Development of Scince and Technology in India
Since Independence, India has endeavoured to accompany bread-and-butter and amusing change through science and technology. The accomplishment has been both on advance the acceptable abilities to achieve them accordant and aggressive and developing avant-garde capabilities in borderland areas of science and technology. The visionaries who led the advance of science and technology (S&T) in India were assertive that S&T could comedy an important role in transforming India in to a modern, automated society. Experience and after-effects appearance that this aplomb was able-bodied placed.
Science, technology, and addition are alike added accordant today. Accurate ability and expertise, innovation, aerial technology, automated basement and able workforce are the currencies of this new era. Science and Technology are important drivers of bread-and-butter advance and development in the abreast world. The present choice is analytical for Indian science and aloft absolute achieve in this breadth will advice the country to achieve abiding and accelerated advance in the future.
The Science and Technology Analysis of the Planning Commission is the nodal analysis for all affairs apropos to Science and Technology Plan conception ( both Bristles Year Affairs and Annual Plans) and appraisement of the S&T programmes of six aloft S&T agencies/Departments, viz. •Department of Diminutive Action (DAE)- R&D Breadth •Department of Amplitude (DOS) •Department of Science and Technology (DST) •Department of Biotechnology (DBT) Department of Accurate and Automated Analysis (DSIR) including the Council of Accurate and Automated Analysis (CSIR) •Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) The Analysis has been advancement a abutting advice with these S&T agencies/departments for bland advice breeze and provides them important suggestions/inputs in the conception of assorted S&T affairs and programmes at assorted stages of plan formulation, accomplishing and bisected annual reviews. The Analysis has additionally been accouterment important inputs in the conception of S&T Policy.
In adjustment to advance Science and Technology in the States/UTs, actualize accurate acquaintance amid the masses through popularization of S&T and technology broadcasting for convalescent the affection of action of the people, the Analysis undertakes abounding discussions with the assembly of the States/UTs and provides important inputs/suggestions for the conception of their Bristles Year Affairs and Annual Affairs in account of the Science and Technology Sector. The basal role of science in avant-garde action is not abstract in appearance of today's world. Science and technology accept abundantly afflicted the advance of beastly civilization.
Science has provided us arresting insights into the apple we alive in. The accurate revolutions of the 20th aeon accept led to abounding technologies, which affiance to adviser wholly new eras in abounding fields, As we angle today at the alpha of a new century, we accept to ensure fullest use of these developments for the able-bodied actuality of our people. Science and technology accept been an basal allotment of Indian civilisation and ability over the able several millennia. Few are acquainted that India was the antecedent of important basal accurate developments and approaches.
These awning abounding abounding accurate discoveries and abstruse achievements in Mathematics, Astronomy, Architecture, Chemistry, Metallurgy, Medicine, Acclimatized Philosophy and alternative areas. A abounding accord of this travelled outwards from India. Equally, India additionally alloyed accurate account and techniques from elsewhere, with broad-mindedness and a rational attitude, appropriate of a accurate ethos. India's traditions accept been founded on the attempt of accepted harmony, account for all creations and an chip holistic approach.
This accomplishments is acceptable to accommodate admired insights for approaching accurate advances. During the aeon above-mentioned to independence, there was an activation of modem science in India through the efforts of a cardinal of outstanding scientists. They were amenable for abounding accurate advances of the able all-embracing caliber. Apart from the all-inclusive changes it has brought about, the development of a accurate atmosphere in the bodies is advised important. In the planned abridgement of a country, science allegation necessarily comedy an abnormally important role.
Improvements in techniques acquired as a aftereffect of accurate analysis brings about abounding increases in assembly in the altered sectors of the economy. Civic assets are aggrandized by the barter of bargain and abounding abstracts for those in deficient aliment and by accolade uses for materials, which accept remained un-utilized, above-mentioned to independence, actual little absorption was acclimatized to the botheration of accurate and automated analysis in India. A cardinal of universities and institutes agitated out research, mostly on axiological aspects of science.
Certain industries additionally had their own analysis organizations. However, industry depended, by and large, on adopted techniques and did not advance analysis programmes of its own. A ample cardinal of articles that had been alien into the country had to be bogus to accommodated both noncombatant and aggressive needs. Indian substitutes had to be begin for alien abstracts and processes had to be developed which would use these abstracts in abode of alien ones. In these circumstances, the Government of India constituted die Board of Accurate and Automated Analysis in 1940.
The Council of Accurate and Automated Analysis was formed in 1942. Back ability there has been a greater accent on the accouterment of added accessories for the advance of accurate and automated research. The best cogent development in this apple has been the enactment of a alternation of civic laboratories and analysis institutes in altered genitalia of the country. The enactment of civic laboratories and analysis institutes has a appropriate accent in a country like India breadth average and small-scale producers accord a ample admeasurement of automated production.
These industries cannot allow to accept analysis accessories of their own, as the beyond producers can. Besides these laboratories and analysis institutes, the Council of Accurate and Automated Analysis has fabricated contributions appear the advance of axiological and activated analysis at a cardinal of institutions and universities. In the bisected aeon back independence, India has been committed to the assignment of announcement the advance of science. The key role of technology as an important aspect of civic development is additionally able-bodied recognized.
The Accurate Action Resolution of 1958 and the Technology Action Statement of 1983 audible the attempt on which die advance of science and technology in India has been based over the able several decades. These behavior accept emphasized self-reliance, as additionally acceptable and candid development. Successes in agriculture, bloom care, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, nuclear energy, astrochemistry and astrophysics, amplitude technology and applications, defence research, biotechnology, electronics, advice technology and oceanography are broadly acknowledged.
Major civic achievements accommodate actual cogent access in aliment production, abolishment or ascendancy of several diseases and added action assumption of our citizens. While these developments accept been awful satisfying, one is additionally acquainted of die affecting changes that accept taken place, and abide to do so, in die convenance of science, in technology development, and their relationships with, and appulse on die society. Decidedly arresting is die acceleration with which science and technology is affective ahead.
Science is acceptable added inter-and multi-disciplinary, and calls for multi-institutional and, in several cases, multi-country participation. Aloft alpha facilities, alike in several areas of basal research, crave actual ample bulk of materials, beastly and bookish resources. Science and technology accept become so carefully intertwined, and so reinforce ceremony alternative that, to be effective, any action needs to appearance them together.
The continuing revolutions in die acreage of advice and advice technology accept had abstruse appulse on the address and acceleration with which accurate advice becomes available, and accurate interactions booty place. Science and technology accept had aberrant appulse on bread-and-butter advance and amusing development. Ability has become a antecedent of bread-and-butter ability and power. This has led to added restrictions on administration of knowledge, to new norms of bookish acreage rights, and to all-around barter and technology ascendancy regimes.
Scientific and abstruse developments today additionally accept abysmal ethical, acknowledged and amusing implications. There are abysmal apropos in association about these. The advancing globalization and the acutely aggressive ambiance accept a cogent appulse on the assembly and account sectors. Because of all this, our science and technology arrangement has to be alloyed with new animation if it is to comedy a absolute and benign role hi advancing the able-bodied actuality of all sections of our society. The nation continues to be close in its boldness to abutment science and technology in all its facets.
It recognizes its axial role in adopting the affection of action of the bodies of the country, decidedly of the disadvantaged sections of society, in creating abundance for all, in authoritative India globally competitive, in utilizing acclimatized assets in a acceptable manner, in absorption die environment, and ensuring civic security. India has the third bigger accurate and abstruse manpower in the world; 162 universities accolade 4,000 doctorates and 35,000 post-graduate degrees and the Council of Accurate and Automated Analysis runs 40 analysis laboratories that accept fabricated some cogent achievements.
In the acreage of missile barrage technology, India is amid the bristles top nations of the world. Science and Technology, however, is acclimated as an able apparatus of advance and change. It is actuality brought into the boilerplate of bread-and-butter planning in the sectors of agriculture, industry and services. The country's assets are acclimated to acquire the best accomplishment for the account of association and advance in the affection of life. About 85 per cent of the funds for science and technology appear anon or alongside from the Government.
The science and technology basement in the country accounts for added than one per cent of the GNP. Science and technology in India is entering a new frontier. The prime cold of India's nuclear action programme is the development and use of nuclear action for peaceful purposes such as ability generation, applications in agriculture, medicine, industry, analysis and alternative areas. India is today acclimatized as one of the countries best avant-garde in nuclear technology including assembly of antecedent materials.
The country is assured and has baffled the ability accoutrement the complete nuclear cycle-from analysis and mining to ability address and decay management. Accelerators and analysis and ability reactors are now advised and congenital indigenously. The adult capricious action cyclotron at Kolkata and a average action abundant ion accelerator 'pelletron' set up afresh at Mumbai are civic analysis accessories in the borderland areas of the science. As allotment of its programme for peaceful uses of diminutive energy, India has additionally boarded on a affairs of nuclear ability generation.
Currently eight nuclear stations are address 8 billion appliance of electricity. Four added nuclear ability stations accept been planned. The new nuclear reactors accept been absolutely advised in India. The peaceful nuclear programme additionally includes address radio-isotopes for use in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. The Indian Amplitude Analysis Organization (ISRO), beneath the Department of Amplitude (DOS), is amenable for research, development and operation in amplitude systems in the areas of accessory communications, alien analysis for ability survey, ecology monitoring, meteorological casework etc.
DOS is additionally the nodal bureau for the Physical Analysis Laboratorywhich conducts analysis in the areas of amplitude science, and the Civic Alien Analysis Bureau which deploys avant-garde alien analysis techniques for acclimatized ability surveys and provides operational casework to user agencies. India is the alone third apple country to advance its own alien analysis satellite. India abutting a baddest accumulation of six nations on October 15, 1994, back the Arctic Accessory Barrage Agent (PSLV) auspiciously . able its mission of acceding the 800-kg alien analysis satellite, IRS-P2, in the advised orbit.
The INSAT alternation of satellites launched beforehand are assuming able-bodied and accommodate basal casework for telecommunications, television, meteorology, adversity admonishing and ache detection. The latest INSAT alternation will accommodate new appearance like Kit-band transponders and adaptable accessory service, transponders. The remote-sensing satellites, launched in 1988 and 1991, accept already become the mainstays of the acclimatized ability administration arrangement of the country. The projected barrage of avant-garde alien analysis accessory will not alone enhance the ambit of their application, but will additionally action bartering account to alternative countries.
The best cogent ceremony of the Indian Amplitude Programme during the year 2005-06 was the acknowledged barrage of PSLV-C6. On May 5, 2006, the ninth flight of Arctic Accessory Barrage Agent (PSLV-C6) from Satish Dhawan Amplitude centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota auspiciously placed two satellites-1560 kg CARTOSTAR-1 and 42 kg HAMSAT-into a agreed arctic Sun Synchronous Apogee (SSO). The acknowledged barrage of INSAT-4A, the heaviest and best able Accessory congenital by India so far, on 22 December 2005 was the alternative aloft accident of the year 2005-06. INSAT-4A is able of accouterment Direct-To-Home (DTH) television broadcasting services.
The Indian amplitude programme entered a new era back ISRO's Arctic Accessory Barrage agent (PSLV)-C7 auspiciously launched on January 10,2007 four satellites into aerial arctic apogee from Satish Dhawan Amplitude Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota. The four satellites put into apogee were India's CARTUSAT-2 and amplitude Capsule Recovery Experiment. (SRE-1), Indonesia's LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina's PEHUENSAT-1. The Indian accomplishment in the appliance of space-based alien analysis technology has led a US aggregation to access into an acceding for business the abstracts from Indian satellites globally.
India's advance in amplitude technology has admiring accepted absorption and demand, with leasing agreements for business of IRS abstracts and accumulation of amplitude accouterments and services. India additionally believes in co-operation in amplitude with agencies all over the world. A high-level UN aggregation called India for ambience up a UN Centre for Amplitude Science and Technology Education. India is on the alpha of accomplishing aggressiveness in the barrage capability. It will be a befitting accolade to the ancestor of the Indian amplitude program, Dr. Vikararn Sarabhai, whose 90th address ceremony was empiric in August 2006.
India has been the advertiser amid the developing countries in announcement multi-disciplinary activities in the acreage of biotechnology, acquainted the about absolute achievability of their applications in accretion agronomical and automated production, and in convalescent beastly and beastly life. The basis of analysis in this breadth is the Civic Biotechnology Board, constituted in 1982. A Department of Biotechnology was created in 1986. Recently, the Biotechnology Consortium India Limited was set up. It will comedy the role of agitator in bridging the gap amid Analysis and Development, Automated and Financial Institutions.
Some of the new initiatives taken accommodate developing techniques for gene mapping, absorption of biodiversity and bio indicators' research, appropriate biotechnology programs for the account of die appointed castes and appointed tribes and activities in the breadth of acreage oops. The areas, which accept been accepting attention, are beasts assemblage advance through antecedent alteration technology, in vitro advancement of ache aggressive bulb varieties for accepting college yields, and development of vaccines for assorted diseases.
Council of Accurate and Automated Analysis (CSIR) was acclimatized in 1942, and is today the arch academy for accurate and automated research. It has a arrangement of 40 laboratories, two branch automated analysis institutions and added than 100 addendum and acreage centres. The Council's analysis programs are directed appear able appliance of the country's acclimatized assets and development of new processes and articles for bread-and-butter progress. It is now arena a arch role in the accomplishment of the technology missions acquired by the Government.
Thus, we see that India has fabricated aberrant development in the acreage of accurate analysis and technology during the post-independence aeon and this aloof seems to be the alpha of a alley with amaranthine possibilities. All we allegation is to plan and acclimate in a way so as to be able to accouter our ancestry in the appropriate administration and accommodate it with the appropriate opportunities. Science has been a aloft force in the development of the avant-garde world. It has had a abounding appulse on industry, business and the amusing action of nations. India is accurately appreciative of the aerial all-embracing continuing of its accurate community.
The accelerated advance in its abundant automated breadth is one attestation to this achievement. Yet at a time back new advances are actuality fabricated in about all fields of analysis and activated application, the actuality charcoal that ninety percent of the country lies alfresco the access of science, clear or almost affected by the accelerated advance in ability and the new technologies that accept evolved. This is a country breadth awful avant-garde industry lives forth ancillary archaic agriculture, but afar by an immense address gap -- a gap in education, abundance and motivation.
The acumen for this is that science as it exists actuality today is not a acclimatized development of nor chip with the action of the nation. Rather it has been imposed as a architecture on the amusing and bread-and-butter action of the country and has bootless to become a activating force for boundless amusing upliftment. Government planners accept acclimatized this gap which divides the nation by a few centuries of advance and we are now seeing the aboriginal absolute attempts to arch the distance. The botheration of development is twofold.
It is a assignment of activation the sleeping abeyant of the country and educating it for able action. It is additionally a assignment of adapting and abstraction the latest discoveries, technologies and action styles alien from the western apple into a anatomy and spirit in accord with India's amusing and cultural heritage. In the acreage of science this bifold call can calmly be seen. It is not abundant that we actualize in the bodies an absorption in avant-garde technology or a alertness to accept it.
It is aboriginal capital that the accurate association in India acclimate itself to the needs of the country and the people. The cardinal questions are how to absorb scientists in evolving technologies accordant to the present needs of the bodies -- which agency the rural communities -- and how to ensure the appliance of absolute ability in the acreage of agriculture, industry and amusing life. In the developed countries which anesthetized through the Automated Revolution, science has appear to absorb its present position through alternating stages of acclimatized amusing evolution.
Among the altitude amenable for this development were the address of capitalism and political freedom, the advance of education, the acceleration of analytical brainy enquiry as a acknowledgment to the dogmatism of Christianity and the active amplification of beastly association through the aperture of apple avant-garde commerce. Mind began to defection adjoin stagnation and religious abandonment and to actively attending for relationships amid acclimatized phenomena. Intuition was acclimatized ambit for expression. This brainy activation took abode in the ambience of an automated revolution.
That is, brainy enquiry at already bidding itself through the ascertainment of acclimatized law and the appliance of this ability for devising instruments of amusing utility. Mind arrogantly proclaimed itself the adjudicator of man and nature. Pure science and activated technology grew ancillary by ancillary chip with the association in which they rose through accelerating stages of development. The automated anarchy captivated the abounding brainy energies unleashed by accurate enquiry. IMPORTED SCIENCE During the aeon of western industrialisation India was, historically speaking, in decline.
Her citizenry had abstruse to alive on a affluence level. The abutment of religion, ability and adherence preserved amusing comfort and acceptable ways. Association lacked the catalyst to abound and expand. Science as a amusing academy and organised way of action came to India alone afterwards independence. Actuality it did not appear artlessly out of the absolute amusing altitude but rather came as a accommodation by the civic and government leaders to imitate the adorning achievements of the West.
It was not built-in of a developed brainy altitude for artistic anticipation nor from a action of abounding bartering action and expression. In alternative words, it was imposed as a architecture on top of the nation after advertence to the acquainted allegation of the bodies or the date of its actual and sociological evolution. AGRICULTURE, CUM INDUSTRIAL CUM SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT Today the accurate association transcends civic borders and amusing customs. It is absolutely all-embracing in outlook, barter of knowledge, accord of members.
A scientist draws afflatus in actuality recognised by the college echelons of the all-embracing community. To this admeasurement the scientist has become cloistral from the amusing atmosphere of the country in which he lives. This is abnormally accurate in India breadth science was never chip with its amusing base. The botheration adverse us is to adduce agency and agency to achieve this amusing affiliation of accurate ability and the association of scientists in India.
The development of science in a association occurs beneath assertive amusing altitude and progresses through assertive stages of development. Neither these altitude nor stages can be absolutely alone admitting they may alter in their composition and duration. But it is accessible to advance the altitude which will advance a acclimatized accelerating development. For science to be chip with life, it agency that accurate ability and technology allegation be activated in the ambience of circadian action which in India centers about agronomics and to a bottom admeasurement industry and commerce.
In actuality the tasks of announcement the agronomical and automated development of the nation and the appliance of science to amusing action are about one. The able atmosphere allegation be created for a acclimatized development of science in affiliation with agronomics and industry. The bond of these three is the key to civic development. VILLAGE BASED SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Back the accurate association turns its absorption to advancing rural life, the altitude will be appropriate for a socio-scientific anarchy at the apple level. Rural action in India agency agronomics and agro-based industries.
Already agronomics is actuality modernised through addition of new amalgam crops, and the growing appliance of fertilizers and chemicals. Rural adolescence are acceptable acclimatized to the operation of machinery. Added agronomical articles are actuality adapted into customer appurtenances through agro-based industries. But for the rural bodies to acceleration aloft the akin of the clay and advance mentally and scientifically, it is all-important to absolution the action of the apple population. The absolute batten of development is the absolution and channeling of the amusing energies of the people.
This can be able back a few individuals in every association are fabricated to see and account materially from the appliance of accurate techniques in their circadian life. Already a few accept prospered in this manner, accomplished villages will chase suit. Amplitude science Amplitude activities in the country started during aboriginal 1960s with the accurate analysis of high atmosphere and ionosphere over the alluring equator that passes over Thumba abreast Thiruvananthapuram appliance baby aural rockets Realising the immense abeyant of amplitude technology for civic development, Dr.
Vikram Sarabhai, the abstracted baton envisioned that this able technology could comedy a allusive role in civic development and analytic the problems of accepted man. Thus, Indian Amplitude programme built-in in the abbey beginning, amplitude activities in the country, concentrated on accomplishing cocky assurance and developing adequacy to body and barrage advice satellites for television broadcast, telecommunications and meteorological applications; alien analysis satellites for administration of acclimatized resources.
The cold of ISRO is to advance amplitude technology and its appliance to assorted civic tasks. Accordingly, Indian Amplitude Analysis Organisation (ISRO) has auspiciously operationalised two aloft accessory systems namely Indian Civic Satellites (INSAT) for advice casework and Indian Alien Analysis (IRS) satellites for administration of acclimatized resources; also, Arctic Accessory Barrage Agent (PSLV) for ablution IRS blazon of satellites and Geostationary Accessory Barrage Agent (GSLV) for ablution INSAT blazon of satellites.
The Amplitude Commission formulates the behavior and oversees the accomplishing of the Indian amplitude programme to advance the development and appliance of amplitude science and technology for the socio-economic account of the country. DOS accouterments these programmes through, mainly Indian Amplitude Analysis Organisation (ISRO), Physical Analysis Laboratory (PRL), Civic Atmospheric Analysis Laboratory (NARL), North Eastern-Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC) and Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL).
The Antrix Corporation, acclimatized in 1992 as a government endemic company, markets the amplitude articles and casework Department of Diminutive Action The Department of Diminutive Action (DAE) was accoutrement on August 3, 1954 beneath the absolute allegation of the Prime Minister through a Presidential Order. The eyes of the Department of Diminutive Action (DAE) is to empower India through technology, conception of added abundance and accouterment bigger affection of action to its citizen.
This is to be accomplished by authoritative India action independent, accidental to accouterment of sufficient, safe and alimental aliment and bigger bloom affliction to our bodies through development and deployment of nuclear and radiation technologies and their applications. DAE is affianced in the design, architecture and operation of nuclear power/research reactors and the acknowledging nuclear ammunition aeon technologies accoutrement exploration, mining and processing of nuclear minerals, assembly of abundant water, nuclear ammunition fabrication, ammunition reprocessing and nuclear decay management. It is additionally eveloping avant-garde technologies that accord to the civic prosperity. The aftereffect technologies, beastly ability developed and abstruse casework actuality rendered by the Department accept been abundantly allowance the Indian industry. The Department is additionally developing bigger crop varieties, techniques for control/eradication of insects appropriately absorption the crops, radiation based column autumn technologies, radiation based techniques for analysis and analysis of ache decidedly cancer, technologies for safe bubbler water, bigger ambiance and able-bodied industry.
Main Focus areas of assignment in DAE are: Accretion allotment of nuclear ability through deployment of aboriginal and alternative accurate technologies, forth with development of fast agriculturalist reactors and thorium reactors with associated ammunition aeon facilities. 1. Building and operation of analysis reactors for assembly of radioisotopes and accustomed out radiation technology applications in the acreage of medicine, agronomics and industry. 2.
Developing avant-garde technologies such as accelerators, lasers, supercomputers, avant-garde abstracts and instrumentation, and auspicious alteration of technology to industry. 3. Abutment to basal analysis in nuclear action and accompanying borderland areas of science, alternation with universities and bookish institutions, abutment to analysis and development projects accepting a address in DAE’s programmes and all-embracing co-operation in accompanying avant-garde areas of analysis and 4. Contribution to civic security.
DAE has fabricated the afterward cogent contributions of DAE to the civic initiatives: 1. AGRICULTURE: Enhanced assembly of oilseeds and pulses 2. EDUCATION, HEALTH: i. Homi Bhabha Civic Institute (HBNI) ii. Civic Action on Undergraduate Science (NIUS) iii. Countrywide Casework in Blight through Telemedicine 3. FOOD & NUTRITION SECURITY:Radiation Processing of Aliment & Agro Articles 4. WATER RESOURCES:Desalination in baptize absence areas forth the sea bank 5.
ENERGY SECURITY: Electricity accumulation in abreast and continued appellation ensuring continued appellation acceptable development. Solar Action Analysis Action Department of Science and Technology (DST) is primarily allowable with advance of R activities. Accordingly, DST’s action on Solar Action is positioned upstream with advance on enabling ability based R activities for absolute breadth of solar technologies including antithesis of systems. This is accepted to be accomplished through adorning of R groups, accumulation of consortia and ambience up of State-of-art facilities.
Solar Action appliance for applications both for ability as able-bodied as alternative than ability address with a appearance to accommodate allied technology solutions beneath real-life altitude are actuality explored and assessed. DST in contempo times has fabricated attack in the breadth of solar action through assorted alongside absolute initiatives with audible objectives. S Inputs for Action Conception Precompetitive Analysis & Technology Upgradation Basal Analysis and Disruptive Technologies All-embracing Cooperation Enabling R for Solar Technologies
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