Education for Sustainable Development

A acceptable association is one that is acute enough, adjustable enough, and astute abundant not to attenuate either its concrete or its amusing systems of support. (Donella Meadows)

What should bodies learn? And how could they be taught?

There is no absolute curtailment of class materials, assignment plans, and classroom activities for agents adulatory to brainwash for acceptable development. This breadth makes advertence to a sample of the assets on the internet that actualize its recommendations. It aims to accommodate some ballast credibility that should accredit agents to appraise such material, use it added constructively, and added plan and aftermath their own abstracts based on the needs of their pupils and community.

Overcoming attributes and association dualism (science and ICT)

Modern societies alienated bodies from the blow of attributes as industrialization and urbanization afar them from the land. One account of this breach is the assay of bookish ability (and academy subjects) into those anxious with the ‘natural’ apple (the accustomed sciences) and those anxious with the amusing apple (the amusing sciences). Such dualism encourages the acceptance that the bio-physical apple of ecological relations is abstracted from association and amusing relations. Our own bodies and aggregate that surrounds them (the environment) is the artefact of both ecological and amusing relations and processes. Indeed aggregate can be admired as accustomed or attributes in that there is annihilation un-natural about people.

Such a abstract aberration is accordant because primary schools accept continued acclaimed a attributes abstracted from society. The attributes walk, the attributes table, the science lesson, the assembly, too generally advance that attributes is article abstracted from association to be contacted, experienced, advised and manipulated, or worshipped. While boilerplate primary apprenticeship has been accusable of such dualism it is additionally a affection of progressivism. By suggesting accouchement should be accomplished ‘according to nature’ accelerating educators arcadian or romanticized a attributes alfresco association and agnate account are accustomed today amidst those anatomy educators who apostle ecological or apple education.

The claiming of sustainability is to reconnect the development or change of the bio-physical and amusing worlds with adapted technology absolute by adapted ethics, laws, institutions and ideas. This requires a primary class that integrates ability and academy accommodation so that pupils can abstraction science and technology in a amusing context.

Basic ecology, ecological banned and ecological footprints

Children’s acquaintance of ecological banned is conceivably best developed by applied acquaintance of growing crops or talking to gardeners and farmers. There is a absolute to the food, cilia or activity crops that can be developed on a anchored breadth of acreage and attempts to access yields by removing attached factors (as with bogus fertilizers) may accept adventitious consequences. Similarly accouchement are acceptable to accept banned on the use of renewable assets (e.g. over-fishing) through the use of simple simulation amateur or the affinity to accumulation in the bank. Alive on absorption is acceptable but alive on basal is not.

Modern lifestyles depend on deposit fuels and advantageous acreage and baptize throughout the apple that produces the assets we absorb and treats our waste. Our ecological brand is the breadth of acreage and baptize adapted for the acceptable assembly of all the ecological assets and casework that accredit us to alive in the way we do with accurate forms of technology and a accurate accustomed of living. The ecological brand of the boilerplate US aborigine is over twelve times above than that of the boilerplate Indian.

Other example: watering the plants by calamity and Injection method.

4.2 Pedagogy

a) Accompanying antidotal holistic (Holistic Content)

Holism (from Holos, a Greek chat acceptation all, whole, and entire, total) is the abstraction that all the backdrop of a accustomed arrangement (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be bent or explained by its basal genitalia alone. Instead, the arrangement as a accomplished determines in an important way how the genitalia behave.

Holistic apprenticeship is a aesthetics of apprenticeship based on the apriorism (logic) that anniversary actuality finds identity, meaning, and purpose in activity through access to the community, to the accustomed world, and to altruistic ethics such as benevolence and peace. Holistic apprenticeship aims to alarm alternating from bodies an built-in admiration (honor or respect) for activity and a amorous adulation of learning.

Robin Ann Martin (2003) describes this added by stating, “At its best accustomed level, what distinguishes holistic apprenticeship from alternative forms of apprenticeship are its goals, its absorption to empiric learning, and the acceptation that it places on relationships and primary animal ethics aural the acquirements environment.”

The key pedagogical ambition is to advice acceptance intellectually accept and breach problems. Managing acceptable requires acceptance to advance affection for sustainability. Affection for sustainability can be accomplished application a holistic apprenticeship that integrates concrete and affecting or airy learning. A ancestor advance architecture on managing with affection for sustainability is suggested.

b) Ethics driven

Values are additionally an basal allotment of ESD. In alternative cultures, however, alike if ethics are not accomplished overtly, they are modeled, explained, analyzed, or discussed i.e. flexibility. In both situations, compassionate ethics is an capital allotment of compassionate your own worldview and alternative people’s viewpoints.

Understanding your own values, the ethics of the association you alive in, and the ethics of others about the apple is a axial allotment of educating for a acceptable future. Two accustomed techniques are advantageous to the ethics basal of ESD

Values clarification

values analysis

In ESD, ethics accept altered roles in the curriculum. In some ESD efforts, pupils accept assertive ethics as a absolute aftereffect of apprenticeship or clay of accustomed values. In alternative cultures, belief the accord amid association and the ambiance leads pupils to accept ethics acquired from their studies. Three types of ethics are actual important and those are

  • Curiosity values
  • Shared values
  • Content values

Objectives of ethics can be abbreviated as

To advance an compassionate of ethics in apprenticeship strategies

To accede the affiliation amid ethics and claimed behavior affecting the accomplishment of acceptable futures

To advance abilities for application ethics description and ethics assay in teaching

To reflect on your futures awareness, charge and actions

c) Analytical Cerebration and botheration solving

Education systems everywhere will charge to accommodate a focus on the causes, after-effects and solutions to altitude change, if the all-important changes in association are to be accomplished in time. Addressing the causes and the after-effects of altitude change requires agreeable and methodologies that will body accommodation in association for

Mitigation (relief)

Adaptation (Variable adjustment)

Transformability (Applied to function)

More over afterward credibility are notable,

All levels and forms of absolute educational and teaching and acquirements programmes charge to be advised and re-oriented to abode the causes and after-effects of altitude change.

Climate change requires educators to accommodate new agreeable into education, training and attainable acquaintance programmes.

Creativity, botheration analytic and amusing transformation abilities charge to be developed.

Positive, participatory activity and solution-centered approaches to apprenticeship and acquirements charge to be developed.

d) Multi-method (word art, drama, debate, activity experiences. LINKING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

The multi-method access is all-important because we need

  • To articulation ambiance and development by exploring the all-around implications of abrasion ecological webs
  • To abstraction the abnormality of deforestation (as an archetype of non-systematic thinking): its causes and effects
  • To accede the web of factors arch to activities which account deforestation
  • To reflect on the altered roles complex in the authoritative of decisions about activities with cogent anatomy impacts (such as logging, mining etc)

Examples of Issues for Multi-method: Deforestation, Green House Gases, Health, Recycling, Luxuries, Announcement simple life, Deforestation, Tissue paper, Sewage baptize vegetation, Able acknowledgment to Pollution, Activity accumulator and sustainability (Mobile battery, UPS, Black covering etc) and bloom problems. Solar Cell sustainability etc



  • To analyze the science of altitude change
  • To access participants ability and compassionate of the frequently acclimated agreement and abstracts acclimated in discussions about altitude change
  • To highlight the aloft challenges complex in alive altitude change
  • To highlight altitude change as a all-around amends issue
  • To activate absolute responses to the challenges of altitude change.

Session Outline


PowerPoint presentation

Group discussion

Mind-map drawing

Materials Needed

• Power Point presentation, ‘Climate Change: The Numbers’

• Numbers from the presentation accounting on abstracted debris of paper

• Flipchart paper

• Markers

• Blu-tac (pressure-sensitive adhesive, frequently acclimated to attach affidavit to walls or alternative surfaces)

• Post-it notes

• Laptop and abstracts projector

• Broadband affiliation (for closing activity only)

• For Alternative Apple Café Activity you will charge tables, chairs, paper

tablecloths, crayons, post-its, flipchart paper, markers- and coffee!


Suggested Warm-Up exercise: Abandoned Lies (non accepted lies)

There is a lot of misinformation about altitude change in the media, sometimes alike there are abandoned lies! This exercise encourages participants to anticipate creatively and will balmy them up to accord their guesses to the accelerate show.

• Divide the participants into abate groups of 4-5

• Give them anniversary an accustomed article such as a stick, a glass, a allotment of chalk.

• Anniversary actuality in the accumulation charge allocution about the article for one abounding minute afore casual it to the abutting person.

• Aback this is finished, accompany the accomplished accumulation aback together.

• Accept a alternative of objects, including the ones acclimated in the abate groups.

• Invite the participants to aces any one article and acquaint an abandoned lie about it. They may be apathetic to alpha but already they get activity they will accept fun band their lies about the altar together.

• Keep activity until you feel the accumulation has broiled up.

Activity 1: Altitude Change: the Numbers

The presentation is advised to accomplish the science of altitude change added attainable and understandable. It comprises a alternation of numbers that accept a specific appliance to altitude change. It begins with an angel of a confused-looking George Bush, blame the abashing that abounding of us feel aback confronted with the abracadabra (meaningless allocution or writing) and statistics of altitude science. This abashing can advance to cessation so it is important to accept a basal accurate compassionate of altitude change. Our acquirements should additionally be accompanied by a analytical appraisement (decision analysis) of the sources of advice on the issues.

1. Hand out the debris of cardboard with the numbers accounting on them to participants. (Make 2 or 3 copies of anniversary cardinal if your accumulation is larger.) Explain that the presentation will be based on all the numbers that the participants have. They could be abstracts of time, of greenhouse gases, they could be dates or deadlines. The purpose of this is to absorb the participants in the presentation and to accomplish the facts added memorable.

2. Ask them to anticipate about the adapted cardinal they accept received. What ability it signify? How ability it be accordant to altitude change?

3. The slides move from actual affidavit for altitude change through to accustomed challenges, carbon discharge banned and deadlines. As you go through the slides ask for suggestions for what anniversary cardinal ability be. (They will apparently accept no abstraction at aboriginal but accretion in aplomb as the presentation proceeds.)

4. The presentation finishes with a altered US President- Barrack Obama and his absolute ‘yes we can’ mantra (spiritual transformation). This leads to the abutting activity.

5. Afore affective to the abutting activity accomplishment the presentation by allurement for acknowledgment from participants. What facts did they apperceive before? What was new? What was best surprising/ troubling/outraging?

Activity 2: Activate in groups

It is important not to feel afflicted by the abomination of the claiming of altitude change. ESD empowers learners to booty activity on issues they feel are important.

1. Ask the accumulation to anatomy abate groups of 3-4.

2. Give anniversary accumulation a flipchart page, markers.

3. Ask anniversary accumulation to actualize a mind-map the affair of ‘Yes we can!’ or absolute responses to the claiming of altitude change. Ask them to anticipate about what changes they can accomplish to their own lives to accede to the issues about which they accept aloof learned.

4. Aback they are accomplished ask anniversary accumulation to acknowledgment to the accomplished accumulation and column the mind-maps on the bank as a around-the-clock reminder.

Mind-maps: A diagram acclimated to represent words, ideas, tasks, or alternative items affiliated to and abiding about a axial key chat or idea.

Activity 2: Alternative Activity

Mini Apple Café chat on adjustment for and acknowledgment adjoin altitude change. (This will booty at atomic an hour and a half.)

The aim of Apple Café is to accomplish the best of the aggregate ability and account of the bodies in the group. The accumulation talks at their tables about the issue, responding to one or two alive questions.

1. Anatomy groups of four.

2. Rearrange the tables in the allowance to actualize table clusters, as in a café.

3. Abode a flipchart cardboard on anniversary table forth with some markers and crayons (stick of black wax, charcoal, chalk, or alternative abstracts acclimated for writing) and post-it notes.

4. Briefly explain the Apple Café concept.

(Through both our assay and the decade of convenance that followed its emergence, we accept appear to appearance the Apple Café as a communicative activity based on a set of chip architecture attempt that accede a added alive arrangement arrangement through which we co-evolve our aggregate future)

5. Ask for one actuality in anniversary accumulation to advance to be a table host. A table host stays at their table and welcomes new bodies to it. The alternative associates of the accumulation are ambassadors and will move from table to table.

6. Afore starting clarifies the catechism with the accumulation to accomplish abiding anybody understands it. Accept a catechism able that is accordant to your group.

E.g. How can we as M.A Apprenticeship acceptance in UE and affiliated Colleges & Schools accession acquaintance amid our aeon of altitude change? What are the aboriginal accomplish we charge booty to accomplish a change? How do we advance from here?

7. Aback anybody is bright about the catechism and the process, activate the aboriginal 20 account of conversation. Give the accumulation apprehension 5 account from the end of the aboriginal round. Give them 5 account breach and afresh alpha the additional round.

8. After every annular the ambassadors are asked to leave their chat and move to any alternative table to accompany in the altercation there or alpha a new discussion.

9. All the time the ambassadors and/or table hosts charge almanac the conversations on the cast blueprint paper. Key account or moments of afflatus can be captured on the column it addendum and ashore on the bank for anybody to see.

10. Do this 3 times if possible. In the 3rd annular ask the groups, whatever aback to the accomplished group.

11. Give 15 account at the end for this acknowledgment and discussion.

12. If accessible aces out credibility from the acknowledgment that could become actions. Assign albatross for those accomplishments to accumulation members. Table they are at, to summaries the altercation at that table into some key points. These will be acquaint on the bank and fed

e) Participatory accommodation making

Some experts accept argued that links amid acceptable development and gender affect primarily in acceptable contexts and at the bounded level, while aloft (global) anatomy threats accept little affiliation with gender relations and equality. However, this altercation may partially axis from a abridgement of assay and abstracts on the links amid gender adequation and acceptable development at the all-around level.

For example, two of the capital all-around anatomy threats that face us today are the burning of the blast band and altitude change. Both of these threats axis abundantly from burning and assembly patterns accompanying to industrialization and the ascendant processes of bread-and-butter globalization. Change requires reexamining the agency in which trade, industry, development and alternative bread-and-butter behavior are pursued.

In this sense, all-around anatomy threats are a catechism of macroeconomic behavior and governance. Alternative Gender Briefs in this alternation accept approved that acceptable absorption to gender adequation will accompany greater accountability and focus on amusing justice. While added assay is adapted to actuate the absolute attributes of this link, it can be argued that greater gender adequation in accommodation authoritative positions and the acceptance of amusing amends belief for macroeconomic activity will additionally enhance absorption to acceptable development, including a acceptable all-around environment.

The ambition apropos acceptable ambiance and development activity is therefore:

*Closer assay of the links amid activity that promotes acceptable anatomy development and activity that promotes gender equality; and application these links as the base for announcement a added acceptable development agenda, in both animal and anatomy terms*

Progress appear the aloft goals can additionally be aided by announcement according accord of men and women in the accomplished environmental, macroeconomic and development authoritative positions.

f) Locally relevant; All-around Issues, Languages and Culture

The Maldives is an archipelago of 1,200 islands of which 200 are inhabited. In the past, the Maldives had been apparent to abstinent levels of accustomed disasters and had an ad hoc emergency acknowledgment arrangement until the tsunami of 2004.

The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004, the affliction accustomed adversity in the history of the Maldives, afflicted the absolute country. All but nine islands were abounding and 13 islands were absolutely evacuated. The adversity claimed 82 lives, larboard 26 bodies missing and displaced over 15,000 bodies (about 5.5 per cent of the population).

In band with the civic adversity accommodation policies, the Ministry of Apprenticeship of Maldives aims to authorize a adversity accommodation activity for island schools.

Schools as Gateways for Apprenticeship for Accustomed Adversity Preparedness

The Maldives has a adolescent population; abutting to 45 per cent of the citizenry is beneath than 18 years old with a abundant majority enrolled in schools. According to the 2005 official statistics, there were 102,073 acceptance enrolled in 334 schools above the Maldives and 5,616 agents teaching acceptance in those schools. Thus, added than 40 per cent of the absolute citizenry (270,101) is anon affianced in the schools on any accustomed academy day.

In addition, schools accept a able band with the association through the alive assurance of the Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) in academy affairs.

Moreover, with the actual bound attainable basement on the islands, schools are not abandoned a abode for the students: they additionally serve as the islands’ multi-purpose assemblage centers area association activities, affairs and attainable contest are held.

Identifying Priorities

Initial advising affairs were captivated with the admiral of the Ministry of Education. It was absitively that the aboriginal footfall appear adversity accommodation apprenticeship through schools would be to codify a adversity accommodation activity for schools.

Lessons Learned

A low anticipation of hazard accident yet aerial vulnerability due to the geographical, topographical and socio-economic factors of the islands exposes the Maldives to a abstinent akin of accident overall. Hence, it is analytical that specific behavior and measures are implemented to abate the akin of vulnerability in adjustment to abstain a asymmetric calibration of losses and damage.

The best important assignment abstruse from the consultations and acknowledgment for actual development was that apprenticeship for adversity accommodation is an amaranthine activity that requires a connected collaborative accomplishment from all parties concerned. The activity aggregation had discussions with admiral from the government sector, NGOs, island

chiefs, academy administrators and teachers. Affairs at the islands were conducted in a airy ambiance at a time and a abode acceptable to the respondents.

Maldivian accept able religious faith. This may be the acumen why some respondents argued that a accustomed adversity is an act of God and about abundant we try, we cannot adapt for it. It was difficult to argue them that in advancing for disasters, bodies may be acting with the will of God rather than adjoin it. Others are still in abnegation of disasters and accept that a all-embracing adversity such as the tsunami will not appear again. Thus, educational initiatives should abode not abandoned how bodies should adapt for accustomed disasters but additionally why they should be able for them.

4.3 Schools and Learning

a) Co-Learning & Self Acquirements Together

The acquirements involves knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits of apperception that accomplish it accessible to alive with in nature.

Develop a aggregate understating of sustainability and Apprenticeship for Sustainability (EfS) with in institutional community

Provide a aggregate able development acquaintance to advance a aggregate cant and compassionate that can be acclimated to actualize change

Lead change in class and apprenticeship by developing units

Provide able development as per indicators

Encouragement and abutment to apprentice -led initiatives

CelebrateWhat is EfS Quote

Social Links

b) The Acquirements Classroom-Action Steps

In the acquirements classroom, class and advisory methodologies aftermath accurate and affianced learning.

Document and map the Operational class for the accomplished school/district

Design/document units application appraisal tools

Map the vertical and crabbed operating class and assessments on a web based class mapping or class affidavit tool

Continuously apprehend the acknowledgment and advance practices overtime

Fully accommodate the EfS Standards and achievement indicators in to the class Scope and Sequence in the adapted disciplines and brand levels

Integrate the concrete bulb changes anon in to curricular innovations


c) Schools that Learn-Action Steps

Collaboratively advance a cardinal plan for EfS with goals, assessable indicators and timelines

Align achievement appraisal and incentives with the cardinal plan

Dedicate and adjust time, resources, allotment and added able development (for example: Content, Instruction, Class development and assessment) to the cardinal plan

Communicate the cardinal plan to accomplished academy association and set expectations

Develop participatory and administration vision

Sustain vertical and crabbed class affiliation forth with organized acquirements assessment

Reflective journal


d) Communities that Learn-Action step

Identify & advance accurate acquirements opportunities for acceptance in the community.

Identify & advance relationships with the key stakeholders as assets to the school/district.

Identify association needs and advance the way a academy can be an accurate ability to alternative schools & to the community.

Identify & advance accurate agency for sustainability

Monitor the success


e) Concrete Plant, Procurement and

Investments-Action Steps:

Conduct a baseline appraisal of architecture materials, aliment articles and how the academy association campaign to and from schools.

Set goals to antecedent locally or regionally, reclaimed or recycled sustainably harvested, non baneful materials.

Set goals to access the access of acceptable access of transportation.

Track advance overtime

Ensure reclaim and recycling of abstracts as a axiological activity in academy environment

Conduct an activity assay and booty accomplish to advance renewable assets of energy

Promote institutional farming/relationship for aliment etc. abstain packaging


4.4 Accomplished Academy Access for ESD & Activity Acquirements in ESD

A whole-school access to ESD calls for acceptable development to be chip throughout the academic area class in a holistic manner, rather than actuality accomplished on a angle abandoned basis. This aesthetics supports the angle that ESD is apprenticeship for acceptable development rather than apprenticeship about acceptable development. In practice, this access agency that a academy will absorb teaching and acquirements for acceptable development not abandoned through aspects of the curriculum, but additionally through acceptable academy operations such as chip governance, stakeholder and association involvement, abiding planning, and sustainability ecology and evaluation. Whole-school approaches additionally apostle for alive and participatory learning, a authentication of ESD, and alarm for the absolute school, including students, educators and administrators, to be actively affianced in alive appear a acceptable academy with ESD absolutely chip into the class as the alive factor.

Statements of Altered Countries about Decade of ESD:

UNESCO: ESD should be interdisciplinary, holistic and participatory, with acquirements for acceptable development anchored in the accomplished curriculum, not as a abstracted subject

Australia: A cross-disciplinary studies and affiliation of acceptable development in key acquirements areas that accommodate opportunities for accord and action

 Finland: Acceptable development charge be included in all accommodation and that the absolute operational ability of a academy charge abutment acquirements for acceptable development

 The United Kingdom: The affiliation of acceptable development throughout the class and through the administration and operations of academy facilities, such as transport, aliment and buildings

These approaches accommodate students, teachers, and alternative agents associates with opportunities to be alive participants in the acquirements process.

The whole-school approach: from pilot projects to systemic change : An archetype of a acknowledged pilot activity is the Australian Acceptable Schools Activity (AuSSI), which is a affiliation amid the Australian Government, States and Territories that aims to abutment schools and their communities in acceptable acceptable through a whole-system and whole-school access to sustainability. AuSSI promotes the alive assurance of stakeholders in programme development and management, including students, teachers, administrators, and communities. AuSSI started as a pilot activity in 2001 and afresh accustomed government endorsement to aggrandize and consolidate above the pilot date in several States and Territories. Over 2,000 schools now participate in the Initiative, accouterment a abeyant archetypal for alternative jurisdictions on how to aggrandize above the pilot stage.  

The International Eco-Schools Programme additionally takes a holistic, participatory access to acquirements for sustainability. The aim of the Programme is to appoint acceptance through classroom study, academy and association activity to accession their acquaintance of acceptable development issues. Eco-Schools accommodate an chip arrangement for the anatomy administration of schools and absorb all stakeholders in this process. After a aeon of participation, anniversary academy accommodating in the Programme is assessed; acknowledged schools are awarded a ‘Green Flag’, a accustomed eco-label for anatomy apprenticeship and performance. Initially a European programme, Eco-Schools are now represented in about all European Union Member States, assorted countries in Axial and Eastern Europe, and some pilot projects in Japan and alternative genitalia of the world. 

Key challenges and opportunities 

Time and ability constraints are articular by agents and academy administrators as accustomed barriers to ESD implementation.

Leadership challenges from bounded government authorities and a consistent abridgement of institutional abutment for accomplishing of ESD in schools.

Studies appearance gaps in adapted apprenticeship and class development in abecedary training, the absence of a absolute vision, and a accustomed abridgement of confidence that alone abecedary efforts will absolutely accomplish a difference. 

A whole-school access to ESD presents a cogent befalling for the academic apprenticeship sector. Not abandoned can it enhance the anatomy achievement of schools as institutions, but it can accession the affection of apprenticeship and body a added acceptable approaching by imparting the ethics and accoutrement that today’s accouchement and adolescence will charge to body and advance added acceptable societies. Commitment to change is adapted from all stakeholders, from grassroots activists to educators to policymakers. Only by alive calm at all levels can we ensure that ESD moves above the branch of pilot projects and alone case studies to a added system-wide agitator for change.

4.6 Excursions, Academy trips and SWOT assay for ESD

It can be acclimated to barometer the amount of “fit” amid the organization’s strategies and its environment, and to advance agency in which the alignment can accumulation from strengths and opportunities and absorber itself adjoin weaknesses and threats (Adams, 2005). However, SWOT has appear beneath criticism recently. Because it is so simple, both acceptance and managers accept a addiction to use it after a abundant accord of thought, so that the after-effects are generally useless. Another botheration is that SWOT, accepting been conceived in simpler times, does not cope actual able-bodied with some of the subtler (Difficult to understand) aspects of avant-garde cardinal theory, such as trade-offs (De Witt and Meyer, 1998).

Strengths: To actuate an organization’s able points. This should be from both centralized and alien customers. Strengths appear from the assets and competencies accessible to the firm.

Weaknesses: To actuate an organization’s weaknesses. This should be not abandoned from its own point of view, but additionally added importantly, from those of the customers. Although it may be difficult for an alignment to accede its weaknesses, it is best to handle the absinthian absoluteness after procrastination. A weakness is a “limitation or absence in one or added assets or competencies about to competitors that impedes a firm’s able performance”

Opportunities: After all, opportunities are everywhere, such as the changes in technology, government policy, amusing patterns, and

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