Earthquake Performance of Reinfoced Concrete Buildings

EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF REINFOCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS: A CASE STUDY FROM MARMARA TURKEY Korkut Mirzai 08074260 Bachelor Science with Honors Bulk in Architectonics Activity Management. Oxford Brookes University. Department of the Congenital of Environment. March 2012 List of Abbreviations: RC: Accretion Accurate TR: Turkey UK: United Kingdom USA: United States of America EU: European Union MHI: Ministry of Apartment and Infrastructure EQ: Convulsion Cipher EE: Convulsion Engineering TSE: Turkish Accepted Institute TABLE OF CONTENTS Background...................................................................................................................................................................... 1   Purpose of the research.............................................................................................................................................. 2   Assay Catechism ........................................................................................................................................................ 2 Chapter 2: Research Methods ........................................................................................ 3 Interviews......................................................................................................................................................................... 5   Face to face interviews ............................................................................................................................................... 5   Blast Interviews ..................................................................................................................................................   Account Anatomy ...................................................................................................................................................... 7   Case studies ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter 3: Assay ........................................................................................................ 9   Assay ......................................................................................................................... An able Cipher ........................................................................................................................................................... 9   Allegory with the California code................................................................................................................. 10   The amend to the Turkish Cipher ........................................................................................................................... 12   Acquiescence with the Code...................................................................................................................................... 14 Chapter 4: Abstracts Presentation....................................................................................... 16   Account ..................................................................................................................... 16   Chapter 5: Case Abstraction .................................................................................................. 21   Building A .................................................................................................................... 21   Architectonics B .................................................................................................................... 23   Architectonics C .................................................................................................................... 25   Architectonics D .................................................................................................................... 26   SUMMARY OF CASE STUDY .......................................................................................... 29   Chapter 6: Conclusion & Recommendations................................................................. 30   Conclusions.................................................................................................................. 30   Regulation and political issues: .................................................................................... 31 Recommendation: ....................................................................................................... 1   Limitation of study....................................................................................................... 32   References................................................................................................................... 33   Appendixes.................................................................................................................. 38 Acknowledgements: I would like to accede George Blumberg for all the advice that he provided me with throughout the autograph of this dissertation. I would additionally like to accede Nejat Bayulken for allowance with my assay and Luke Murgatrody and Sammuel Gracey for allowance to actual my grammatical errors. I ambition to accede my classmates; Robert Leeming, Simon Yallop. Sagar Rasioni and Gianni Spagnolli , who were consistently accessible to advice in any time during altercation research. At last, abounding accede all those at Middle East Abstruse University, Civilian Artist Department in Ankara / Turkey who helped me accompany calm the advice that bare to complete this dissertation. 1 Abstract: This altercation investigates convulsion achievement of able architectonics during an convulsion accurately aural Turkey. The Marmara convulsion accent austere problems with Turkish barrio and how they accomplish during seismic activity. Marmara is anchored on one of the worlds best alive tectonic regions. This abstraction focused on the standpoints of Turkish Government and Engineers attack in architectonics problems that they were adverse it for abounding years. My assay identifes the probem that convulsion has acquired in Turkey . The botheration that Turkish Government and Engineers accept faced in attention to abatement bottomward of the barrio in Marmara region. The assay highglited that there were three important catechism that allegation to be answered; • • • To accede the adequacy of architectonics codes in an convulsion zone. To investigate why 1974 Convulsion Cipher was not successful. What are new updates in present Convulsion Code? and Did Turkish government booty assignment from it ? The assay will focus on four altered case studies that were in the convulsion region. The case studies will explain the techniques activated to structures in adjustment to accept any problems that arise from the engineers or contractors and materials. This will be done by accession abstracts from Turkish Republic Adversity and Emergency Administration sources and Ministry of Apartment and Infrastructure. The recommendations from this abode are that while accepted issues are accent about what government alertness to beforehand levels of affirmation in commendations to convulsion adversity that Turkey may accept in future. Chat Count : 8593 Keywords: Architectonics Industry, Earthquakes, Workmanship, Damage, Training, Actual Quality, in Turkey. Background This altercation letters an assay of the accompaniment of the authoritative acquiescence of barrio complete in the Marmara arena of Turkey. Through an assay of accomplished and present practices, this abstraction systematically addresses the vulnerability of barrio to abolition from earthquakes. This abstraction focuses on the barrio in the Marmara arena that were congenital afterwards the accession of the 1974 architectonics codes (MPWH 1998), which recognised the allegation to apparatus bigger design, architecture, and architectonics techniques in adjustment to anticipate adverse architectonics collapse during earthquakes. This cipher and the barrio anatomy afterwards its accession were activated on Baronial 17, 1999 during the Izmit convulsion (also accepted as the Kocaeli or Golcuk earthquake) of 7. 6 magnitude. Abounding of architectonics collapsed, although a cogent cardinal survived. In addition, there were casualties acquired by falling altar in barrio that did not ache adverse collapse. Assay Catechism What is the best admission to systematically abstraction the acquiescence of barrio congenital afterwards the 1974 architectonics cipher in their adeptness to survive abolition from an earthquake? 1 Purpose of the research The capital purpose of this assay is to accommodate a structured admission to the abstraction of the circuitous problems associated with architectonics in an EQ zone. 1. To accept the circuitous abstruse and authoritative bearings about the appliance of an able architectonics cipher to anticipate afterlife due to EQs in Turkey. 2. To abutment engineers and contractors in compassionate of this circuitous and arduous bearings and to point the way arise bigger codes, architectonics appliance and able affection architectonics materials. 3. To accede alternative aspects of the cipher such as the centralized annual and acclimation adaptable altar to anticipate accident during and EQ. Research Catechism • Is there a analytic way to accede the adequacy of architectonics codes in an convulsion zone? • • Why 1974 Convulsion Cipher was not successful? What are new updates in present Convulsion Code? and Did Turkish government booty assignment from it ? 2 CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODS The breadth presents the alignment that is advised to abode the assay catechism and focuses on the development of a analytic abstraction plan to accept the adequacy of the architectonics codes and whether builders accept been adjustable in construction. The abstraction additionally takes into annual alternative developments in Turkey, such as the accelerated citizenry admission and the allegation to anatomy aerial anatomy residential structures. The assay adjustment is based aloft the alignment of a advanced array of advice and ability that beset political, regulatory, social, cultural, engineering and geophysics. Survived Followed cipher Did not chase cipher (a) (c) Did not Survive (b) (d) Table 1 contains the capital assay anatomy followed in this cardboard on barrio afterwards the accession of the 1974 Architectonics Cipher that survived or did not survive. The table contains four abstracted cases, labeled (a), (b), (c) and (d). These will be discussed and analysed in this paper. The adjustment followed in this altercation will be how to analyise the four cases apparent in Table 1. In this table, the four cases are: (a) those barrio who’s builders claimed to accept followed Cipher and survived, (b) those barrio who’s builders claimed to accept followed code, but collapsed, (c) those who did not chase the code, but survived (such as celebrated buildings) and (d) those who did not chase cipher and were destroyed. This issertation is advised to accommodate a structured admission to the analytic and qualitative abstraction (Glazier Jack D & Powell 1992) of convulsion resilience. Furthermore, qualitative adjustment is the way to absolutely appraise convulsion vulnerability and involves abounding abstracts and abstraction of a ample calibration that is already actuality conducted. However, for the purposes of this study, beheld assay of barrio preserved in photographs are analysed to accept their activity and apprentice 3 article of their adaptation status. Observations of this array it absolute and useful, about accountable to errors (Murakami et al. , 1999). Table 2 contains a allegory of quantitative and qualitative approaches and how the abstraction arise actuality is an attack to assay these approaches and arise up with an overview that will advice to bigger accept the accurate bearings affecting the animation of barrio in the Marmara arena to earthquakes. Quantitative Aim Relationship Amid Researcher & Accountable Scope of Allegation Relationship Amid Access and Assay Attributes of Abstracts Adamantine & Reliable Rich and Deep Numeric Comparing Idiographic Development Actuality Distant Finding based on affirmation Qualitative Attitude based on account and abstracts Close Table 2 Differences Amid Quantitative Assay and Qualitative Research. Table 2 shows the differences amid assay methods, I accept followed the quantitative method, as this is a added adapted avenue for the abstracts I am collecting, as it is a fact-based study. By appliance quantitative basal research, I will be added into issues and problems. This enabled me to understand; 1. To investigate what is happening. 2. To ask catechism and interviews with professionals. 3. To actualize account and access for approaching study. 4 Interviews Face to face interviews The interviews were conducted in adjustment to get a bigger compassionate of the affidavit why some barrio survived the EQ and others didn’t. Face to face interviews accept a audible advantage of enabling the researcher to accretion acumen into bearings breadth there is a abridgement of arise advice or the authorities may be ambuscade something. These interviews aftermath accomplished acknowledgment in the assay and it will additionally acquiesce the researcher to accept absorbing answers and aback appropriate. Admitting their expense, they accommodate invaluable acumen into a circuitous political and abstruse area. The capital cold of the interviews was to accretion acumen into the four (4) cases of barrio as aboriginal declared in Table 1. Was the Cipher followed? Did the architectonics perform? Was the Cipher effective? This is actual capricious and can be acclimated to aggregate ample amounts of information. During claimed interview, any blazon of assay can be used. Claimed interviews took two forms: planned and unplanned. Adventitious interviews ancient crop hasty after-effects as they generally bolt the actuality off bouncer and they acknowledge article absorbing or ahead hidden. During my assay period, I accept done both as it helped me to accept the affair better, and additionally to ability abreast bodies and accretion insight. During my assay period, account with Nejat Basulke took abode on 14th January 2012; he is admiral of alcove of Civilian Engineers. Blast Interviews Blast interviews are beneath time arresting and beneath big-ticket and it additionally gives the befalling to admission to anyone who has telephone. 1. 1. It can be added adjustable as accuser can explain questions not accepted by the respondent. Depending on respondent’s acknowledgment they can skip some questions and delving added on others. 5 2. 3. Allows bigger sample control. Acknowledgment bulk be able to be college than mail. 6 Account Anatomy The questions were mainly based aloft George Blumberg’s suggestions on architectonics achievement and materials. The questions were advised and formatted in such a way that the acknowledging could present their complete appearance about the topic. Detailed questions and aboriginal answers can be activate at the end of this altercation in the addendum section. 1. What is your analogue of Convulsion Engineering? This catechism is actual important, as it will appearance that acknowledging absolutely believes is Convulsion Engineering and this will again actuate how the afterward questions will be answered and how abundant accent can be put assimilate their results. 2. What are capital failures that barrio are collapsing? This is catechism that will analyze the capital problems of the barrio and what account them to collapse. 3. Why there were so abounding activity errors? How approves them? Did not they accede the Convulsion Code. Afterward apace on from the antecedent catechism is a catechism advised to accomplish the responder accord his own opinion. . Best of the barrio are congenital on able system, was it accurate ? i Abnormally f the country on laying on the seismic regions . By allurement this question, it will beggarly to be absolutely a acid catechism to get the responder to anticipate about the failings encountered and try and acumen why these failings happened. 5. How is the poor ability affects the buildings? This is actual important catechism due to the abridgement of advice in my research. 6. What the recommendations, in adjustment to anatomy convulsion attrition building, as able-bodied as afterward the convulsion code? This is a able alpha from which to beforehand improvements assay and it should accommodate a able alpha from which suggests improvements and this could analyze new improvements that accept not been researched or improved. Accordingly this 7 catechism could end up actuality the best all-important allotment of the assay the solutions could advice to accomplish it better. Case studies Our best of case studies was fabricated in adjustment to analyze the elements of the barrio that acquaintance the 1999 EQ as apparent in Table 1 breadth barrio that both survived and did not survive are studied. The aforementioned advice was acquired from anniversary case study. These belief are: did they chase the code, what was the acumen for abortion (or survival), acquiescence to the cipher 1974. Case studies are mainly acclimated aback the researcher be bent to accumulate up my altercation by an in abyss assay of the activity “ Able Accurate Architectonics in Golcuk” which complete beneath Cipher 1974. The attributes of the case abstraction focuses on one aspect, in my case study, this would be, why able accurate barrio are accessible ambition in earthquake. According to S. G. Naoum (2007) there are three types of case studies (Table 4). The Anecdotic Case Abstraction Absolutely agnate to the abstraction of anecdotic assay “ counting” The analytic Case Abstraction Agnate to access of analytic assay “Counting, and Association “ The Explanatory Case Appliance the abstract admission to the problems and comparing them. Table 3 The Case Abstraction Admission to acclamation the assay question. The case abstraction is best advantageous for breeding access and the capital advantage of a case abstraction is that it gives me a befalling to abstraction one appearance of the botheration in detail from abounding altered viewpoints. CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS ANALYSIS The assay in this breadth is based on the advice aggregate during the beginning stages appliance the adjustment declared in the antecedent section. Aback the objectives of the assay arise in this altercation are advised to accommodate a bigger compassionate of the adequacy of architectonics codes in a Turkish convulsion zone, the again assay is presented in adjustment to bare how to bigger conduct a abstraction into the accommodation of cipher compliance. A arbitrary of this can be apparent in Figure 1, breadth the animation of a architectonics in an EQ breadth depends on the adequacy of the cipher and on how able-bodied it has been activated to the construction. An Able Cipher Acquiescence with the Cipher and the resialiance to Figure 1 shows the affiliation amid an able architectonics cipher accident due to EQs This advantage of belief the bearings in Turkey is that the abundance and acuteness of earthquakes, accompanying with aerial citizenry density, leads to a bearings breadth barrio are activated to the extreme. An able Cipher In the absence of able beforehand admonishing of earthquakes the alone admeasurement that can be taken to assure occupants of barrio is to assemble them appliance abstracts and with a architectonics that is aggressive to accident due to convulsion movement. Architectonics EQ aggressive barrio is a able-bodied advance convenance and in assertive places breadth these barrio are required, there are actual few casualties from burst buildings. For instance in the Los Angeles EQ of 1994 resulted in alone 20 deaths admitting the admeasurement of the convulse (BBC News 1994). This is due to an able architectonics cipher that is adhered to by everybody who builds. Furthermore, there are measures in the Cipher to anticipate falling altar from advancing afar and arresting bodies during an EQ. The aloft acumen for the accident in able accurate structures is because, they are not absolutely advised for seismic movement, and accordingly able accurate barrio cannot sow absorptive behaviour in earthquake. Well-designed 9 structures should be able of afraid motions appropriately from three admonition of convulsion effects. The amercement in able barrio accept occurred due to architectonics and architectonics methods, such as use of poor resistant’s concrete, the anemic accretion of bendable belief and axle joints. The amercement in unreinforced architectonics should not be a surprising, as it is not obeyed the architectonics rules and new adapted Convulsion Code. In this dissertation, the oberservations and my allegation on the amercement able accurate and alternative blazon of architectonics accept been assessed, in adjustment to accept the matters, Turkish Convulsion Codes (2007) directed arise architectonics accept been discussed abnormally for building. Comparison with the California cipher Revisions to the convenance of convulsion codes in architectonics engineering in Turkey accept usually followed major, adverse earthquakes. This trend is not aberrant to Turkey because changes in architectonics convenance in Japan, Mexico, and the United States accept followed aloft earthquakes in those countries (Nisee 2010). Provisions for accurate annual of able accurate moment-resisting frames for acquiescent acknowledgment were alien in Turkey in aboriginal 1975s. These requirements were appreciably agnate to those alien in the United States in the aboriginal 1970s (Nisee 2010). On the alternative hand, the architectonics of barrio with adaptable accommodation was not accustomed as it was in California in the 1970s. To a assertive extent, barrio could be complete afterwards adapted accommodation for adaptable acknowledgment or adaptable details. According to Nisee (2010) abode “ For avant-garde able accurate moment-resisting frames of aerial ductility (U. S California Code. , the ordinates of the 1997 Turkish lateral-force-coefficient spectra beat those of the 1997 California Cipher for both bedrock and abutting clay sites. Recognizing that the accepted accommodation of the 1997 California Cipher and the 1997 Turkish cipher for frames of aerial 10 ductility are similar, the achievement of barrio advised to either cipher should be agnate if the standards of architectonics are comparable”. Crabbed Force – Afraid Arrangement Able accurate microburst bank Able anatomy Animate anchored anatomy Animate afraid anatomy 6 6 7 6. 5 accurate moment-resisting 1974 to 1999 Turkey 6 7 1974 to 1999 USA 7 7. Table 4 Comparing of two altered seismic codes, (Nisee 2010) According to Table 4, the reviews of two altered codes accompany the abstraction of the similarities in best alternative regards. Although the codes are actual agnate with anniversary other, the barrio are should accept advised and complete in accordance with these codes, it allegation accept performed equally, if the architectonics affection is the similar. Therefore, best of the burst multi-storey barrio were believed to be awful convulsion resistant. They were not for some or all of the afterward reasons: 1. Most of the barrio did not accommodated the architectonics requirements of the cipher and included accommodation that are not convulsion resistant, due to bare vertical and accumbent reinforcing animate and the boundless use of bland reinforcing steel. 2. The architectonics structural engineer, the contractor, does not audit the advancing architectonics to verify that the artist has congenital the architectonics according to the absorbed of the Convulsion Cipher requirements. 3. 4. 5. Abounding of the barrio were congenital with actual poor and inappropriate architectonics abstracts and activated poor workmanship. Most of the structures were advisedly accustomed to be congenital on alive faults. Abounding barrio were not engineered, but congenital according to accomplished acquaintance with 1974 code. 11 According to my research, I accept activate the capital acumen amid California Cipher and Turkish Code. This because, it was cheaper to assemble stronger barrio afterwards adapted accommodation for adaptable acknowledgment than weaker barrio with adaptable detailing, non adaptable moment-resisting anatomy architectonics was best accepted in Turkey up to the time of the Izmit convulsion (Nisee 2010). Since 1974, California has fabricated a cogent activity arise convulsion assurance for the structures. California Cipher became added advantageous and fabricated California accompaniment safer from potentially deactivating earthquakes. These new behavior that has the afterward basal principles; 1. 2. Continual advance in apprenticeship and new abilities about earthquakes and bigger techniques for mitigating their effects. Evolutionary advance in accessible activity affecting the architectonics and architectonics that can fit California’s congenital environment. The amend to the Turkish Cipher Convulsion cipher of Turkey is able about three times, 1959, 1975, 2007. This convulsion cipher includes regulations for accepted attempt of earthquakes. Such as blueprint is to abstain structural and non-structural elements of architectonics from any accident in low-intensity earthquakes; to absolute the accident in structural and non-structural elements to repairable levels in medium-intensity earthquakes, and to anticipate the all-embracing or fractional collapse of barrio in high- acuteness earthquakes in adjustment to abstain the accident of activity (MPWS 1998)). Marmara Convulsion in 1999, best of the contractors are bootless to chase convulsion codes, so this esulted errors in (Europan Journal of Educational Studies 2(1), 2010); • Low affection accurate is acclimated in 90% • Corrosion botheration in 64. 20% • Sea beach (with salt) is acclimated in 61. 23% • Service activity ends in 16% 12 • Bad accurate abating in 11. 27% • Various architectural mistakes in 12% • Clay problems in 23. 40% In 1997, the government accustomed to amend the Convulsion for the new and absolute structures, to activity a little aegis from the collapse. Amid 1997 to 1999, beneath than 25 % of all barrio in Turkey accommodate to the amend in Convulsion Cipher in 1997 (Coburn 1995:84). Last convulsion cipher covers the regulations about acclimation and accretion of absolute buildings. The accepted purpose of convulsion aggressive architectonics with this new blueprint is to abstain structural and non-structural elements of barrio from any accident in low-intensity earthquakes; to absolute the accident in structural and non-structural elements to abstain the all-embracing or fractional collapse of barrio in high- acuteness earthquakes in adjustment to abstain the accident of life. 2007 TEC consists of afterward titles (Turkish Convulsion Code, 2007, MPWH 1998). These new updates are based on Table 5; Convulsion Aggressive Architectonics rules for Able Accurate Structures Convulsion Aggressive Architectonics rules for Masonry Structures. Convulsion Aggressive Architectonics rules for Animate Structures Eartquake Aggressive Architectonics on Accretion of Absolute Convulsion Aggressive Architectonics rules for Foundations. Accretion of Structures. Armpit Achievability Work. Actual Selections. Table 5 New Updates on Convulsion Cipher 2007. 13 Acquiescence with the Cipher What were the problems with accessible records? During my research, I activate no affirmation of inspections that has been done. Normally, the countries, who do chase their Convulsion Code, the municipalities are amenable for authoritative architectonics architectonics projects. About in Turkey, this works up ancillary down, this mainly because best of them accept bare abilities and assets to accomplish this responsibility. According to a theory, to accepting a accustomed architectonics codes and acreage use regulations, such as in the U. S. A and UK, afore the activity begins, the architecture, structural artist and designers allegation be abide their cardboard works for the anatomy that they are activity to anatomy and get the approval architectonics permit. In consequent, best borough planning offices apply no structural engineers and brand affairs as “received” afterwards blockage the abstruse considerations of the project. (Gulkan, 2001; Gulkan, 2002) Bounded governments are able to shut bottomward architectonics sites if these affairs do not accommodated their regulations, but problems are added consistently met with an institutional “averting of eyes”. (Gulkan, 2002) Furthermore, municipalities are not accountable for mistakes in development, and no acknowledged activity adjoin admiral has anytime been taken. Balamir, 2001; Gulkan, 2002). Abridgement of apprenticeship on the risks of EQ : The assay has apparent me some important affair with abridgement of apprenticeship on the risks of EQ. Best of Turkish graduates, as anon as they accomplished their bulk (diploma), accept the authority, according to Turkish Law to do any blazon of projects, and to be any blazon of activity administrator on any construction. Aydinoglu (1998) ‘stop my friend, to be a activity artist is not such an accessible job, you allegation to be wellversed in convulsion engineering and architectonics technology, and accept your assignment assessed’. Polat Gulkan (2000) Ankara Abstruse University/ Turkey announced the adversity in agreement of the assurance afforded the ill accommodating “expert” at the bulk of accessible safety; “In Turkey any artist who holds a accepted diploma, afterwards attention for the (theoretical) bulk of adversity of the project, can put his/her signature to any project. Expert cachet in engineering has not been established. This in aftereffect equips engineers and alternative experts, like [government] officials, with 14 an iron-plated amnesty “. (Gulkan, 2001). Acquaintance is one of the important allegation for convulsion engineering. There are abounding architects or civilian engineers activated to assignment in Consulting and Assay Agency (CCE) . According to The arch of the Istanbul CCE, Cemal Gokce, declared ‘But I apperceive that best of these colleagues of abundance accept never drafted a activity in their lives. They should not accord permission to these bodies to accessible a agency aloof because they are politically abutting to the Ministry of Accessible Works and Apartment (quoted in TDN, 29 October 1999). The political bearings and the adversity of accomplishing business: Until backward 2000’s, If you apperceive some one in parliaments, it was absolutely accessible to set up a architectonics aggregation and built. This was due to political ability abaft the buyer or the contractor. Therefore, best of the rules were not applying to them. In baronial 20th, 1998,the accessible prosecutor for the Ankara Accompaniment Security Court launched an assay in adjustment to acquisition out the adduce bribery in accompaniment tenders for apartment contractors for Marmara EQ. The Minister for Accessible Works and Apartment and his ancestor created a aggregation affairs architectonics accessories and, it was alleged, afflicted companies appointment architectonics tenders for the architectonics of abiding apartment for convulsion survivors to buy abstracts from this company. Most of the abstracts were not alike accustomed by TSE and additionally recommended by the Convulsion Code. This means, due to political power, bodies were not able to assay whether architectonics is congenital in convulsion area, either acting or permanent, as they could not acquisition any affairs or permissions. The articulation from the professions is united: ‘We knew that this accountability runs through this area. There were abounding accomplished earthquakes in this breadth with the aftermost one 1999 in Goluck. So this is actual obvious. Geologically we apperceive that the breadth has such a risk, but the aftereffect shows that the development was absolutely unplanned’ (Haluk Suguoglu, Director of Convulsion Engineering Assay Centre, METU). 15 CHAPTER 4: DATA PRESENTATION INTERVIEW Who is Nejat Bayulke : Nejat Bayulke accelerating from METU with a Bachelor of Civilian Engineering. He has formed at the Convulsion Assay Department for the Ministry of Accessible Works aback 1998. He is currently a arch affiliate of the Alcove of Civilian Engineers in Turkey. The account was in Turkish and again translated by myself “Korkut Mirzai”. Original accent can be activate in Appendix. 1) What is your analogue of Convulsion Engineering? There were two responses to this question; the aboriginal acknowledgment accustomed focused about the appraisal of Convulsion Engineering can be authentic as annex of engineering committed to convulsion hazards. In his assessment convulsion engineering covers and investigates the problems, again brings the best band-aid for these problems, which are acquired by the seismic movements. Second account was that convulsion engineering is the bactericide measures demography in designing a architectonics to bear apple tremors and seismic movements. These measures may not anticipate architectonics accident but should ensure the candor of the architectonics charcoal so that collapse doesn’t action in the accident of such accustomed disasters. Summary: Alike admitting convulsion engineers are absolutely bare for construction, in Turkey, this is not absolutely common. Best of the barrio are not apparent by these engineers in adjustment to get accept of architectonics stage. According to adapted Convulsion Cipher 2007, any architectonics in convulsion breadth allegation accept one assay by an convulsion artist during the architectonics phrase. ) Why does a anatomy collapse? There ability be an absurdity in the project, or a blemish in the construction; it ability be because of the exoteric factors. On the alternative hand, structures collapse due to accumbent endless and pressures, which abate their acknowledging materials. Summary: Aloft botheration with anatomy in Turkey, abnormally with able 16 concrete, they are not absolutely advised for seismic region, aback there is a earthquake, beams in the architectonics can not backpack the accumbent loads, as they become attenuated because of the shake. 3) What are the aloft Activity Errors? Mistakes can be fabricated with the load, it ability accept been afflicted beneath than it should accept been, amiss bend cuts and the accessories ability be bare to abutment the load, maybe the acknowledging arrangement is not as it should be or adding and clay methods may be insufficient. There ability be some after-effects of the geometry of the anatomy but these may be disregarded during calculation. This is a account of destruction. For example, endless are blurred or maybe the achievability of an convulsion is neglected. These are activity errors. Some furnishings are not taken into consideration, such as rotational and microburst forces. For instance, a far added important matter: the astriction acquired by agee in balmy climates. These don’t arise adapted abroad but in time these affectionate of furnishings advance to assertive damages, fractures in the structure. Summary: Aback I am advised the buildings, I accept acutely noticed, best the barrio accept the structural architectonics errors. Abnormally the one advised with Convulsion Cipher 1975. My compassionate from this catechism is, the aloft absurdity in the able accurate architectonics is amiss planning and decisions. Such as bendable arena floor, breadth the aboriginal attic of the architectonics is way abundant bigger than arena floor, and anatomy deceit not backpack the bulk during the earthquake. Sadly this accommodation fabricated by engineers or contractors in adjustment to accomplish added profit. The capital botheration is ensuring that contractors chase the designs that strengthen barrio and not cut any corners for the account of added profit. Regular inspections should be agitated out during the architectonics activity by a government controlled anatomy as able-bodied as the accretion team. 4) Architectonics Errors? Actuality in our country the bigger aberration in architectonics is the actuality that the accurate acclimated in the activity does not accept abundant resistance. This, unfortunately, is a grave botheration of our country. It was a bigger botheration abnormally in the canicule aback we didn’t accept accessible alloyed concrete. As far as I apperceive a lot of buildings’ accurate 17 attrition decreases bottomward to 1/3 of the attrition adapted in that project. The accessories is inadequate, misplaced. These, too, are the affidavit of the collapses. 5) Why best of the able barrio are burst during the earthquake? Before proceeding to the account as able-bodied as the assay of the abstraction of, able accurate buildings, it seems all-important to aboriginal accord and alarm its capital features. To activate with, in Turkey, attributable to the poor ability in architectonics and appliance and the low affection of materials, able accurate barrio tend to be affected, damaged by earthquakes. Then, the accepted backbone of the accurate of the complemented anatomy is estimated at 100 kg/cm2; nevertheless, aback earthquakes action and barrio abatement apart, this bulk can collapse to 60-70 kg/cm2. It is to be reminded that, in access the architectonics backbone of accurate is admired at 160 kg/cm2 (cube strength). From the above, it can be accepted that in Turkey, best barrio do not account the accustomed "earthquake aggressive architectonics code". Anchorage lengths, longitudinal bars, abutting agreement are illustrations of rules rarely advised and activated in today’s construction. Aural the ambience of earthquakes, it is apparent that, in agreement of conceptual design, actual few are the barrio provided with an convulsion aggressive structural arrangement with a able anatomy or a frame-shear bank system. To sum up, due to the aloft mentioned reasons, in Turkey, best able accurate barrio are apparent to earthquakes. Arbitrary : My compassionate from this catechism would be about best of the able accurate barrio are burst during the earthquake. Hence All of the burst barrio accept slab arrangement of axle beams with alveolate failing accurate block fillers, which absolutely altered than accepted requirements of Convulsion Cipher (Earthquake Cipher 2007) 6) How can you alarm the poor workmanship? In Turkey, best of the architectonics problems are based on poor workmanship, this mainly due to contractors prefers to either use bargain abstracts or amiss adjustment of 18 construction. This poor ability can be accentuate in two altered ways, one of them is the access of columns and beams are absolutely weak, as the affiliation of animate confined did not attach it correctly. An alternative agency is the granulometry (Definition: Linking to the administration of atom sizes in beach or rock) of the beach and gravels of accurate were appreciably poor. So those big gravels blocked the solid while casting at armpit breadth animate access were blubbery as it resulted in actual poor and anemic connections. So such access creates a abundant amercement during earthquake. Arbitrary : My compassionate for poor ability which leads to abnormal works has to be rectified by the artist or engineers, however, in adjustment to do that, the activity will crave cessation of time, accordingly bodies aloof blank to chase that stage. Sloppy mistakes such as demography incorrect abstracts from affairs and blueprint created the architectonics mistakes. Furthermore, incorrect units and measures during architectonics accept created a abnormal work. In consequence, the contractors allegation to reconstruct those architectonics mistakes which after-effects in demography added time to complete the activity rather than aloof blank it. 7) What the recommendations, in adjustment to anatomy building, as able-bodied as afterward the convulsion code. Recommendations would be to accomplish barrio EQ resistant. This could be done appliance the architectonics adjustment of adit accumulation (EQ cipher 2007). This would be the best angle to beforehand the convulsion attrition of housing. Even though, adit anatomy systems accept been acclimated in Turkey aback backward 70`s, it did not become a primary best in the architectonics until 1999. As a result, adit anatomy barrio performed bigger seismic achievement by retarding artificial articulation formations at the best analytical locations, such as slab–wall access and about bank openings than alternative buildings. During the earthquake, adit anatomy barrio do not aggregate all the ability at microburst connections, it does divides the activity all over the building, accordingly you may feel the acuteness added than the buildings, but this a able thing. Another account of adit anatomy barrio is that they never collapse convulsion attrition 19 successively as apparent in a domino effect, they amplitude instead. Summary: According the contempo earthquakes reports, adit forms anatomy barrio accept apparent bigger achievement than the alternative barrio “RC”. Aback 1999, afterwards the regulations became tighter, the contractors and engineers best of appliance the adit anatomy has become a primary. 20 CHAPTER 5: CASE STUDY BUILDING A The akin of accident is beneath in Sehitler Commune , best of the barrio are acclimatized arise the ancillary of hills. The clay activity is adamantine and the architectonics banal is fabricated up of 2-3 storey animate affected structures and 3-4 storey frameless brick and masonry barrio by 49% and, 3-7 storey able accurate affected barrio by 51% (Ergunay & Gulkan, 1999). Architectonics A (Picture 1) that I accept chosen, it was complete on the seismic accountability line, and additionally this architectonics blazon is addressed by the codes/standards in Turkey beneath “ 1. Regulations for Barrio to Be Congenital in Adversity Areas (1998) 2. TS 500: Requirements for Architectonics and Architectonics of Able Accurate Structures (2000)”. Furthermore, with able achievability research, architectonics has complete on a algebraic foundation, so it can address the force endless to the clay any beating from the ground. Picture 1 The Case Study, Architectonics B Sehitler Discrit, (H. Sezen2000) 21 This architectonics has a complete bulk aisle for seismic movement furnishings from any alongside administration that transfers inertial armament from the architectonics to foundation. The vertical bulk address genitalia are able-bodied absorbed to the foundations; accordingly accurate columns and walls are accepting admiring force from the foundation (Picture 2). Picture 2 The Case Study, Architectonics B Sehitler Discrit , Foundation Level, (H. Sezen2000) The walls are the primarily bulk agitated for the barrio and one of the best able associates adjoin earthquakes. Able akin of bank anatomy helped in abbreviation the assemblage shear, and enabled best of the adaptable acknowledgment during the able convulsion aeon (Picture 3). Best the abstracts sed in this anatomy architectonics were advised to be able-bodied able per the claim from the Turkish National Architectonics Cipher and Standards. “ Legislation was allowable in April 2000 to accomplish binding architectonics blockage and architectonics assay of all barrio by government-licensed clandestine administration firms. For new buildings, this administration aims to ensure acquiescence with earthquake-resistant architectonics codes and nominal architectonics affection standards’’ (Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Apprenticeship 2003). 22 Picture 3 The Case Study, Architectonics B Sehitler Discrit , Elevation, (H. Sezen2000). BUILDING B Architectonics B (Picture 4) is amid in arctic ancillary of Golcuk, abreast by the bank band , this an archetype architectonics of who followed the Convulsion Cipher 1974 , but burst in 1999 EQ in Marmara. As the architectonics congenital in about 1975, it was absolutely old for Turkish architectonics classification. . This architectonics suffered with the little accident as a aftereffect of the seismic movement but could not be active because it acclimatized due to condensate and address abortion of the acknowledging soils (Picture 5). Because, breadth the architectonics has been anatomy is a accurate abounding arena ( breadth it acclimated to be a sea ), afterwards abounding years, the sea baptize started to arise the accurate and accustomed liquefaction. Therefore, absurd of any arena movement, architectonics were accessible to collapse or damages. Until backward 2000s, condensate was not advised by the Convulsion Cipher (MPWH 1998). To accomplish achievement 23 partially counterbalanced the building. 3. 7. 4 Architectonics D 3. 7. 4. 1 Architectonics Description Architectonics D was a six-story moment-frame architectonics amid in the centermost of Adapazari. An acclivity of the architectonics is apparent in Figure improvementson similarliquefaction would accept age in aloft collapse prevention, armpit 3-59. Based to abstain architectonics of the aforementioned Adapazari, the foundation for Architectonics D was apparently a mat or bulk with a array of about been required. 1 m. or clay and foundation behavior in performance-based earthqu ng would accept annoyed the achievement akin of collapse pre 1997] and Vision 2000 [SEAOC 1995]), it would not accept s life-safety achievement level. To accomplish achievement beyon Figure 3-59 Acclivity of Architectonics D o abstain condensate would accept been required. Picture 4 The Case Study, Architectonics B North,Golcuk , Elevation, (H. Sezen2000). 3. 7. 4. 2 Arrangement Acknowledgment Architectonics D is an archetype of poor arrangement achievement that was not accompanied by componen accident or failure. This architectonics suffered little accident as a aftereffect of the convulsion afraid but could not be active because it acclimatized added than 1 m due to condensate and address abortion of the acknowledging soils (see Figure 3-60). It is able that this abortion of the acknowledging soils bound the afraid accomplished by the building. Services and utilities to the architectonics were destroyed and admission and departure were best difficult. The poor achievement of this architectonics underscores the allegation to ure 3-60 Settlement of Architectonics D due to condensate and soil-bearing Picture 5 The Case Study, Architectonics B North,Golcuk , Settlement of Architectonics B, due to liquefaction, (H. Sezen2000). ary Remarks e of the altercation of called barrio is to analyze issues re ust be addressed in the development of guidelines and accoutrement f ed convulsion engineering. of this writing, architectonics (system) acknowledgment is generally advised on mponent in the building. Clearly, this approach, although con fective. Poor behavior of one or two accidental apparatus doe avior, although poor behavior of one or two key apparatus m sms for redistribution of force endless do not abide in a buildi ns to be abstruse about the collapse of barrio and the desig n or failure. Assay on the afterward accommodation is bare to im 24 BUILDING C Abounding of the city's acclaimed actual monuments such as Hagia Sophia (Picture 6) may bear the convulse because they were advised by convulsion acquainted architects and engineers, congenital deeply of affection materials, and, accept already survived from several abundant earthquakes for over thousand years. In abounding cases, reinforcements accept been added aback accident from beforehand quakes has been repaired. The acumen why this architectonics did not collapse, alike admitting they did not alike accept convulsion cipher by that time ,the aloft allotment of the anatomy is not a box, it’s a alternation of domes. Domes bear crabbed armament actual able-bodied for three reasons. 1. First, and primary, alike convulsion able abundant to get a arch to amplitude will not aftermath areas of the anatomy that accept no abutment adjoin gravity, because the abject is abundant added than the top. 2. Second, domes administer armament in all admonition naturally, and as a aftereffect the architectonics is abundant bigger at administration energy. 3. Third, best of the accumulation of a arch is low, and this lower centermost of force abundantly reduces the adventitious of collapse. Hagia Sophia started assuming signs of fatigue and was abundantly able with the accession of structural supports to its exoteric by the abundant Ottoman artist Sinan who is additionally advised one of the aboriginal convulsion engineers in the world. Picture 6 The Case Study, Architectonics C Istanbul , Acclivity Of Hagia Sofia 25 BUILDING D Architectonics D ( Picture 7) is amid in Kavakli commune abreast by the burghal centermost forth the bank breadth best of the able accurate affected barrio are ascendant about 75% and arena address accommodation is low poor clay condition, accordingly added than 60 % barrio were heavily damaged or moderately damaged (Ergunay & Gulkan, 1999). Picture 7 The Case Study, Architectonics D Kavakli Discrit , Aback Acclivity (H. Sezen2000) Able accurate systems are able-bodied accepted to be the best acute systems to convulsion loads, unless if they are congenital with able Convulsion Cipher standards, architectonics techniques and able workmanship. Yet, in this region, best of the aloft requirements that were not annoyed accept become the affidavit for aerial accident on able accurate buildings. The “ adhesive “ that acclimated on floors, was fabricated of sea sand, accordingly it did not absolutely had a acceptable of cement. However, according to new Convulsion Cipher 2007 acutely states that accurate affection allegation be c20 or college quality, if it based in 26 breadth one and two(MPWH 1998). Although, at this building, this akin was alike lower than c10 level. Appliance of low affection of adhesive fabricated architectonics columns anemic adjoin earthquakes. The cracks on the columns and beams let it to be burst due to abundant bulk and seismic beating (Picture 8). Picture 8 The Case Study, Architectonics D Kavakli Discrit , Column,(H. Sezen2000) At the aboriginal attic columns, at the advanced face of the architectonics Picture 9. Further damaged can be activate about the stairwell at the rear of the structure. The staircases in the aback of the stairwell were casting integrally with the alien columns. Anniversary landing is amid aloof about 1 m beneath the beam-column connections. As can be apparent on the Picture 9, Although Convulsion Cipher requires able affection of animate in the stairs , there were no abundant bulk of animate anatomy acclimated in the connections. So, this agency that staircases resulted in abbreviate cavalcade architectonics and led to microburst failures at the landings (MPWH 1998). 27 Picture 9 The Case Study, Architectonics D Kavakli Discrit , Stairs Level,(H. Sezen2000) 28 SUMMARY OF CASE STUDY To sum up the case study, I accept considered, that best of the residential barrio that burst including architectonics A were congenital to the antecedent cipher which was accustomed 1975. D`Ayala (2003) states the earthquakes accident in this adversity accept put the assignment for the deconstruction on poor standards of construction; • • • Provisions of the cipher for annual the accretion was not present in practice. Accurate was appreciably poor affection accidental to breakable performance. Apartment blocks had infill bank fabricated with ablaze weight of animate frame, that would not be able to abide the forces. Convulsion calamity is a aloft botheration that Turkish authorities accept had to accord with over the years. Even though, Turkish government bootless to beforehand compassionate of the convulsion adversity and emergency solutions (Gulkan 2001); • • Abridgement of appropriately able agents in the board to ascendancy the architectonics checks. Abridgement of abecedarian producers, who were accustomed out the architectonics checks. 29 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS This breadth provides the advice for administering an able assay of the acquiescence to the architectonics cipher in Turkey and to accomplish advocacy on how to advance an able and safe congenital environment. The aim of the assay is to analyze the problems for accomplishing of able architectonics behaviours due to Convulsion Cipher abortion in earthquake. The literatures were absolute information’s that Turkey has the one of the actively seismic zone, appraisal of the materials, alternative of architectonics methods, abridgement of education, convulsion cipher and case study. For that reason, this abstraction went on investigate in depth. Interviews were taken, in adjustment to abutment the case abstraction with able references. Case studies showed that there were abounding bereft techniques, and these affirmation accustomed that there was a poor compassionate about the abstracts and applying them due to abridgement poor training and apprenticeship and not afterward the legislation “ Convulsion Code”. These researched explained that the systems and techniques did not alike absolutely bout with EU regulations. There was no able seismic claim in the Turkish Convulsion Codes until afterwards the huge convulsion 1999 Marmara Earthquake. Although, there were abounding revisions to the cipher from 1944 to 1975, but they were not absolutely advantageous for the cogent problems with Turkish construction. Although the 1999 Marmara Convulsion was a important wake-up call, Turkey has ample inventories of barrio that are affected to astringent accident and collapse from able earthquakes. Thousands of barrio burst all over the region. Abounding barrio were advised to anachronous architectonics codes (Code 1975) or none at all. Best of these barrio and abundant of the architectonics throughout Turkey consists of no still anatomy assignment with unreinforced masonry infill walls. This altercation broadly explained that Turkish Government regulations has bootless to abate the accident of cogent harm. Use of blubbery slabs resulted in able cavalcade and this anemic axle could abutment it. Structural arrangement problems such as bendable 30 storey colon in arena floor, and amiss axle affiliation are important factors. If the adapted Convulsion Cipher is applied, the accident affidavit consistent appreciably less. Although, the aloft botheration in Turkey is that the ability and abstracts are of poor quality. In adjustment to accomplish a able accepted of construction, the angle would be to use adapted actual and use of adit anatomy accurate will abate the accident of the accident in any approaching earthquakes (Earthquake Cipher 2007). Year 2012, it grieves me to say that Turkey hasn't progressed added than an inch aback 1999. Van convulsion in 2011 was the best archetype for this. The absolute time and abode of an convulsion cannot be predicted, but according to seismologist , they are assured a big convulsion in Istanbul / Marmara , there still added to advance in Convulsion Cipher and in construction. REGULATION AND POLITICAL ISSUES: • Administrative abortion has articular that Ministry for Accessible Works and Apartment declared the architectonics assay law afterwards publishing that an important aim the accident had occurred was because the bounded administrations did not performed their assay duties accurately by that time (Earthquake Code2007, MPWH 1998). • • Politic issues comedy a aloft role in achievement of any actual in Turkey. The assay demoed that Turkish architectonics arrangement politically driven. RECOMMENDATION: Recommendations are not to be accepted that change the activity of apartment and architectonics in Turkey overnight. Improving the architectonics affection by accouterment of able bond and abundance of water, able chic beach and aggregates, advised abundance of adhesive in the mix, adapted bond of all the elements with ascendancy on baptize adhesive acceptable compaction in the position of concrete, able adjustment of animate ( Convulsion Cipher 2007, MPWH 1998). • Abstain bendable storey arena attic (Earthquake Cipher 2007, MPWH 1998). 31 • Architectonics animate anatomy allegation be adaptable (Earthquake Code2007, MPWH 1998). • Adapted Convulsion Cipher allegation be applying to all constructions (Earthquake Code2007, MPWH 1998). The artist or armpit administrator in allegation of the architectonics allegation alone be at the armpit at all time and administer all the operators in adjustment assay the actual and analysis them if it all-important (Earthquake Code2007, MPWH 1998). • In adjustment to stop architectonics collapsing, this can depends on the government authoritative added changes to its authoritative system, institutionalising association accord in adversity management, and allegation accord antecedence to these changes, afore it’s too backward (Earthquake Code2007, MPWH 1998). • The government should set up a adequacy board to appraise the abstracts and projects. This board should accommodate affection of materials, anatomy of the building, area of the armpit and accordant planning policies. LIMITATION OF STUDY • The aboriginal limitation I accept in autograph this altercation is that I accept the chat absolute of 10,000; this in actuality banned all-embracing what I can accommodate in my sources abstraction (literature). Any added advice that proves to be accordant to my abstraction will be included and referenced to my appendix. Due to the attributes of the advice I was gluttonous from my sources, government admiral were not assured in giving out advice that could be apparent as allegedly detrimental. • Due to my affair mainly based about Turkey and Turkish architectonics and government regulations, it has been difficult to retrieve advice and some paperwork’s, as it was actual important for my affection of assay and additionally there were big numbers of articles, journals and literatures, it was appreciably difficult to arbitrary them and attenuated it down. 32 REFERENCES AYDINOGLU, N. 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