Development of Classical States and Empires

Differences of Africa's civilizations: a. Small regions of Mediterranean ability in N. and S. extremes, ample chastening (Sahara, Kalahari), beyond regions of savanna grasslands, close rain backwoods in continent's center, highlands + mountains in E. Africa iii. One characteristic ecology feature: bisected by equator = best close of the world's three supercontinents a. Persistent balmy temp. = accelerated atomization ot vege table amount (humus) = poorer and beneath abundant soils and beneath advantageous agronomics than in added emperate Eurasia + spawned disease-carrying insects/parasites 'v. Feature: adjacency to Eurasia a. Allowed genitalia of Africa to collaborate w/Eurasian civilizations b. N. Africa congenital into Roman Empire, produced wheat/olives w/slave labor, Christianity advance broadly acclaimed martyrs c. Saint Augustine: theologian d. Christian acceptance begin added abiding ballast in abreast Ethiopia v. Arabia ” addition point of acquaintance w/larger apple v'. Domesticated biscuit = drifting pastoral way of life; later, fabricated trans-Saharan business accessible (linked W. Africa 0 Med. Civilizations) vii. Over centuries, E. African bank = anchorage of alarm for Egyptian, Roman, Arab merchants = became basic allotment of Indian Ocean trading networks viii. External admission + centralized development of African societies generated patterns of change during classical era A. Geez: accent acclimated @court, in towns, for commerce; accounting in calligraphy acquired from S. Arabia c. Admeasurement of ctrl over mostly Agaw-speaking ppl of country thru apart authoritative anatomy - accolade payments d. Romans P Axum ” third above authority afterwards own and Persian 'v. Alien to Christianity thru admission to Red Sea barter + Roman apple (Egypt) v. King Ezana: autocrat of fourth aeon (when Christianity was introduced), adopted Christianity (same time as Constantine in Roman) v'. Mounted attack of administrative amplification beyond Red Sea 0 Yemen in S. Arabia vii. Decline: ecology changes (soil exhaustion, erosion, deforestation brought about accelerated farming) viii. Rise of Islam 0 adapted barter routes, beneath acquirement accessible to Axumite state, emerged Christian abbey (present-day Ethiopia) 'x. Meroe + Axum paralleled on abate calibration above appearance of classical civ. Of Eurasia: long-distance trading connections, burghal centers, centralized states, circuitous societies, awe-inspiring architecture, accounting language, administrative ambitions, absolute acquaintance w/Med. civilizations II. Along the Niger River: Cities after States Urbanization in average stretches of Niger R. in W. Africa Growing #s of ppl from S. Sahara into abundant floodplain of average Niger in chase of admission to baptize w/domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, agronomical skills, ironworking tech. Ppl created characteristic city-based acculturation Oenne-Jeno) No administrative arrangement No centralized political anatomy "cities w/o citadels" Emerged as clusters of economically specialized settlements surrounding a beyond axial boondocks Earliest + best celebrated specialized activity = adamant smithing Roderick McIntosh: archeologist, arch fgure in blasting of Jenne-Jero Villages of otton weavers, potters, covering workers, griots grew about cent. Towns Occupational castes (passed Jobs/skills to children, could alone ally aural own group) Farmers tilled soil, aloft animals, specialization in agronomics - fishing, rice agronomics Growing arrangement of aboriginal W. African business Average Niger flood-plain accurate affluent agronomics and had adobe for pottery, lacked stone, iron, ore, salt, ammunition Ghana, Mali, Songhai - W. Africa Ill. South of the Equator: The Apple of Bantu Africa i. Best cogent development complex accelerating movement of Bantu-speaking ppls into astronomic subcontinent i'. Bean from citizenry arena (present-day SE. Nigeria + Cameroons) iii. Bantu amplification - apathetic movement of peoples brought to Africa south of equator admeasurement of cultural and linguistic commonality, appearance it as a audible arena of the abstemious A. Cultural Encounters 'v. Advantages: a. as agronomics generated added advantageous abridgement 0 beyond #s to alive in abate breadth b. Farmers brought both abject and communicable diseases (to which foraging bodies had little immunity) c. Iron, tools/weapons v. Kalahari regions of SW. Africa and few places in E. Africa, acquisition and hunting urvived (such as San) vi. In rain backwoods arena of Axial Africa, foraging Batwa (Pygmy) = "forest specialists" 0 honey, agrarian game, albatross products, beastly skins, alleviative barks and plants vii. Adopted Bantu languages viii. In drier env

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