assay valve. . Backflow blockage accessory (automatic, quick-closing assay valve) in fertilizer augment band - prevents about-face flows of baptize or fertilizer into the fertilizer accumulator tank. 4. Frequently closed, solenoid-operated valve - amid on the assimilation ancillary of the bang pump to anticipate fertilizer breeze during irrigation arrangement shutdown. 5. Electrical accord for bang systems appliance electric-driven fertilizer pumps this ensures that the bang pump will shut bottomward if the irrigation pump does. 5 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars 6. Low burden cesspool valve - to cesspool baptize from the aqueduct amid the assay valve and the baptize source, including any arising able the assay valve. Irrigation Scheduling And Fertigation Acknowledged damp administration calls for applying the adapted bulk of baptize at the able time. The bulk of baptize bare will depend principally on the water-holding accommodation of the soil, the clay contour depth, and the crop to be grown. Research has apparent that applying N solutions through sprinkler systems on albino soils gives greater ability than from preplant advertisement and sidedress applications (Table 10. ). This additionally allows the N to be activated at the time the crop needs it. The abstracts in Tables 10. 2 and 10. 3 allegorize the comestible uptake of N and K for blah and cotton. Fertilizer applications can be timed with the irrigation to accumulation nutrients at the best optimum advance stage. Table 10. 1: Aftereffect of Multiple Fertilizer Applications on Irrigated Blah Fertilizer Agenda Preplant and two sidedress Bi-weekly starting at actualization Time of Last Application* 8 12 No. of Applications 3 7 About Yield % 72 100 * Weeks afterwards actualization (Source: F. M. Rhoads, University of Florida, Quincy) Table 10. : Percent of Nutrients Taken Up by 180-bu. Blah Days Afterwards Actualization 0-25 26-50 (silk) 51-75 76-100 (grain fill) 101-125 N 8 35 31 2 6 %Uptake K2O 9 44 31 14 2 6 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Table 10. 3: Percent of Nutrients Taken Up by 1 1/2 Bales Affection at Various Advance Stages GROWTH STAGE Seedling Aboriginal Square Aboriginal Boll To Ability NITROGEN 6 14 42 38 POTASH 5 19 36 40 Researchers, appliance sprinkler irrigation, at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Georgia accomplished added N ability and able yields back they activated 25% of the N at planting, 22. % at the six, 12 and 18 blade stages and 7. 5% at tasseling. This abode about utilizes accepted appliance of N at burying and the butt via fertigation. This acclimation improves N uptake aboriginal in the division back abject systems are baby and crave aerial N. Later in the season, this arrangement of applications anticipates N requirements while aspersing the risks of nitrate leaching. Fertigation is additionally sometimes acclimated to administer added applications of potash, sulfur and assertive micronutrients. The charge to administer such nutrients should be bent by bulb analysis.Frequency and timing of baptize appliance accept a above appulse on yields and operating costs. For the best able use of baptize it is adorable to frequently actuate the clay damp altitude throughout the abject area of the crop actuality grown. Two accurate activated acreage methods for barometer clay damp are tensiometers and electrical attrition meters. Damp barometer instruments should be installed at three to bristles locations in the field. The accession armpit should be adumbrative of the clay types in the acreage and should be amid so that it is acceptable to apprehend them on a circadian basis.Figure 10. 3 illustrates the accession of tensiometers. Back the tensiometers admeasurement the clay baptize levels, they charge be placed in a address that accurately reflects what altitude the abject arrangement is encountering. One should be placed six inches abysmal and the alternative 12 inches deep. The six inch abyss tensiometer is acclimated to appraise back to alpha irrigating while the twelve inch abyss tensiometer is acclimated to appraise baptize assimilation into the clay contour additional over-or-under watering. 7 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill SegarsFigure 10. 5 Accession of tensiometers in a blah field. A tensiometer (Figure 10. 5) account of beneath than 20 centibars indicates that the bulk of accessible damp in the break band is favorable. As the readings become higher, the bulk of accessible baptize decreases, advertence drier altitude and a charge to alpha irrigating. The acknowledgment of blah to three called bushing credibility (readings on the tensiometer) on a abundant accomplished beach is apparent in Table 10. 4. The able yields occurred by irrigating blah back the tensiometer accomplished 20 centibars. Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Figure 10. 5 Diagram of a tensiometer. 9 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars Table 10. 4: Atom Yields of Irrigated Blah at Three Called Soil/Water Bushing Levels Absolute Irrigation Cardinal of Baptize Activated Irrigations (IN) 11 8. 7 6 7. 1 4 -4. 7 -- Tensiometer Account Back Irrigated 20 40 60 -- YieldBu/A 190 175 160 115 Source: The University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station The blazon and admeasurement of the irrigation arrangement will additionally access scheduling.Center axis systems that accomplish complete 3600 circles crave altered schedules than centermost axis systems that do not accomplish complete circles. Cable tow systems crave altogether altered scheduling. Consult with your irrigation accessories supplier to actuate the best able agenda for a accurate arrangement and acreage situation. Alternative Important Factors To Accede Back Fertigating 1. Administration accord of the irrigation baptize is analytical for compatible appliance of the fertilizer. 2. Apparent irrigation systems about aftermath apparent runoff.Make abiding that any apparent runoff during fertigation is best up and reused on the acreage actuality advised or a agnate acreage that is additionally actuality treated. Fertigation may not be acceptable on fields that are actual affected to runoff (i. e. abrupt slopes and low aggression rates). 3. Accomplish abiding the aggregate of fertilizers and baptize will not aftermath bottleneck if appliance a micro-irrigation system. 4. Know how abundant baptize is bare to bushing the abject area during the irrigation and plan the fertilizer appliance accordingly. Over-irrigation during fertigation not alone wastes ater but could aftereffect in leaching of the fertilizer beneath the abject zone. 5. The blazon of bang accessory is analytical depending on the blazon of irrigation arrangement actuality used. Some accessories will inject at a almost compatible bulk throughout the irrigation, some will not. Be acquainted of which blazon is actuality acclimated and which blazon is adapted by the situation. 6. Be acquainted of the requirements for bloom the irrigation arrangement afterwards fertigation. This may booty 10 to 15 minutes. Additionally run apple-pie baptize through the bang meter, acquittal corrupt and assay valve. 7.Irrigation systems should be monitored abundant added carefully during fertigation, continuously if possible. 10 Able Fertilizer Use — Fertigation: by Dr. Bill Segars 8. Beneath acrid conditions, salinity problems can be agitated by fertigation and abnormal irrigation management. The akin of salinity in clay may itself be increased, alike temporarily, by fertilizer appliance as mineral fertilizers are for the best allotment acrid salts. Summary Back the advantages of fertigation are exploited and the disadvantages are minimized, fertigation can be a actual able acclimation of fertilization.Although not an end in itself, fertigation can acclaim a acceptable abject clay abundance program. An compassionate of the types of soil, baptize quality, adapted comestible materials, assurance precautions, and agriculture systems are all important factors in authoritative fertigation advantageous and economical. Links to alternative sections of the Able Fertilizer Use Manual History • Mey • Clay • pH • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Potassium • Secondary • Micronutrients • Fluid-Dry • Sampling • Testing • Site-Specific • Tillage • Environment • Appendices • Contributors 11

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