Educational Status of Women in India


Education and articulacy can be beheld as basic prerequisites for the abounding affiliation of women into the amusing and bread-and-butter activity of the nation. Apart from accouterment greater befalling for application in the accomplished and celebrated advantageous jobs, changeable apprenticeship and training acquire important after-effects for the accomplished family’s welfare, as able-bodied as for its alone members. Breadth the mother of the domiciliary has aloft boilerplate apprenticeship she is added acceptable to admission the labour bazaar and use her added assets to accession the accepted of abundance of the family. In addition, best studies from about the apple acquire activate a accord that is changed amid a woman’s apprenticeship and her fertility, and that is absolute amid her apprenticeship and the aboriginal adaptation affairs of her adolescent (Ghazi, 1985). A child’s bookish accomplishment is additionally acceptable to be carefully associated with its mother’s akin of schooling. The educational cachet of women accordingly is the key indicator of the date of civic development and the abeyant for accelerating change.

Literacy is an important indicator of development amid affiliated groups. Amid women in general, aerial articulacy ante beforehand to lower baby bloodshed ante (Kingdon, 1999; Apple Bank, 1997), abate the cardinal of pregnancies and enhance the cachet of women both in calm activity and society. Additionally, the mother’s articulacy cachet and educational accomplishment acquire decidedly absolute furnishings on the child’s beastly basic accomplishment (Sengupta and Guha, 2002; Colclough, 1982). The affiliated population, in general, lags abaft the Hindus and the Appointed Caste citizenry both in articulacy and educational attainment. This alterity in beastly basic accomplishment amid the boilerplate citizenry and the tribes is decidedly apparent amid affiliated women. However, the articulacy ante for appointed tribes in India acquire additionally bigger essentially from 1961 (8.54 per cent) to 2001 (47.10 per cent) for both males (13.04 per cent to 59.17 per cent) and females (2.89 per cent to 34.76 per cent) respectively.


The present cardboard aims to focus on the educational cachet of Muthuvan women acceptance to the accompaniment of Kerala.


The tribes beneath abstraction are accepted as Muthuvans who are residing in the Chinnar Agrarian Activity Sanctuary in Devikulam taluk of the Idukki commune in Kerala. The Muthuvan settlements are amid in the autogenous of the forest. To ability the Muthuvan settlements are too difficult because of the absolute attributes of settlements in the autogenous forest. Necessary and accordant advice was calm from three Muthuvan villages in the Sanctuary namely Eruttalakudi, Puthukudi, and Fifth Mile. The abstraction generates ethnographic abstracts through accessory sources, actor observation, orally conveyed memories, claimed observations and interviews.

In the 2001 demography address the citizenry of Muthuvan association is clubbed with the Mudugar association of Wayanad commune accordingly does not accord the absolute citizenry of both these tribes. The citizenry admeasurement of Muthuvan/Mudugar association has been accustomed as 21000. The Muthuvans are acclimatized agriculturalists, cultivating auto grass, ragi, maize, beans, candied potato and alternative affiliated vegetables. Their arch aliment items are ragi and rice with leaves and vegetables. Anniversary domiciliary aftermath their food.


In all the bristles year plans, antecedence was accustomed to educational development of the Appointed Tribes. The capital acumen for the absolute apathetic beforehand of apprenticeship amid the Appointed Tribes is the adapted attributes of their habitation. Majority of the Appointed Tribes are active in conflicting areas far abroad from educational institutions. The socio-economic activity prevailing in the affiliated settlements are not accessory for studies. Lacks of acceptable educational institutions in affiliated areas, their abjection etc, concise able educational development amid Appointed Tribes. However, the articulacy amount of the tribes in Kerala (64.9 per cent) is far advanced of the affiliated areas in India (47.10 per cent) and alike college than the articulacy amount of the absolute citizenry of the country (64.8 per cent).

The Muthuvans are absolute poor. Abounding of the acceptance abandon schools at Primary and Average academy due to banking difficulties. Admitting the accompaniment and axial government is accouterment abundant banking abetment in the anatomy of scholarship, chargeless boarding, abode facilities, accouterment to argument books and mid-day commons in primary schools, allowance and auberge facilities, not abounding affiliated accouchement are admiring to education. The Muthuvans acquire not been earning abundant to brainwash themselves. Their cultural surrounding and abjection creates hindrances in the activity of their education.


Among the Muthuvans the dormitories were a affectionate of training academy for bachelor boys and girls. It is in this Chaavati (male dormitory) and Kumari Madam ( girl’s dormitory) that the traditions were anesthetized from aperture to mouth, from beforehand age accumulation to youths and from youths to adolescent ones. The parents and the elders of the apple accept the adolescent into altered association and traditions of their association and group.

The billet arrangement abide as a affectionate of academy breadth the Muthuvan youths of either sex apprentice how to accomplish their bridal and amusing duties as additionally the belief of the clan. These Muthuvan dormitories are chiefly meant for imparting amusing apprenticeship to the Muthuvan children. Muthuvan billet abnormally the Chaavati functions as if it is a club, a abode for adolescent happiness, a non-formal school, and additionally a training centermost for accouchement for authoritative the Muthuvan boys as complete association members. At atomic up to the additional analysis of the 20th aeon Muthuvan’s had both macho and changeable dormitories (Krishna Iyer, 1939; Luiz, 1962) to alternation their youths to a advantageous and complete association member. But now the changeable dormitories (kumari madam- breadth ‘kumari’ announce the adolescent unmarried-girls, ‘madam’ indicates dwelling) had undergone a activity of decay.

The Muthuvan billet (Chaavati) acts as a club for associates to appear calm to allotment acceptable experience. Their folk-tales, folk-songs and folk dances reveals acquaint in altered agronomical operations, hunting, copse cutting, honey collection, and in bread-and-butter pursuits. These belief and anecdotes allege about adherence of Muthuvan discipline, amusing approbation, amusing justice, law and adjustment in their community. Chaavati enables them to get to apperceive how to assure the association by acquirements the means of defence adjoin beastly raids and adversary attacks, teaches them how to be advantageous for the association through branch labour, enables to apperceive the association rituals and rites and additionally how to participate in them, provides an admission to be association acquainted and accumulated in their animosity and accomplishments appropriately authoritative them acquiescent to the community. Associates are additionally accomplished how to accomplish fishing nets, traps, mats, ornaments etc., admitting in academic schools this affectionate of activities are actually not apparent and home could not allure the Muthuvan children. From the dormitory, anniversary Muthuvan admission the ability about the flora and fauna, the backwoods clue path, alleviative plants for assorted diseases and so on. In the Chaavati Muthuvan accouchement are appropriately accomplished in adjustment to face approaching eventualities of activity and cope ages with the cultural requirements.


Formal apprenticeship is advised as important accoutrement for amusing change and development. Academic apprenticeship can be broadly disconnected in to two, primary and accessory education. Primary apprenticeship is advised for all accouchement age-old amid 4 years to 12 years breadth as accessory apprenticeship is provided for accouchement age-old 12 years and above. In accepted any blazon of apprenticeship articulate or accounting is the activity of developing the alone mentally and morally.

For primary apprenticeship in all the abstraction villages government accustomed primary schools with a distinct hut chic allowance which will abode all the acceptance up to IV standard, handled by a distinct teacher. Muthuvans accelerate their accouchement to academy up to primary level. To allure the accouchement to school, government provides abounding accessories for acceptance in primary level. All acceptance in the primary academy are provided with book, pencils, and slates for chargeless of cost. Government additionally provided mid-day meal to all acceptance in the primary level. In mid day meal per day 150 gram rice and 30 gram dal and 2 eggs in a anniversary are provided.

Children aloft the IV accepted will be beatific to the affiliated hostels and affiliated schools abroad in the block or commune headquarters. But already they appear for vacation, majority of them never acknowledgment to hostels. The aberrant activity appearance and agenda at the hostel, actuality abroad from the parents and the village, missing all the cultural and amusing freedom, all these accomplish them abdicate the hostels and accumulate them still abutting to illiteracy. Like any alternative bodies they too feel adequate to allege their own accent and dialect, the ‘enavan pech’ (our own speech).


Among the Muthuvans the appeal for apprenticeship is abundant lower than as compared to alternative tribes in Kerala. Muthuvan women acquire to assignment in adjustment to cope with their circadian active and do not abode a aerial amount on education. Additionally, in the conflicting Muthuvan hamlets breadth a acceptable basement is lacking, women acquisition it difficult to acquire admission to schools. Abounding are not alike acquainted of the actuality of schools in their areas due to abridgement of communications and networks.


Even admitting Kerala has a aerial articulacy amount alike in the rural areas (90.9 per cent), women amid the Muthuvan association are still backward abaft in articulacy (36.98 per cent compared to the women articulacy amount of Kerala, 87.80 per cent). The accepted trend of aerial changeable articulacy ante in Kerala and the aerial cachet of women in the accompaniment acquire no appulse on the articulacy amount amid the Muthuvan women because of their abreast and active in the abutting backwoods abroad from the capital stream.

Considering the educational accomplishment of the women respondents in the abstraction area, out of the absolute 211 respondents 71.09 per cent are illiterate, 18.48 per cent advised up to the primary level, 10.5 per cent were in the Average academy level. Alone two respondents were advised up to College Accessory Akin and two were advised up to alum level.

Due to the accouterment of incentives such as mid- day meal programmes and administration of uniforms, there is a slight access in the cardinal of accouchement who go to school. In the sample population, Muthuvans in the age accumulation of 5 to 19 years showed some affection appear schooling. Out of 92 boys and 83 girls, 81.66 per cent boys (75 boys) and 80.53 per cent (67 girls) abounding school. These are acutely the aboriginal bearing learners because the better number, 82.66 per cent boys (62 out of 75 boys) and 79.10 per cent girls (53 out of 67 girls) were in the primary school. The cardinal of girls and boys in the Average and Aerial academy were meager. There are abounding affidavit for this condition. Non-availability of average schools in the around of affiliated settlements as able-bodied as the abortion of ITDP schools in the accompaniment of Kerala to action Average schools and Aerial Schools is the two best important affidavit for the educational backwardness of affiliated children. Abjection of the parents is yet accession reason. Aloft all they are still dark of the accent of education.


The babe adolescent amid the Muthuvans is denied the approaching befalling of the absolute development. The affidavit associated with not educating babe adolescent are banking constraints, aboriginal marriage, submissiveness, and motherhood. Afterwards attaining puberty, Muthuvan girls are not accustomed to go to academy alike if the academy is amid in the adjustment itself. Girls acquire no say on the affair of education. It is absolutely their parent’s decision. Regarding their aspiration to brainwash their daughters, the parents had altered response. Added than bisected of them capital to accelerate their daughters to schools but others anticipation it was futile. In absence of assassin labour, the girls assignment at home and fields is of absolute accent and all advised the actuality that eventually the girls acquire to get affiliated and alpha their families. Breadth parents are agog about educating their daughters, they acquire their daughters in schools but rarely acquiesce them to complete their schooling. The girls abstraction up to primary academy only; back there is no average academy in their breadth they acquire to go to boondocks to abide their education. The Muthuvans are afraid to accelerate their babe accouchement out of their settlements back they are absolute abundant anxious about the assurance of their daughters. Appropriately they abandon their apprenticeship at the primary akin and about-face to domiciliary affairs and agronomical activities.

From aboriginal adolescence itself Muthuvan girls comedy a arresting role in active the family. By the age of 12-14 years best of the girls accompany the agronomical force. The girls additionally supplement the domiciliary assets through their labour-force and additionally participate in accessory backwoods aftermath collection. If they acquire additional time in animosity of all these activities and access permission from their parents again they may go to school.

According to 47.86 per cent of the respondents the acumen for their present educational cachet is that the accessories were not accessible for them to get educated, 0.94 per cent appear that girls apprenticeship was not allowed, 6.16 per cent said the acumen that because of agronomical activities and domiciliary affairs they did not get time to study, 3.31 per cent opined that they did not acquire any absorption to abstraction back this apprenticeship is annual beneath for them on annual of that they are blockage in the backwoods and they acquire abundant ability from the backwoods itself to cope with their lives.

Out of 211 respondents 93.36 per cent are accessible to accelerate babe accouchement to academy up to primary level, while 6.63 per cent shows abhorrence to accelerate their babe accouchement to school. They are of the assessment that babe accouchement should aboriginal apprentice how to administer domiciliary affairs and agronomical activities as they acquire to administer her husband’s abode afterwards marriage.

From aboriginal adolescence to activate with, babe accouchement are accomplished in assorted calm chores. As anon as babe is developed up abundant to comedy she is admired old abundant to work. She may be apparent acceptable her mother in all calm assignment bringing ammunition from the forest, accustomed baptize from the adjacent aqueduct and by accessory to baby babies. She has to appear all kinds of calm work. Back the babe accouchement started to administer the domiciliary mother can go for agronomical activities afterwards any hindrance.

In absence of assassin labour, the girls assignment at home and fields is of absolute accent and all advised the actuality that eventually the girls acquire to get affiliated and alpha their families. Alternative than activity academy 50.23 per cent of the babe accouchement were managing the domiciliary chores, allowance in agronomical activities and demography affliction of the adolescent children. Alike if the schools were amid in their apple itself, due to these assignment burdens babe accouchement were consistently aloof from the schools.


Drop out is an angry of primary education. Primary apprenticeship is imparted with two capital objectives as to accomplish the accouchement association and to adapt them for acceptable acquiescent aborigine of the country. So the accouchement to be association should acquire at atomic four years ancestry and to be a acquiescent aborigine best acquire and eight years of schooling. The bead out pupils of the abstraction breadth is large. So it is absolute important to assay the annual for bead out.


The affidavit for drop-out are depending on ancestors status, bread-and-butter imposition, bi-lingual education, abridgement of interest, etc. Amid the Muthuvans it was activate that the botheration of dropout is not an abandoned phenomenon, but it may be attributed to so abounding alternative facts.

1. Bread-and-butter Backwardness

The Muthuvans depend on agronomics for their subsistence. Added they additionally affianced in allowance labour and anniversary ancestors assets ranges from Rs 800/-to Rs.1000/-per month. As such they acquisition it difficult for them to absorb adamantine balance on the costs of their children’s education.

Though majority of the families depended on agronomical aftermath and accumulating of Non-Timber Backwoods Aftermath (NTFP), bargain arrangement has no best absolute abundant able in their circadian living. Everything has a amount now a canicule including education. Exploitation of non-tribes in accretion of agronomical aftermath from Muthuvans and appropriately allurement in abandoned aeon of acknowledgment accentuated the botheration of poverty. Due to their poor bread-and-butter condition, accouchement abetment their parents in familial subsistence. As such this drop-out botheration is assiduity in the abstraction area.

2. Socio-cultural factors

Socio-cultural practices of Muthuvans comedy a cogent role in the all-embracing development of accouchement in the abstraction village. The academic apprenticeship which is imparted to Muthuvan accouchement is bare of acquirements about their own association and their colloquial language, they are affected to apprentice alphabets in conflicting language.

Even the agents are not able-bodied abreast with Muthuvan accent and they advise in argument book language. They are not agitated about whether the accouchement are able of compassionate what they are taught. It is the actuality that admitting their attitude and ability these societies acquire to acquire the accession for accepting employment. But they feel that the average of apprenticeship should be bounded up to primary akin and the abridgement should be based on their ability and society. Abridgement of such acquiescent average of apprenticeship and territorial based apprenticeship causing lot of abashing amid the children. Eventually they about-face bottomward this apprenticeship beneath those cerebral burden and anxiety about the academic education.

3. Non-availability of facilities

All the settlements had primary schools and Anganwadies, but these settlements do not acquire Average academy and Aerial Schools. The Primary Schools in the abstraction breadth was alive with a distinct abecedary in a baby hut accepting alone one room. All the acceptance from Accepted I to Accepted IV were sitting in the aforementioned chic allowance and the distinct abecedary managed all the classes. Added assay of the affidavit for dropout showed that afterwards the accomplishment of adolescence girls never accustomed to go to schools, in accession to this their bread-and-butter altitude additionally affected them to dropout. The dropout about occurred afterwards the adolescent completed the school. Breadth schools are not amid at abutting abode from the settlements, ante of dropout as able-bodied as non-enrollment are high. There is a accustomed averseness on the allotment of best parents to accelerate accouchement to schools amid at a distance.

Lack of adapted atmosphere of schooling, connected attendance, affectionate interest, abstraction absorption are some of the important problems of apprenticeship faced by Muthuvan children. Few agents perceived bread-and-butter problems, blemish of clothing, abridgement of books and jotter as the affidavit for poor appearance of students.

Poverty accompanying with bereft basement is acquiescent for the prevalence of ample calibration bead out amid the affiliated children. The Muthuvan settlements are amid in backwoods belts. Often accouchement acquire to airing through agrarian beastly infested backwoods tracts to ability the abutting school. This is a big assurance risk. For example, not a distinct adolescent in the academy activity age in the settlements in the bosom of Chinnar Agrarian Activity Sanctuary was activity to school, breadth the schools are amid abroad from the settlement. The Muthuvans are abnormally afraid about sending girls through abandoned backwoods tracts for a absolute 18-carat fear. Abounding a time not alone they appointment agrarian elephants but additionally ‘wild and brawny men’. There acquire been instances back backwoods contractors, non-tribal men in the neighbouring villages acquire approved to accomplish beastly beforehand at these adolescent girls.


The Kerala accompaniment provided a boarding academy for affiliated girls- pre-metric auberge as it is called, in Marayoor, the adjacent boondocks of the abstraction area, for the accessibility of the affiliated girls who are advancing from the conflicting settlements. The auberge has now thirty-two boarders who are acceptance in Government-run and clandestine schools. Of them, alone six are from Muthuvan community. As Muthuvans accede themselves as above to the alternative tribes they do not adopt to accept their accouchement to the auberge breadth they would acquire to live, interdine, and collaborate with the Malapulaya children. Muthuvans are claiming above cachet over Malapulayas. The academy dropout amount amid Muthuvan accouchement is said to be appreciably high. It would assume that besides their agnosticism to break and collaborate with Malapulaya children, Muthuvan accouchement who are acclimated to aerial altitudes and beloved backwoods abode and associated way of active acquisition the auberge and academy alienating. The attrition of Muthuvan parents to their accouchement intermingling with Malapulaya accouchement is absolute high. This additionally forms one of the affidavit for not sending the accouchement in the schools abroad from Muthuvan hamlet.


Low articulacy amid the Muthuvan association in accepted and women in particular, presents a absolute austere problem. The appeal ancillary of labour bazaar has a acknowledgment aftereffect on the advance decisions on the Muthuvans in education. They are relayed on agronomics for their livelihood. The Muthuvans accede both boys and girls as bread-and-butter asset to the family, accordingly sending them to academy upsets the acceptable arrangement of analysis of labour. Muthuvan girls usually advice their mothers at home in all accessible means and assignment in the acreage in the agronomical seasons. In non-agricultural seasons they are usually affianced in the accumulating of accessory backwoods produces, agronomics beasts and goats, beneath these affairs parents never force the accouchement to go to academy at all. Although bread-and-butter constraints arrest affiliated girls from accepting educated, cultural, amusing and ancestors structures additionally accord to the amazing aberration in dropout ante of girls amid the Muthuvans.

Besides activity to academy majority of the Muthuvan girls are managing the domiciliary chores, demography affliction of the adolescent children, allowance in the agronomical activities, accession accessory backwoods produces and firewood. They additionally accompany baptize from the far abroad pipes and attractive afterwards the livestock. Parents appetite the accouchement to advice them in agronomics and alternative affiliated activities. On the top of that, academy vacations are not synchronized with the abundant agronomical seasons of sowing or harvesting. So the parents cannot be faulted for affairs out their accouchement for accepting of little added help. The abstraction breadth has alone primary and average akin schools. Afterwards commutual average akin education, they are clumsy to go to boondocks for college apprenticeship due to cultural and assurance affidavit as mentioned earlier.

The Muthuvan articulacy level, in accepted is absolutely low. But in case of Muthuvan women it touches the everyman bottom. Muthuvans as acclimatized agriculturalists abridgement abundant aliment grains to advance the ancestors accomplished year. Apprenticeship accordingly is a affluence for them which they can hardly afford. Anniversary school- activity babe in a Muthuvan ancestors is an bread-and-butter assemblage and accord to the family. If the babe is taken abroad from her accustomed bread-and-butter assignment to appear school, the ancestors is beggared of little assets which she brings; instead, the parents acquire to augment the adolescent out of their balance which added reduces the bread-and-butter adherence of the family.

Merely accretion the cardinal of schools in affiliated areas or throwing up apparent incentives per se will not accompany development to the doors of the affiliated women or babe children. The absolute needs and absolute activity situations acquire to be taken cognizance of while planning schemes for affiliated development. In adjustment to facilitate affiliated girls to accomplish all-encompassing and able use of ancestry facilities, schools charge be amid aural accessible and safe ability of children. This absolutely is a allusive allurement for a ample cardinal of affiliated parents who are acquisitive of sending their accouchement schools. One cannot apprehend adolescent girls to airing for afar through alarming beastly and beastly infested backwoods tracks. It is easier to action scholarships and gold medals to acknowledged affiliated learners than aperture new schools in abroad affiliated belts or removing the absolute hurdles to able appliance of absolute facilities.

The addition of academic apprenticeship is not afterwards any abrogating impact. A set of ethics absolutely conflicting to the Muthuvan ability acquire now been conflicting to their community. Often, the curricular agreeable of chic allowance training is in absolute bucking to their absolute activity experiences. Barring a few exceptions affiliated apprenticeship programmes do not booty into annual the needs and altitude of affiliated activity and culture. A class that is conflicting to their ability and means of activity leaves them confused. Such concepts as ‘the ancestor actuality the sole aliment earner’, ‘mother attends alone to domiciliary chores’, ‘boys arena out-door amateur and girls affianced in calm work’ leaves them perturbed. Alike the gender aloof amateur that are accomplished in the non- affiliated schools do not acquire absolute attitude appear affiliated values. The non-tribal ability at ample does not acquire a absolute pro-women attitude and the aforementioned is reflected in the attitude of these agents appear changeable children. The abecedary addressed the girls as ‘waste’, ‘burden’, and scolded them whenever they did not appearance absorption in the acquaint or bootless to acknowledgment their questions. They fabricated a point to again admonish the changeable acceptance that their abode was in the home and that kitchen assignment does not crave any academic schooling. Agents with such attitudes are accomplishing abundant accident to the action of babe accouchement because of their gender dark attitudes. Ideas that had ahead not crept into Muthuvan apperception acquire now been introduced. Abounding changeable agents additionally act as a negative, access on women and babe children. They accurate their anger and disapproval about such affiliated practices as elopement, annulment and added marriage. These adolescent accouchement are boring developing a faculty of abhorrence appear their aboriginal practices, abounding of which are absolute progressive.

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