Discussion: Assessment Tools And Diagnostic Tests In Adults And Children

I charge 1 animadversion per anniversary column in APA with commendation and 2 references per animadversion not earlier that 2013.

Post 1

For this week's discussion, I chose the 5-year old girl with accustomed weight with adipose parents.  Unfortunately, this topic hits close to home as our youngest babe is 4 ½ and both my bedmate and I accept acquired cogent weight over the accomplished few years and are in the adipose category.  Best children are able to self-regulate diet and antithesis what they eat with the bulk of activity that they are expending. Parental access at a adolescent age can accept a significant aftereffect on the child's adeptness to adapt on their own.  Blubber places adults and accouchement akin at a college accident for hypertension and diabetes than those of accustomed weight.  A adolescent who has adipose parents is at a college accident of acceptable adipose due to ailing bistro habits that are abstruse at home.  Obesity is authentic in the advance text as BMI > 95th percentile for age and gender in accouchement ages 2-18 (Ball, Dains, Flynn, Solomon and Stewart, 2015). 

During the child’s health appraisal the provider needs to be alert for any signs of malnutrition as able-bodied as over-nutrition.  In accession to accepted screening application height, weight and BMI, added comestible screening should be performed. Below are three specific questions that could be activated to added appraise diet and accident for obesity.  

  1. Can you call to me all of the foods that the adolescent has eaten in the accomplished 24-48 hours? How abounding bathetic drinks such as soda and juice, does the adolescent alcohol anniversary day? 
  2. How abounding minutes/hours of awning time does your adolescent accept per day? 
  3. Do you accept a accepted bedtime? How abounding hours of beddy-bye does the adolescent about get per night? 

Describing the foods that the adolescent has eaten over 24-48 hours will accommodate a added authentic annual of all-embracing nutrition.  Specifically allurement about bathetic drinks such as soda and abstract can accommodate befalling to altercate the bloom risks that can be associated with too abundant amoroso intake. Specific questions accompanying to amounts of fruits and vegetables are important as well.  Free if the adolescent is receiving adequate nutrients from the aliment that they are bistro is important.  If there is affair that the adolescent may not be accepting abundant vitamins and minerals from food, it may be all-important to acclaim a multi-vitamin to supplement what the adolescent is missing from diet.   

There are assorted studies that accept apparent that an added bulk of screen time can accept adverse furnishings on children's health.  High aggregate of awning time whether that is from television, video games, computers or other hand-held devices can advance to added accident of blubber as able-bodied as behavioral problems.  Allurement questions accompanying to awning time additionally provides the befalling to actuate area the adolescent eats best of their meals.  Does the ancestors eat calm at the table? Do they eat while watching television? How generally do they eat in the car or on the go due to active schedules?  These factors can be acclimated to actuate the accident of the accustomed weight adolescent at age 5 acceptable ample or adipose as they get older.  These questions additionally accommodate an befalling to brainwash parents on healthy bistro habits that they can advance as able-bodied to advance the all-embracing bloom of the family.   

Another important agency to actuate all-embracing bloom of the adolescent is free if the adolescent is accepting abundant beddy-bye anniversary night.  Accouchement are in a aeon of accelerated advance in aboriginal adolescence and the anatomy needs time to blow so that it can advance appropriately.  Asking if the adolescent has a accepted bedtime and how abounding hours of beddy-bye the adolescent gets anniversary night can advice actuate if the adolescent is accepting able sleep.  In affiliation to awning time it is important to altercate bedtime habits that the adolescent and parents may accept as well.  Does the adolescent accept their own bedroom?  Or do they allotment with an earlier affinity or parent?  Is there a television in the room? Video amateur in the room?  There are abounding accouchement whose parents will acquaint providers that their accouchement are in bed by 8 pm anniversary black and while that may be a authentic statement, the adolescent may not absolutely be activity to beddy-bye until abundant after due to television or alternative distractions present in the room. This afresh provides the befalling to brainwash ancestors associates on the accent of a good night sleep for all-embracing ancestors health.  

Strategies to animate parents to be proactive about child's health 

In accession to the above strategies, advancement a aliment dairy can be an accomplished apparatus to actuate over time whether there is adequate nutrition for both the adolescent and parents.  There are abounding accoutrement that can be activated to accumulate a aliment diary.  A simple anthology and pen works able-bodied and with all of the technology available, there are assorted apps such as My Fitness Pal that can be acclimated to clue added than the blazon of food.  They can advice clue calories, fat, cholesterol, amoroso as able-bodied as exercise.  These apps are alone as acceptable as the advice that the user puts in them. "Parents access a child’s weight through interactions that appearance the development of adolescent bistro behaviors." (Pietrobelli and Agosti, 2017).  Parents can be accomplished on clay acceptable habits of bistro such as bistro at the table against in the affliction or while watching television. Avoid application aliment as a accolade that can advance to adolescent acceptable an affecting eater back they are older. (Pietrobelli and Agosti, 2017). Providing acceptable habits that can be anesthetized on to accouchement can additionally abatement their accident of abasement and bistro disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.  


Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel's adviser to concrete examination (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. 

Pietrobelli, A., & Agosti, M. (2017). Diet in the First 1000 Days: Ten Practices to Minimize Blubber Emerging from Published Science. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health14(12), doi:10.3390/ijerph14121491 

Rub, G., Marderfeld, L., Poraz, I., Hartman, C., Amsel, S., Rosenbaum, I., & ... Shamir, R. (2016). Validation of a Comestible Screening Apparatus for Ambulatory Use in Pediatrics. Journal Of Pediatric Gastroenterology And Nutrition62(5), 771-775. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001046 

Watkins, F., & Jones, S. (2015). Reducing Adult Blubber in Childhood: Parental Access on the Aliment Choices of Children. Health Education Journal74(4), 473-484 

Post 2

Diagnostic Tests: Mammography

  Mammography is an able analytic analysis that can advice practitioners analyze breast blight at an aboriginal date (Jerome-D'Emilia & Chittams, 2015). Typically, a mammogram is a alternation of x-ray images able of audition tumors too baby to be palpated as able-bodied as calcium microcalcifications that are associated with breast blight advance (National Blight Institute, 2016). Screening mammograms are performed commonly and analytic mammograms, specific targeted imaging, are acclimated back changes are articular on screening exams or back afterimage is compromised, for archetype with breast implants (National Blight Institute, 2016).

     It is important to appraise the authority and believability of important screening tests like mammography to ensure able screening and aboriginal analysis and analysis in afflicted patients. This aboriginal apprehension allows for a greater arrangement of analysis options and an bigger all-embracing cast (Jerome-D'Emilia & Chittams, 2015). The believability and authority of the mammogram increases back acclimated in accordance to recommendations, for instance, in patients over the age of 30, as adolescent women accept added breast body that affects the analytic amount (Dains, Baumann, & Scheibel, 2016). In addition, for best results, it is important to attach to consistently appointed mammograms, about done annually for women over the age of 40 (National Blight Institute, 2016). The Civic Bloom Service Breast Screening Programme has developed civic guidelines to assimilate angel assessments and screening programs (Hill & Robinson, 2015). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database System provides radiologists a compatible way to call and address allegation from mammograms, which helps physicians to appropriately alike all-important affairs of affliction (National Blight Institute, 2016).

     At times, mammogram imaging can advance to false-positive results, back radiologists analyze abnormalities after the attendance of cancer. This can aftereffect in over analysis with chase up analytic mammograms, ultrasounds, and biopsies to aphorism out allegation (National Blight Institute, 2016). Predictive ethics can change if screening is not done properly, and Taylor et al. describes breast accession as actuality the best important agency in bearing affection mammography images (2017). Ensuring that analytic tests accommodate valuable, accurate, and advantageous advice is key to bactericide bloom affliction casework and aboriginal administration and analysis of articular ache processes.


Jerome-D'Emilia, B., & Chittams, J. (2015). Validation of a cultural blight screening calibration for mammogram appliance in a sample of African American women. Cancer Nursing, 38(2), 83-88. Retrieved from


National Blight Institute. (2016). Mammograms. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/mammograms-fact-sheet

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced bloom appraisal and analytic analysis in primary care  (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. 

Hill, C., & Robinson, L. (2015). Mammography angel assessment; authority and believability of accepted scheme. Radiography, 21, 304-307. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login


Taylor, K., Parashar, D., Bouverat, G., Poulos, A., Gullien, R., Stewart, E., & ... Wallis, M. (2017). Mammographic angel affection in affiliation to accession of the breast: A multicentre all-embracing appraisal of the

     assessment systems currently used, to accommodate an affirmation abject for establishing a standardised adjustment of assessment. Radiography, 23(4), 343-349. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login


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