Today, added than 600 actor bodies in the apple alive with some anatomy of affliction and added than 400 actor of those bodies alive in developing countries (Sen & Wolfensohn, 2004, online). Sen and Wolfensohn (2004) additionally arise that in the developing world, 10-20% of the apple citizenry could be categorized as bodies with disabilities (PWDs) in some form. Moreover, the Apple Bank estimates that 20% of the world’s atomic bodies are PWDs, and tend to be admired as the best disadvantaged bodies in their communities (UNCRPD, 2008, online). This admiration about the abjection accompanying to affliction affair was arise at the UN Assemblage on the Rights of Bodies with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in May, 2008. The Bread-and-butter and Amusing Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) arise that:
“Despite contempo achievements, bodies with disabilities abide the distinct bigger area of the atomic served and best discriminated adjoin in about all societies in the Asia Pacific region.” (UNESCAP, 2006, online)
In general, best developing countries do not accept statistical advice on bodies with disabilities (PWDs). This abridgement of statistical advice is explained partly by the capricious allocation of the attributes and the admeasurement of disabilities in these countries. This capricious allocation makes the ante of affliction in abounding developing countries arise awfully low (Mont, 2005, p. 9). The aforementioned action altitude administer to Myanmar, the focus country of this study. In fact, above-mentioned to 2009, no authentic statistics existed on the admeasurement of disabilities in the Myanmar population.
In 2009, the Aboriginal Myanmar Civic Affliction Assay was conducted by the Department of Amusing Welfare (DSW) and The Leprosy Mission All-embracing (TLMI). The assay showed that in Myanmar 2.32% of the citizenry has at atomic one anatomy of disability. This prevalence translated to about 1,276,000 bodies alive with disabilities or one actuality with a affliction in every 10 households. Amid them, 68.2% of PWDs had advancement difficulties. This accumulation comprised of the bigger accumulation in acceding of affliction classifications. The additional bigger accumulation as the 13.3% of all PWDs in Myanmar was arise as accepting afterimage difficulties. The audition difficulties accumulation constituted added than 10.4% of the disabled citizenry in the country, and the acquirements difficulties accumulation constituted 8.1%. From these criterion figures, the United Nations estimated that added than three actor bodies are physically broken in Myanmar.
Figure 1: Type of Affliction in Myanmar 2008-09
Sources: DSW and TLMI, Aboriginal Myanmar Civic Affliction Survey, 2010, p. 14.
Divided by gender, the cardinal of males with disabilities (54.65%) was college than the cardinal of females with disabilities (45.44%). (DSW, and TLMI, 2010, p. 14) According to the age group, the accomplished allotment of PWDs was begin to be of alive age (16-65 years of age) and the additional accomplished allotment of PWDs was begin to be of ancestry age (5-15 years of age) that translated to about 248,948 accouchement who accept alive with one anatomy of disabilities (DSW and TLMI, 2008-09, p. 14). In addition, the Affliction Prevalence Amount of earlier bodies is 19.33% while earlier bodies (above 65 years of age) accord 5.58% of the absolute citizenry in Myanmar (CSO, 2006, online).
Education is universally accustomed as one of the best axiological architecture blocks for animal development and abbreviation abjection (World Bank, 2012, online). That is because of the absolute educational furnishings of socioeconomic behavior such as productivity, standards of alive and accession demographic characteristics of all citizens in a nation. It is a axiological advance for acceptable development that inherent animal rights and alarmingly appear the bigotry that threatens all accession rights. Therefore, civic obligations accomplish the accouterment of apprenticeship for all bodies according to the attributes of their individual’s needs and accommodation (Okech, 1993).
1.1.1 Statement of the Problem
In Myanmar condition, PWDs are one of the marginalized groups with abounding amusing issues. The best analytical affair that charcoal to be addressed for PWDs in Myanmar is their advancing attack for educational opportunities. Apprenticeship is axial to the abundance of PWDs, but in Myanmar they generally face cogent obstacles to a abounding education. While the government of Myanmar subscribes to a action of Across-the-board Apprenticeship on the books, in practice, best of the PWDs accretion little or no account from the across-the-board apprenticeship (IE) action admitting the abode due to bereft resources. PWDs face abounding barriers to admission apprenticeship mainstreaming arrangement such as benightedness of the community, abjection and remoteness. While some of these barriers are affiliated to their disability, others are artlessly the aftereffect of amusing prejudices (Heron, Robert and Murray, 2003, p. 5). Because of these barriers, one third of the PWDs are benighted in Myanmar (DSW and TLMI, 2010, p. 41). In particular, seeing and audition disabled bodies accept beneath affairs to admission basal education. There is a affecting aberration in the educational opportunities provided for disabled and non disabled accouchement about the country. This affair should be advised a analytical claiming of PWDs’ rights aegis in Myanmar.
According to the admiration of UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics (2008), the articulacy amount of Myanmar stands at 91.9% (males: 94.7%, females: 89.2%) and the government allocated account for apprenticeship is alone about 1.3% of GDP per year (SEAMEO, 2006, online). However, the advance of amalgam the apprenticeship opportunities amid PWDs has been added difficult to actuate due to their marginalization as able-bodied as poor action accomplishing and chase up in Myanmar. According to the Myanmar Civic Affliction Assay of DSW and TLMI, about about 22% of PWDs had accomplished accessory apprenticeship but did not complete the aerial academy in 2008-09. The amount of PWDs who accomplished college apprenticeship degrees was acutely rare; alone 2.2% of the disabled citizenry in the country was arise to accept a university amount or above. In acceding of gender, the allotment of females with disabilities who had never abounding academy was college than the males with disabilities. Also, apropos age demographics, added than bisected of the school-aged accouchement with disabilities had never abounding school. The abridgement of able apprenticeship for PWDs has led them to abide at a low accepted of living. In this condition, as bodies after a bookish education, they accept access, if any, alone to unskilled jobs and low assets (JICA, 2009, p. 21).
Figure 2: Educational Attainment of disabled bodies in Myanmar
Sources: DSW and TLMI, Aboriginal Myanmar Civic Affliction Survey, 2010, p. 21.
The abstraction of this assay is the primary and lower accessory school-aged accouchement with disabilities (CWDs) in Myanmar, from bristles to twelve years of age. These accouchement are the victims of bigotry and stigma by continued ignored, shunned, and abandoned from their community. By the acquaintance in accession countries, a able apprenticeship for CWDs not alone become association but additionally become admired ancestors associates and citizens and can accomplish a akin of accomplishment and adeptness enjoyed by their non-disabled peers. Educational appropriately is not aloof a civilian responsibility; it is an advance in animal assets that will accolade the nation as able-bodied as its alone citizens.
There are abounding all-embracing frameworks and agreements that abutment the educational rights for disabled children. The UN Accepted Declaration on Animal Rights, appear in 1948, spells out the accepted adapted to apprenticeship (see Annex 1). Article 26 states that,
“Everyone has the adapted to education. Apprenticeship shall be free, at atomic in the elementary and axiological stages.” (UDHR, Article 26)
Also, the United Nation’s Assemblage on the Rights of the Adolescent (CRC) mentions that schools should abetment all accouchement with a child-centered apprenticeship able of affair the child’s needs. Myanmar ratified the CRC in 1991. Afterward the ratification, the Myanmar Adolescent Law was allowable in 1993 and the Civic Committee on the Rights of the Adolescent (NCRC) was formed in October 1993. The CRC states that “all states parties charge to admit the adapted of bodies with disabilities to apprenticeship with a appearance to acumen this adapted after bigotry and on the base of according opportunity” (see Annex 2).
Another all-embracing framework that supports educational rights of accouchement with disabilities is “Education for All” (EFA). In 1990, the Jomtien Apple Appointment on “Education for All” set up the framework of EFA as a celebrated action and a all-around charge to a new and broader angle on basal education. The EFA action emphasizes greater access, disinterestedness and accomplishment in learning. According to Apprenticeship for All (EFA) appraisal of the Apple Apprenticeship Forum in Dakar, Senegal (1999), best countries adopted the EFA Plan as a abiding apprenticeship development plan for the years 2000 to 2015. It was based on the framework of the Dakar EFA Goals and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), forth with accession UN agencies, and a cardinal of all-embracing and bounded NGOs, accept been alive appear accomplishing this ambition by abacus to the efforts at the country level. Yet, unfortunately, abounding countries could not accomplish their targets of Educational Development abnormally in atomic developing countries, like Myanmar.
Myanmar formulated the Apprenticeship for All Civic Action Plan (EFA-NAP) in 2003. This plan aimed to advance the basal apprenticeship area with according access, acceptable affection and appliance from primary to lower accessory levels for all school-aged children. The EFA-NAP aimed to abate benightedness ante of PWDs by implementing the bookish and non bookish apprenticeship arrangement through the abstraction of across-the-board education. Across-the-board apprenticeship is an admission gluttonous to abode the participatory acquirements action for all children, and boyhood who feel attainable to marginalization and exclusion (UNESCO, 2008, online).
In an accession all-embracing acceding that is aimed at convalescent the lives of PWDs, Myanmar additionally ratified the Assemblage on the Rights of Bodies with Disabilities (CRPD). The United Nations formally agreed to the CRPD on 13th December, 2006 in adjustment to assure and enhance the rights and opportunities of the world’s estimated 650 actor disabled people. Out of the eleven countries in Southeast Asia region, there are six countries; Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Thailand, ratified the CRPD and accession four countries alive the Convention. Beneath this convention, PWDs are afforded according rights with others, for example, the adapted to education; the adapted to employment; the adapted to cultural life; the adapted to own and accede property; and the adapted to alive after bigotry in marriage, childbearing, etc. Myanmar ratified the CRPD on 7th December, 2011. The acceptance is meant to ensure an across-the-board apprenticeship arrangement at all levels and constant acquirements directed to animal development abeyant with account to the rights for all PWDs.
However, Myanmar generally charcoal a rather brusque country for PWDs. Myanmar does not accept the civic action on the rights of bodies with disabilities. From 1993 to 2002, the Axial Law Scrutinizing Committee advised the affliction laws in Myanmar but the adapted law for PWDs is still actuality drafting by the time the country ratifies CRPD in 2011. Also, the association supports that accommodate the accessibility of accord and the efforts of aid capability for PWDs are limited. Moreover, the widely-held acceptable Myanmar acceptance that bodies are disabled as abuse for bad accomplishments done in a antecedent activity leaves PWDs neglected, beheld as aberrant and advised inferior. Therefore, best CWDs face bigotry aural their communities in acceding of amusing functioning, education, recreational and religious activities. These civic abrogating attitudes are the basal barrier of according educational admission for CWDs.
According to the facts of UNICEF’s declared that about 150 actor accouchement about the apple accept a affliction and the country abode of MOE claimed that about about 20,000 acceptance with disabilities were able to appear in bookish schools and beneath than 1,500 had admission to an apprenticeship in adapted schools in 2007/08 academy year that a bit statistics on the admeasurement of the exclusion from apprenticeship faced by CWDs (MOE, 2008, p.1). These facts appearance that CWDs in Myanmar are disproportionately afar from basal apprenticeship that enables them to be added aggressive for the advanced ambit of approaching income-generating opportunities.
The acceptable acceptance about apprenticeship is that basal apprenticeship plays a decidedly important role and deserves the accomplished antecedence for all children. It is the key of animal rights such as abandon from subjugation, abhorrence and appetite and additionally the able weapon to action abjection of all PWDs. Moreover, it increases the productivity, amusing and political development advance of Myanmar and gives the adventitious to advance the lives of CWDs. Basal apprenticeship is not alone acquirements how to read, abode and calculate, additionally encompassing the absolute faculty of bookish and non-formal apprenticeship at any date of life. Basal apprenticeship is not a assured abstraction in best developing countries that restricts as the aboriginal date of bookish and adapted ancestry of the primary level.
Today’s exclusion accouchement become tomorrow’s marginalized youth. Abounding CWDs admission boyhood with the basal abilities all-important to absolutely accompany in the association that represents a huge barrier to accomplishing the millennium ambition of primary apprenticeship for all accouchement by 2015. Also, basal apprenticeship is best generally a all-important footfall to accept the risks and responsibilities of their approaching lives abnormally for CWDs. However, Myanmar across-the-board apprenticeship action accomplishing processes cannot accord absolutely agreement for CWDs who are still denied their axiological adapted to education.
1.1.2 Apprenticeship and Bodies with Disabilities in Myanmar
The history of apprenticeship for PWDs in Myanmar has apparent abundant affairs fabricated by the government for the account of PWDs but has yet to acquisition success in implementation.
After accepting adeptness in 1948, the government launched the new apprenticeship arrangement as allotment of the “Welfare Plans” in 1953. In that plan, the government advised to brainwash PWDs with cogent abstruse technologies as rehabilitation casework for them (Office of the SUPDT, 1953, p. 7). In addition, the chic for the accompaniment schools alien abstruse accommodation according to bounded needs rather than a unified accomplishment system. This arrangement alone brought about an academic-vocational divide, an urban-rural divide, and an asperity of befalling for all accouchement (Thein Lwin, 2000, p. 8).
In 1962, the arrangement of apprenticeship in Myanmar was reorganized as the basal apprenticeship system. It had three levels of apprenticeship amounting to a absolute of 11 years/ grades: bristles years of primary akin (Grade 1 to 5), four years of accessory (middle) academy (Grade 6 to 9) and two years of aerial academy (Grade 10 to 11) (Thein Lwin, 2000, p. 9). In 1974, the government afflicted the constitution. In that constitution, “Article 152” declared that “every aborigine shall accept the adapted to education” and that “basic apprenticeship would be compulsory” (Thein Lwin, 2000, p. 11). The adapted to apprenticeship was apparently for all; however, it was a altered adventure for PWDs in Myanmar.
Based on a UNICEF abode from 2000, at atomic 40% of Myanmar accouchement never abounding academy and about 75% bootless to complete primary apprenticeship afore 1990 (Khin Maung Kyi, et al, 2000, p. 146). Although there is no breakdown of statistics for CWDs, based on the accepted bearings in Myanmar, it is safe to accept that the cogent majority of CWDs fell into this benighted category.
The Myanmar government continues, with civic plans, to highlight apprenticeship as important for the nation. The country abode of Myanmar Apprenticeship Development Action Focusing on Across-the-board Education, 2008, declared that Myanmar acceptable acceptance about apprenticeship is that apprenticeship is “a basal animal need, additionally an basal allotment of the affection of life, and a adherent of amusing ethics and an apparatus of bread-and-butter efficiency” (p. 11). In contempo times, the Ministry of Apprenticeship (MOE) has adopted the EFA-NAP plan for abbreviation the benightedness ante of PWDs by implementing the approved and adapted apprenticeship system.
As explained previously, across-the-board apprenticeship was adopted at the Salamanca Apple Appointment on Adapted Needs Apprenticeship and the Dakar Apple Apprenticeship Forum (2000). That appointment affirmed that all approved schools with across-the-board apprenticeship are the best able agency of alive discrimination, creating affable communities, architecture an across-the-board association and accomplishing apprenticeship for all. (Salamanca Statement, Article 2) Across-the-board apprenticeship arrangement is advised to aftermath an candid arrangement of bookish and adapted education.
1.2 Assay Questions
This assay intends to acquisition out “How can across-the-board apprenticeship action accommodated the challenges of bigger apprenticeship opportunities for PWDs in Myanmar and what are the factors that attenuate the apprenticeship development befalling for PWDs in primary and lower accessory academy level?”
1.3 Objectives of the Research
In adjustment to amuse the assay questions, the researcher sets four cardinal objectives of the acreage research. The afterward are the objectives of the research;
To assay the abstraction of across-the-board apprenticeship and its action framework and accomplishing in Myanmar
To appraise the government’s and stakeholders’ perceptions on across-the-board education
To assay problems of accessibility to apprenticeship faced by PWDs
To assay an adapted architecture of across-the-board apprenticeship for accouchement with disabilities
1.4 Conceptual Framework
Inclusive Apprenticeship is a abstraction congenital aloft a rights-based approach. This assay framework covers the IE action framework and account through to the accomplishing date and additionally assesses the allowances of the action accomplishing for PWDs. For allegory the IE framework, the researcher based the assay on two UNESCO guidelines on IE: The Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Admission to Apprenticeship for All, 2006 and Action Guidelines for Admittance in Education, 2009. The Guideline for Inclusion: Ensuring Admission to EFA focuses on the changes bare in the academy ambience with account to teachers, parents, educational action makers and curricula. Additionally the Action Guidelines for Admittance in Apprenticeship accommodate advice and acquaintance for policymakers, educators, NGOs as a apparatus of alteration and formulating EFA plans. Both of them are based on the absolute needs of the bookish and adapted schools, the infrastructures and the cardinal affairs of IE. According to these two guidelines, key characteristics of IE will be analyzed in this research.
Equitable admission for PWDs agency acquirements accomplishment and the following of arete in all aspects of their apprenticeship after discrimination. This convenance rises aloft the across-the-board compassionate of concrete location, and incorporates basal ethics that animate participation, accord and alternation in both boilerplate and adapted schools (UNESCO, 2006, p. 15). In this research, the altitude of candid admission agency the proportional accretion of apprentice with disabilities that are enrolled in, accessory and commutual basal apprenticeship akin and compulsatory primary and accessory apprenticeship on an according base with others in the communities.
Quality of basal apprenticeship is the primary affair in the assessments of acquirements outcomes. In attempting to appraise acquirements outputs, there is a accident of artlessly demography a numeracy of acceptance and articulacy abilities of PWDs as a admeasurement of the appulse of IE. Such altitude charge focus on teachers’ apprenticeship accumbent to across-the-board approaches in adjustment to adviser the characteristics of acceptance with disabilities, the curriculum, teaching methods, accommodation development of PWDs and the assurance of connected acquirements (UNESCO, 2006, p. 16). These after-effects are interrelated, and abased on an chip development to ensure that anniversary apprentice with disabilities is able to participate finer in society.
In the case of account efficiency, this assay can focus on altered area efforts that are advised to strengthen the attainable casework for acceptance with disabilities. If PWDs are to participate to their fullest capacity, it is acute that casework and supports are in abode based on alone apprentice needs, the attributes of the school, and the adeptness of architecture professionals. The Action Guidelines for Admittance in Apprenticeship declared that all acceptance with disabilities can appear schools in the atomic akin ambiance attainable abnormally in the approved classroom (UNESCO, 2009, p. 21). In this research, the account adeptness of IE is advised by the admeasurement of the chic and assets attainable in structurally safe classrooms, a businesslike ambience and incentives for agents to pay absorption to acceptance with disabilities in boilerplate and adapted schools.
Aid capability for acceptance with disabilities can admission their opportunities of the benefiting the educational casework above primary and accessory schools. They are based on antecedent stages of IE strategies and behavior which aggregate the framework aural the aid allocation and harmonization. Acceptance with disabilities charge some advantageous accessories or some aids and accessories to admission the accepted chic (UNESCO, 2009, p. 11). In this research, the appraisal of aid capability includes the attainable agreeable and advantageous technology such as Braille, ample print, audio and video formats of the curriculum, assurance accent interpreters, and accession advantageous devices.
The accomplishing of the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action takes into application the action through which stakeholder responds for accessing the across-the-board apprenticeship casework such as antecedence setting, action making, and adeptness allocations. This assay will appraise the allowances of the action accomplishing for PWDs with GO and I/LNGOs strategies as follows:
Government (GO): Assessing the action accomplishing for PWDs statistically by attractive at academy acceptance abstracts and achievement ante and acceptable the abounding abeyant development of bookish and adapted education. Allegory the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action by researching the government’s account for the program’s that aimed for added attainable on Basal Apprenticeship in bookish and adapted schools, as well. This is a analytical agency in free the success of the action implementation.
International or bounded Non Government Organizations (I/LNGOs) and Disabled Bodies Organizations (DPOs): This assay will investigate the NGOs’ and DPOs’ approaches on the ambience of basal apprenticeship and accomplishing strategies for alteration the attitudes of the community, ambience up the authoritative supports, accommodation architecture of teachers, amalgam the adeptness of acceptance with disabilities. The researcher can additionally assay the angle of I/LNGOs and DPOs that assignment with PWDs on the government’s IE policy.
People with Disabilities: This assay tends to acquisition out the allowances and the challenges of the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action for PWDs and allowances on the implementations of I/LNGOs on the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action with the above achievements and constraints.
Challenges for PWDs: For the challenges faced by PWDs in accepting apprenticeship opportunities and assessing the accord of PWDs in the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action accomplishing process, the researcher will use an EFA flagship of The Adapted to Apprenticeship for PWDs: Appear Inclusion, 2004.
To assay altered alternatives, this abstraction will attack to assay the arresting apprenticeship designs for PWDs acclimated in altered countries, namely,
The chip apprenticeship design; this educational architecture is based on in approved classes accumulation with adapted apprenticeship services. It can advance added admittance for acceptance with disabilities with their non-disabled aeon and actualize added bookish capability of for their continued learning. However, the bereft abilities of the agents and classroom ambience led to the corruption for acceptance with disabilities in bookish schools.
The abundant apprenticeship design; it is advised with a altered admission to advice disabled accouchement alone at the atomic akin environment. In this design, the agents and account providers advance the student’s acquirements in an adapted abode by free the child’s action and reviewing the child’s accepted akin of performance. It additionally considers the role of parents and adapted casework of the adolescent needs.
The accession apprenticeship design; this architecture focuses on free basal acquirements elements that will advice the acceptance with disabilities as home-schooling. It serves a advanced array of interests, backgrounds and abilities of acceptance with disabilities. Their parents can accept the chic that apparel the needs of the children, and accord added time to accommodation that charge it at home. However, the parents would charge to be able and accommodating to do this, because this apprenticeship architecture has alone depended on the parents’ enthusiastic, behindhand of the needs of the child, and their apprenticeship level.
The adapted apprenticeship design; it addresses the students’ differences and needs by accordance with their disabilities. Adapted schools accommodate with the specific curriculum, equipments, and attainable settings for acceptance with disabilities. It can abate the amusing stigmas with altered advisory strategies such as accommodations, response, and schedule.
Each apprenticeship architecture represents the action of across-the-board education. Strategies of accomplishing IE by these designs and their gaps will be assessed. From this analysis, the researcher will accord recommendations for the best adapted apprenticeship architecture for PWDs in Myanmar at the end of this research.
In reality, best of the PWDs in Myanmar cannot absolutely account from the Across-the-board Apprenticeship action admitting the abode because of the bereft resources. This is based on the botheration of across-the-board apprenticeship action conception and accomplishing for PWDs. There are several barriers to extensive the ambition of EFA. The accouterment of training for agents of acceptance with disabilities has been bound and abounding agents from bookish schools feel extemporaneous to advise acceptance with disabilities. Additionally, the country additionally struggles with bound facilities, aerial abjection rates, and attrition to change in acceding of the association attitudes appear PWDs. To affected these challenges, the country needs to advance the affection of adapted apprenticeship casework and to aggrandize the availability of these services.
In the Myanmar context, an abundant educational architecture can break abounding issues currently faced by acceptance with disabilities back it has a specific ambition for across-the-board apprenticeship for CWDs. In accession contexts it has been accepted to enhance the capability of student-centered approaches, and aided in the alternative of adapted acquirements styles of anniversary student. In this design, the agents can accord with accurate techniques for teaching CWDs that abode students’ alone needs. It can abate some ecology barriers for CWDs and the amount of authoritative new accessories or adapted schools cost-effective. By agency of alive with association cadre abutment anon some cost-saving strategies to abetment CWDs. Also, the able role of parents and agents can accord added inclusion. Supporters of alone apprenticeship architecture accept that this architecture allows for application of how disabilities arrest the student’s acquirements and development of skills. The best practices of abundant apprenticeship can advice accept the atomic akin adjustment and able to participate in bookish academy activities for that apprentice with disabilities. In this way, acceptance with disabilities accept specialized abetment and advance the abandon to collaborate with his or her peers.
For a bigger action setting, alive accord of PWDs in the government’s apprenticeship action formulating and implementing processes can accompany their issues and the basis causes of their problems anon to the government.
1.6 Assay Methodology
This abstraction will be conducted in Yangon Division. Yangon, amid in the affection of Lower Myanmar, is an authoritative arena and the above civic basal burghal of Myanmar. It has 33 townships with about six actor bodies and is the bigger burghal in Myanmar. Yangon has the best apprenticeship accessories for implementing the EFA-NAP, for accessing primary apprenticeship opportunities, as able-bodied as alms affection apprenticeship for all students. Also, Yangon has a lot of opportunities for accouchement who charge adapted affliction and absorption to admission Basal Apprenticeship in bookish and adapted schools. This is the civic charge of Myanmar for accomplishing EFA goals. Moreover, some disabled accouchement in Yangon, who accept accelerating from the primary schools in the adapted apprenticeship system, can accompany the accustomed or bookish average and aerial schools.
In Myanmar, there are seven adapted schools for disabled acceptance by allied with GO and I/LNGOs, best of them are in Yangon.
For dark children, there are three schools; two schools in Yangon and one academy in Sagaing, the aerial allotment of Myanmar. The academy in Kyeemyintdaing Township, Yangon and the academy in Sagaing are both run by the Department of Amusing Welfare (DSW), beneath the Ministry of Amusing Welfare, Relief and Resettlement.
Also, there are three schools for deafened accouchement from brand one to seven. Two schools are clandestine such as Mary Chapman clandestine academy in Yangon and the Immanuel Academy for the Deafened in Kalay and accession one government academy in Mandalay. After the acceptance from these schools anesthetized brand seven, they can abide their apprenticeship in accustomed government schools.
The Academy for Disabled Accouchement in Mayangone Township in Yangon is operated by the DSW. That academy accepts both physically and mentally disabled accouchement from the age of six to eighteen and teaches the accepted chic up to brand five. In addition, some disabled accouchement who accelerating from the primary schools of adapted apprenticeship can accompany the accustomed or bookish average and aerial schools.
The IE affairs was accomplished as the Myayadanar, a assured primary school, which was founded in 1993 and now has become as No.25 Basal Apprenticeship Primary Academy in Yangon. It is one of the participants of MOE’s accomplishing for IE.
Therefore, this assay concentrates on all types of disabled acceptance in primary and lower accessory akin from brand one to seven as bookish and adapted education.
This abstraction uses qualitative methods in adjustment to accept the absolute situations or abnormality that occurred in the ambition association for the cogent strengths or advantages aural a bound time frame. In that bound time frame, this assay alone concentrates on basal Apprenticeship akin (primary and lower accessory level) of bookish and adapted schools. Key adviser interviews will be acclimated to acquiesce the researcher to get acumen into the adventure of PWDs’ admission to IE and obstacles of action implementation.
Data acquisition will be from accessory and primary sources. Primary sources of abstracts accommodate two processes; alone and accumulation interviews. For alone interview, the respondents are alive for the affliction affair in the anxious departments, decidedly the DSW and agents from boilerplate and adapted schools beneath the Department of Basal Education. In addition, some assembly from INGOs and some civilian association organizations who are alive in affliction acreage will be conducted interviews for their angle on the