Dell`s Working Capital
TABLE OF CONTENTS DescriptionPage # Executive Summary1 Introduction Background Purpose2 Analysis and Assay Dell’s Advancing Advantage Allotment 52% Advance in 1996 Allotment 50% Advance in 19973 Conclusion5 Exhibits Exhibit 1: Dell’s Anniversary Accepted Sales Dollar Advance Against Industry Exhibit 2: DSI Allegory of Dell, IBM, and Compaq Exhibit 3: Alive Basic Banking Ratios for Dell Exhibit 4: Percent of Dell Computer Systems Sales by Microprocessor Exhibit 5: Accumulation & Loss Statements for Dell Computer Corporation Exhibit 6: Antithesis Bedding for Dell Computer Corporation
Exhibit 7: Projected Antithesis Area of Dell Computer Corporation for 1996 Exhibit 8: Projected Antithesis Area of Dell Computer Corporation for 1997 Exhibit 9: Projected Accumulation and Loss Account of Dell for 1997 Exhibit 10: Antithesis Area for Dell Computer Corporation, 1997 Exhibit 11: Accumulation & Loss Account for Dell Computer Corporation, 199712 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This case abstraction assay of Dell’s Alive Basic and its banking statements has been done to appear up with a plan for the aggregation to accounts its approaching growth.
Dell Computer Corporation has accurate to be one of those companies that accommodate an absolute industry. They were the ones to acquaint the Build-To-Order business archetypal in the computer accomplishment sector, which gave them a appropriate as able-bodied as advancing advantage over another companies. This new business archetypal forth with its alive basic administration and allocation of assets provided Dell with the befalling for abundant advance in the 1990’s. We forecasted, application the percent of sales method, for the banking statements of 1996 and 1997.
The sales were added by 52% for 1996 and 50% for 1997. The banking ratios of our pro forma antithesis bedding were calculated, and the advice was acclimated to aggregate out the alien funds bare by Dell to accounts its growth. As per the assay there was no claim of any alien funds because the EFN (External Funds Needed) came out to be negative. According to our assay Dell’s operational and banking anatomy seems to be organized in such a way that it does not charge any alien allotment for abundant advance opportunities.
Due to factors like its Build-To-Order model, alive basic management, and its anniversary system, Dell has abundant assets to accounts its advance internally and after any charge for alien financing. Also, the aggregation has the abeyant to payout its abiding debt and access its allotment action by application its centralized funds. All this can be done after harming the anticipation of approaching advance and amplification potential. INTRODUCTION Dell Computer Corporation was founded by Michael Saul Dell in 1984. Dell designs, manufactures, sells and casework claimed computers.
The company’s advance aggregate added appreciably already it started business and affairs its own cast claimed computers by demography orders over the buzz (and after online), and aircraft anon to customers. This was Dell’s aggregate strategy. This, forth with the Build-To-Order archetypal (similar to Toyota’s Just-In-Time, a. k. a. JIT, system) gave Dell the high duke over its competitors. Dell has abundant abate investments in alive basic than its competitors because of this Build-To-Order model. It additionally helps Dell to booty advantage of the allowances of reductions in basic prices and to acquaint new articles in the bazaar added frequently.
Over the years, back its inception, Dell has developed bound and has been able to accounts its advance internally by its able use of alive basic and its profitability. During the mid 1990’s, the PC industry was growing at a accelerated folio forth with Dell arch the revolution. As mentioned earlier, Dell alien its Build-To-Order archetypal to the industry, which accustomed barter to accept customized computers systems with the latest technology. Dell was able to accumulate its Work-In-Process (WIP) and accomplished appurtenances anniversary at absolute low levels.
These models accepted absolute acceptable for befitting costs low, but Dell additionally basic to capitalize on the anticipation of approaching growth. The best important questions adverse Dell was – how to abound and at what cost. The purpose of this analysis is to assay Dell’s aggregate strategy, its alive basic management, and appear up with a plan to accounts its approaching advance by evaluating its banking statements. RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Dell revolutionized the PC industry in the 1990’s because of its cardinal accession of the Build-To-Order model. It was a adventurous new business archetypal that afflicted the rules of the industry.
Through our analysis we accept appear to apperceive that in today’s advancing world, a ablaze business archetypal abandoned does not actualize a acceptable advantage, unless it is supplemented by operational excellence, the connected identification and acceptance of best practices. Dell’s Advancing Advantage Dell set itself afar from the antagonism by developing a arrangement to bigger administer its alive capital. While competitors focused on forecasting approaching sales, Dell developed the Build-To-Order model. This accustomed for Dell to advance their anniversary aggregate at a minimum, which in about-face bargain their aggregate of appurtenances sold.
Through this action Dell’s Work-In-Process (WIP) anniversary and accomplished appurtenances anniversary in affiliation to present absolute anniversary in the 1990’s was about 10% to 20%. This knocks out the antagonism which stood at about 60%. Dell absolutely set itself afar from the competition. Dell fabricated abiding to adept this action which accustomed them to accommodate a anniversary to the bazaar that the antagonism could not bear on as bound as Dell. They were able to adapt orders according to the customer’s needs and do it quickly.
As acclaimed in Exhibit 2, in the fourth division of 1994 Dell’s Circadian Sales of Anniversary (DSI) was 33 while the abutting adversary IBM was at 57. This agency that Dell was affairs its anniversary about alert as bound as the abutting competitor. This blazon of advantage is what propelled Dell as a top adversary aural this market. In January 1996, for example, Dell had anniversary to awning 32 canicule of sales while Compaq Computer had anniversary to awning 73 canicule of sales. One way for us to quantify Dell’s advancing advantage is to anniversary the access in anniversary Dell would accept bare if it operated at Compaq’s DSI level.
Using Dell’s Aggregate of Sales (COS) for 1995 independent in Exhibit 5 and the advice on DSI independent in Exhibit 2: Added anniversary at Compaq’s DSI = (Dell’s COS) (Compaq’s DSI – Dell’s DSI)/360 canicule = [($2,737) (73-32)]/360 = $312 million. This $312 million, in perspective, represents 59% of Dell’s banknote and abbreviate appellation investments, 48% of stockholder disinterestedness and 209% of its 1995 income, as apparent in Exhibit 4 and 5. The body to adjustment set up additionally enabled Dell to calmly accomplish changes to their systems as new updates were available. This was acutely axiomatic in 1994 back Intel Corporation begin that their dent was flawed.
Unlike Dell, the antagonism had so abundant anniversary that it had to abide to advertise the awry systems. Dell was able to alpha affairs their new systems with the categorical chips. Another able archetype took abode in 1995, back Dell had the advancing advantage of achievement able to add the Pentium technology to their absolute line, while the antagonism were not able to accept the technology as bound because of their ample inventory. As apparent in Exhibit 3, 75% of Dell’s auction in 1996 was from computer systems that had Pentium processors. Dell’s Build-To-Order archetypal and consistent anniversary had some risks.
Component shortages were a disadvantage of Dell’s advancing anniversary archetypal and, on occasion, Dell had to adjustment backlogs because of genitalia shortages. While acquirement may accept been absent due to annulled orders or delayed until food were available, the accelerated abstruse change fabricated the advantages of Dell’s access outweigh its disadvantages. Allotment 52% Advance in 1996 Dell’s sales jumped up by 52% in 1996 as apparent in Exhibit 1. Dell was able to armamentarium this amplification in 1996 by acclamation the banking requirements from several angles.
First we charge accept absolutely how abundant alive basic Dell bare to appear up with in adjustment to armamentarium the growth. We anniversary this by award Operating Assets (Total Assets – Abbreviate Appellation Investment). Operating Assets for 1995 were in the aggregate of $1,110 actor (Exhibit 6). This as a allotment of absolute sales is 32%. Now we apperceive how abundant money was bare to armamentarium $3,475 actor dollars in sales. The allotment of sales adjustment can be activated to any access in sales to acquisition the added aggregate of Operating Assets bare in affiliation to sales.
From 1995 to 1996 Dell’s sales added by $1,821 actor ($5,296 actor - $3,475 million). Application the allotment of sales adjustment for operating assets to sales we ascertain that Dell bare an added $583 actor (32% of $1,821 million) to armamentarium the 52% advance in sales. Exhibit 7 shows that the projected 1996 antithesis area application the allotment of sales method. Two sets of projections are made. In both, Operating Assets (Total Assets beneath Short-Term Investments) are affected to abound with sales based on 1995 anniversary balances as percent of 1995 sales. Short-Term Investments are affected to be constant.
The projected 1996 assets according about $2. 2 billion, an access of about $583 million. If 1995 accumulation allowance of 4. 3% is held, Dell would accept accomplished $227 actor in net income, abrogation a allotment claim of $355 actor ($583 actor beneath $227 million). Assuming that liabilities abide connected as abundant in the Anchored Liabilities bump in Exhibit 7. The Proportional Liabilities bump assumes that the liabilities abound as sales abound based on the 1995 sales ratios. Those projections appearance that Dell would accept antithesis allotment of $136 million.
Thus, as of 1995, Dell would be projected to be able to abound at 32% after accretion its leverage. In all achievement Dell was able to cut the admeasurement of operating assets to sales from 1995 to 1996. Assets went from $1,594 actor to $2,148 million, however, Operating Assets (Total assets – Abbreviate Appellation Investment) went from $1,110 actor in 1995 to $1,557 actor in 1996. In affiliation to absolute sales Operating Assets went from 32% in 1995 to 29. 4% in 1996. This abatement of 2. 6% shows that while sales increased, Dell was able to abatement inventory, centralized action costs, and accounts receivables per dollar of sales.
Operating ability increased, abbreviation the allotment costs of growth. To actuate the absolute aftereffect operating ability had on costs we accumulate the 2. 6% abatement by the sales of that year ($5,296 actor * 2. 6%) giving Dell $138 actor in aggregate savings. This reduces our appraisal of absolute allotment costs from $583 actor to $445 million. Gross Allowance for Dell additionally added decidedly during 1996, partially giving Dell a college Net Profit. In accession to aggregate cuts on operating assets Dell managed to abatement (as a percent of sales) Aggregate of Sales and Operating Expenses.
These cuts advance to an access in accumulation margins from 4. 3% in 1995 to 5. 1% in 1996, giving Dell money to accounts the growth. The absolute Net accumulation was $272 actor in 1996 as apparent in Exhibit 5. On the accountability ancillary of the antithesis sheet, Dell added its accepted liabilities by $187 million. That access was $204 actor beneath than the access that would accept occurred with a commensurable access in accepted liabilities. As a percent of sales, accepted liabilities fell from 21. 6% in 1995 to 17. 7%; Accounts payable was 8. % of sales, a abatement of about 3% (Exhibits 5 and 6). While continued appellation debt remained the same, allotment to sales of accepted liabilities decreased, giving Dell added alive basic to armamentarium the growth. Upon accretion the aggregate savings, net profit, and liabilities the sum equals $597 actor ($138 actor + $272 actor + $187 million). This aggregate far surpasses the appraisal of $582 actor bare to armamentarium the growth. In summary, Dell internally adjourned a 52% advance in sales in 1996, abundantly by accretion its asset ability and profitability. Allotment 50% Advance in 1997
In adjustment to appraise Dell’s allotment options for a 50% sales advance in 1997, we will aboriginal anniversary the Operating Assets and Net Accumulation as a allotment of sales for 1996. Operating Assets as a allotment of sales for 1996 = Absolute Assets – Concise Investments = $2,148 actor - $591 actor = $1,557 million. Net Accumulation allotment = Net Accumulation / Sales = $272 actor / $5,296 actor = 5. 1%. In adjustment to accomplish 50% sales growth, the allotment access bare for Operating Assets would additionally be the aforementioned which is based on the acceptance that back sales access by 50% again Operating Assets would access by the aforementioned proportion.
Hence for 1997, Dell would crave $1,557 actor * 1. 5 = $2,336 actor account of Operating Assets. This implies an accession of $779 actor ($2,336 actor - $1,557 million) in Operating Assets. Next we would anticipation the projected 1997 antithesis area application the allotment of sales method. We accept able the pro forma antithesis area for 1997 befitting in apperception three altered banking perspectives or assumptions. For all three assumptions, assets are based on 1996 sales ratios except for concise investments that are captivated at 1996 levels. In 1996, assets another than concise investments were about 30% of sales.
As mentioned earlier, in adjustment to accomplish the added sales of $2,648 actor (50% of $5,296 million) added Operating Assets of $779 actor would be required. The projected antithesis area of Dell for 1997 is presented in Exhibit 8. The aboriginal accountability acceptance in Exhibit 8 is that liabilities abide anchored at 1996 levels. If the 1996 accumulation allowance of 5. 1% charcoal constant, again the net profits of $407 actor would armamentarium allotment of the added assets. The pro forma antithesis area would still not bout and appropriately Dell would crave added allotment of $373 million. The added iability acceptance in Exhibit 8 is that liabilities access with the 1996 sales ratios. With this acceptance the liabilities and net accumulation as a allotment of sales will additionally access proportionally by 50% for 1997. Exhibit 9 shows the projected Accumulation and Loss account of Dell for 1997. Absolute projected liabilities for 1997 would be Liabilities (1996) * 1. 5 = $1,175 actor * 1. 5 = $1,763 million. This way Dell would accept antithesis basic of $215 million. From the two assumptions fabricated above, the added one is added believable because the affairs of liabilities actual anchored over the year are absolute low.
From the Exhibits 8 and 9 we can see that Short-Term Investments will be about $591 actor for 1997. This way we would accept a absolute of $407 actor (Net Profit) + $588 actor (Increase in Liabilities) + $591 actor (Short-Term Investments) = $1,584 actor available, which would be aloft the appropriate access in Operating Assets of $779 million. So we can see that Dell would be able to armamentarium its 50% projected advance for 1997 internally. Dell may accept to admeasure these funds to altered sectors and still accomplish at best capacity.
The third accountability acceptance fabricated in Exhibit 8 is of repurchasing $500 actor of accepted banal and the claim of its continued appellation debt. The another liabilities are affected to access as per the allotment of sales method. As a aftereffect of abbreviation debt and disinterestedness capital, Dell would actualize a huge banknote arrears of about $900 actor ($861 actor to be precise). One way to affected this arrears would be affairs its Short-Term Investments. But, as we can see from Exhibit 6, Dell’s Short-Term Investments accept developed at a abundant aggregate from 1994 to 1996.
Therefore, this accommodation ability be adjoin the company’s action to abjure funds from a awful affluent sector. A added acceptable and able adjustment for Dell to annihilate the projected arrears would be by accretion its asset ability or convalescent profitability. To actuate the consequence of the improvements in asset ability required, it is all-important to actuate the projected boilerplate circadian sales in 1997 - $22. 1 actor per day (150% * 1996 sales of $5296/360 days) and the projected boilerplate circadian aggregate of sales - $17. 6 actor (150% * 1996 COS of 4229/360 days).
The $861 actor shortfall, therefore, corresponds to 39 canicule of sales and about 49 canicule of COS. Exhibit 2 shows that Dell’s banknote about-face aeon was at 40 canicule in the fourth division of 1996. Thus, to acquisition the arrears consistent from debt claim and disinterestedness repurchase, the banknote about-face aeon would accept to become negative. This can be done by accretion payables by 10 days, to its celebrated akin of 43 days. That still leaves a abundant basic arrears that would crave abundant improvements in both anniversary and receivables, and conceivably by extending payables above the actual levels.
Dell can additionally annihilate the 1997 projected basic arrears consistent from the debt claim and repurchase through improvements in profitability. A 1% access in accumulation allowance increases net assets by about $53 million. Although it is absurd that Dell could absolutely armamentarium the claim and disinterestedness repurchase through allowance improvements alone, the allowance improvements abate the appropriate alive basic improvements. A aggregate of both accumulation improvements and alive basic improvements seems to be the alone reasonable another to allotment the shortfall, with the aggregate of the assets advancing from alive basic improvements.
Besides, there are allowances associated with the claim of abiding debt and the repurchase of equity. Improvements in alive basic would enhance Dell’s business action and advice advance its advantage by abbreviation obsolescence and blurred basic costs. The account from the debt claim will be added banking adaptability and the absence of debt covenants. For the disinterestedness repurchase, the account seems to be that assembly (who would not participate in the repurchase) believed Dell’s banal was under-priced in the banal market. The repurchase would, therefore, be a value-increasing accommodation for the actual shareholders.
CONCLUSION Exhibits 10 and 11 accommodate Dell’s Accumulation and Loss Account and Antithesis Area for 1997. Dell’s sales grew over 47% over the above-mentioned budgetary year. Based on 1996 asset-to-sales ratios adapted for concise investments, Dell would accept bare an added $724 actor in operating assets to abutment the access in sales. We can see that Dell was able to armamentarium its 1997 advance internally, accord its continued appellation debt, and repurchase $500 actor in disinterestedness through a aggregate of alive basic and allowance improvements. Improvements in alive basic provided about $900 actor in funding.
Dell generated its 1997 acquirement with alone 7% added alive basic than in 1996. Margins added by 1. 5% of sales during 1997, accouterment about $120 actor in funding. For 1997, Dell’s acknowledgment on sales rose to 6. 6%, up from 5. 1% a year earlier. Though boilerplate acquirement per assemblage fell by 6%, gross allowance added because of reductions in basic prices and a sales mix about-face to college allowance articles such as servers and notebooks. For 1997, gross allowance was 21. 5% against 20. 2% in 1996. Operating allowance additionally bigger as operating amount as a percent of sales fell 12. 3% from 13. 1% a year earlier.
Net profits totaled $531 million, of which $120 actor was the aftereffect of bigger margins over 1996. This added assets provided centralized costs for Dell’s growth. EXHIBITS Exhibit 1 Dell’s anniversary accepted sales dollar advance against industry Agenda YearDella Industry 199163%-2% 1992126%7% 199343%15% 199421%37% 199552%31% a Dell’s budgetary year abutting in alignment to agenda year declared Exhibit 2 DSI allegory of Dell, IBM, and Compaq QuarterDellIBMCompaq Q41994335768 Q41995325473 Exhibit 3 Alive Basic Banking Ratios for Dell DSI aDSO bDPO cCCC d Q19340544648 Q29344515540
Q39347525148 Q49355545356 Q19455585657 Q29441534351 Q39433534541 Q49433504241 Q19532534540 Q29535494440 Q39535504639 Q49532474435 Q19634474239 Q29636504343 Q39637494343 Q49631423340 a DSI (Days Sales of Inventory) = Net Anniversary / (Quarterly COGS/90) b DSO (Days Sales Outstanding) = Net Accounts Receivables / (Quarterly Sales/90) c DPO (Days Payables Outstanding) = Accounts Payables / (Quarterly COGS/90) d CCC (Cash About-face Cycle) = DSI + DSO – DPO Exhibit 4 Percent of Dell Computer Systems Sales by Microprocessor Computer SystemsFY94FY95 FY96 386 models7%0%0% 486 models92%71%25% Pentium models1%29%75%
Exhibit 5 Accumulation & Loss Statements for Dell Computer Corporation (millions of dollars) Budgetary Year19961995199419931992 Sales$5,296 $3,475 $2,873 $2,014 $890 Aggregate of Sales4,229 2,737 2,440 1,565 608 Gross Margin1,067 738 433 449 282 Operating Expenses690 489 472 310 215 Operating Income377 249 (39)139 67 Costs & Another Income6 (36)0 4 7 Assets Taxes111 64 (3)41 23 Net Profit272 149 (36)102 51 Exhibit 6 Antithesis Bedding for Dell Computer Corporation (millions of dollars) Year Ended January 28,January 29,January 30, 199619951994 Accepted Assets: Cash55 43 3 Abbreviate Appellation Investments591 484 334
Accounts Receivables, net726 538 411 Inventories429 293 220 Other156 112 80 Absolute Accepted Assets1,957 1,470 1,048 Property, Plant & Equipment, net179 117 87 Other12 7 5 Absolute Assets2,148 1,594 1,140 Accepted Liabilities: Accounts Payable466 403 NA Accrued and Another Liabilities 473 349 NA Absolute Accepted Liabilities939 752 538 Continued Appellation Debt113 113 100 Another Liabilities123 77 31 Absolute Liabilities1,175 942 669 Stockholders’ Equity: Adopted Banal (Note a)6 120 NA Accepted Banal (Note a)430 242 NA Retained Earnings570 311 NA Other(33)(21)NA Absolute Stockholders’ Equity973 652 471 2,148 1,594 1,140 1,190,000 shares of adopted banal adapted to accepted banal in budgetary year 1996. Exhibit 7 Antithesis Bedding for Dell Computer Corporation - Absolute 1995 and Projected 1996 Year Ended January 29,January 28, 19951996 (Projected) Accepted Assets: Cash43 66 Abbreviate Appellation Investments484 484 Accounts Receivables, net538 818 Inventories293 446 Other112 170 Absolute Accepted Assets1,470 1,984 Property, Plant & Equipment, net117 178 Other7 11 Absolute Assets1,594 2,173 Accepted Liabilities: Accounts Payable403 613 Accrued and Another Liabilities 349 349 Absolute Accepted Liabilities752 962 Continued Appellation Debt113 172 Another Liabilities77 117
Total Liabilities942 1,251 Stockholders’ Equity: Adopted Banal (Note a)120 183 Accepted Banal (Note a)242 369 Retained Earnings311 538 Other(21)(32) Absolute Stockholders’ Equity652 1,058 1,594 2,309 Added allotment of $136 actor accessible a 1,190,000 shares of adopted banal adapted to accepted banal in budgetary year 1996. Exhibit 8 Antithesis Bedding for Dell Computer Corporation - Absolute 1996 and Projected 1997 Percent of Sales Pro Forma Statements based on 50% sales advance (millions of dollars) Projected Antithesis Area Year EndedLiab. FixedLiab. IncreaseRepurchase 28-Jan-9631-Jan-9731-Jan-9731-Jan-97 Accepted Assets:
Cash 55 83 8383 Abbreviate Appellation Investments 591 591 591591 Accounts Receivables, net 726 1,089 10891089 Inventories 429 644 644644 Another 156 234 234234 Absolute Accepted Assets 1,957 2,641 26412641 Property, Plant & Equipment, net 179 269 269269 Another 12 18 1818 Absolute Assets 2,148 2,928 29282928
Current Liabilities: Accounts Payable 466 466 699699 Accrued and Another Liabilities 473 473 710710 Absolute Accepted Liabilities 939 939 1,4091409 Continued Appellation Debt 113 113 1700 Another Liabilities 123 123 185185 Absolute Liabilities 1,175 1,175 1,7641594 Stockholders' Equity:
Preferred Banal 6 6 66 Accepted Banal 430 430 430(70) Retained Earnings 570 977 977570 Another (33) (33)(33)(33) Absolute Stockholders' Disinterestedness 973 1,380 1,380473 2,148 2,555 3,1442067 Exhibit 9 Projected Accumulation & Loss Account of Dell for 1997 (millions of dollars) Budgetary Year19961997 Sales 5,296 7,944 Aggregate of Sales 4,229 6,344
Gross Allowance 1,067 1,600 Operating Expenses 690 1,035 Operating Assets 377 565 Costs & Another Assets 6 9 Assets Taxes 111 167 Net Accumulation 272 407 Exhibit 10 Antithesis Bedding for Dell Computer Corporation - 1997 Year Ended January 31, 1997 Accepted Assets: Cash115 Abbreviate Appellation Investments1,237 Accounts Receivables, net903 Inventories251 Other241 Absolute Accepted Assets2,747 Property, Plant & Equipment, net235 Other11 Absolute Assets2,993
Current Liabilities: Accounts Payable1,040 Accrued and Another Liabilities 618 Absolute Accepted Liabilities1,658 Continued Appellation Debt18 Another Liabilities511 Absolute Liabilities2,187 Stockholders’ Equity: Adopted Banal - Accepted Stock195 Retained Earnings647 Other(36) Absolute Stockholders’ Equity806 2,993 Exhibit 11 Accumulation & Loss Statements for Dell Computer Corporation (millions of dollars) Budgetary Year1997 Sales$7,759 Aggregate of Sales6,093 Gross Margin1,666 Operating Expenses952 Operating Income714 Costs & Another Income27 Assets Taxes210 Net Profit531
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