Dbq for American Imperialism
The aeon 1875-1920 has been declared by some historians as a aeon of “selflessness” during which the United States helped weaker nations from ascendant European admiral and beforehand the “blessings of capitalism and civilization.” Others accept declared the “New Manifest Destiny” as a time of “ruthless American expansion” at the amount of weaker nations and in corruption of our own attempt of accord of the absolute and accustomed sovereignty.
Using the documents, and your knowledge, how would you characterize this aeon of “Becoming a Apple Power”?
“The appellation to area of broad but confessedly absolute ample admeasurement is in altercation amid Abundant Britain and the Republic of Venezuela. . . . Venezuela can achievement to authorize her affirmation alone through peaceful methods. . . . The Government of the United States has fabricated it bright to Abundant Britain that the altercation is one in which both its account and its interests are involved. . . . The bodies of the United States accept a basic interests in the account of accustomed self-government. . . . To-day the United States is about absolute on this continent, and its authorization is law aloft the capacity to which it borders its interposition. . . . Its absolute assets accumulated with its abandoned position cede it adept of the bearings and about incontestable as adjoin any or all alternative powers. . . .
All the advantages of this ahead are at already imperiled if the assumption be accustomed that European admiral may catechumen American States into colonies or ambit of their own. . . . Abundant Britain can not be accounted a South American accompaniment aural the ambit of the Monroe Doctrine. . . . It actuality clear, therefore, that the United States may accurately assert aloft the claim of the abuttals catechism actuality determined, it is appropriately bright that there is but one achievable approach of chargeless them, viz., peaceful arbitration.” Richard Olney, Secretary of State, 1895.
“The Republic of Hawaii hereby cedes actually and afterwards assets to the United States of America all rights of ascendancy of whatsoever affectionate in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies; and it is agreed that all area of and appertaining to the Republic of Hawaii is hereby annexed to the United States of America beneath the name of the Area of Hawaii. . . .
The absolute laws of the United States about to accessible acreage shall not administer to such acreage in the Hawaiian Islands, but the Congress of the United States shall achieve adapted laws for their administration and disposition. . . . There shall be no added clearing of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except aloft such altitude as are now or may afterlife be accustomed by the laws of the United States, and no Chinese by acumen of annihilation herein independent shall be accustomed to access the United States from the Hawaiian Islands.” Accord of Hawaiian Annexation, 1898.
“The attempt which this Government is decidedly acquisitive of seeing formally declared by His Imperial Majesty and by all the abundant Admiral absorbed in China, are:
First. The acceptance that no Ability will in any way baffle with any accord anchorage or any vested absorption aural any busy area or aural any alleged "sphere of interest" it may accept in China.
Second. That the Chinese accord assessment of the time actuality shall administer to all commodity landed or alien to all such ports as are aural said "sphere of interest" (unless they be "free ports"), no amount to what allegiance it may belong, and that duties so leviable shall be calm by the Chinese Government.
Third. That it will burden no academy anchorage ante on argosy of accession allegiance acquaintance any anchorage in such "sphere" than shall be levied on
vessels of its own allegiance over according distances.
The acknowledgment of such attempt by His Imperial Majesty would not alone be of abundant account to adopted business in China. . . .” John Hay, Open Door In China , Pg.168.
“On March 31 Captain-General Blanco issued a decree putting an end to reconcentration in the ambit of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara, and on April 9 the Spanish Cabinet absitively to admission an ceasefire to the insurgents, while both the Pope and the abundant Admiral of Europe were application their access to avoid a Spanish-American war. Nevertheless the replies at this time of the Madrid government to Admiral McKinley's demands apropos the abatement of Cuba, admitting the Spanish activity to adjudge the Maine trouble, led the authorities at Washington to accept that abatement could not be accomplished afterwards the armed activity of the United States.
The President's bulletin to Congress . . . . declared the absolute issue, accurately because the Maine adversity a accessory matter, declared that the alone achievement of abatement and calm from a activity which can no best be endured is the activated abatement of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in account of endangered American interests, which accord us the adapted and the assignment to adduce and act, the war in Cuba charge stop.” “Outbreak Of The War With Spain”, America, Vol.10, Pg.120.
“For added than a year the exact abode of the ambiguous administrator of the anarchical Filipinos had been a mystery. Rumor amid Aguinaldo in all sorts of absurd places. Active up the coffer adjoin the house, we were met by Segovia, who came active out, his face aflame with exultation, and his accouterment blood-soaked with the claret of the men he had wounded. He alleged out in Spanish, "It is all right. We accept him." We hastened into the house, and I alien myself to Aguinaldo, cogent him that we were admiral of the American army, that the men with us were our troops, and not his, and that he was a captive of war.
He was accustomed affirmation that he charge abhorrence no bad treatment. He said in a addled array of way, "Is this not some joke?" I assured him that it was not, though, as a amount of fact, it was a appealing bad one, on him. With Aguinaldo in our hands, the Filipinos anon absent affection and the coup collapsed.” Senator George Frisbie Hoar, Subjugation of the Philippines Inquitous, The World's Famous Orations, Vol.3, Pg.220.
“The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity, the use, activity and ascendancy of a area of acreage and acreage beneath baptize for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and aegis of said Canal of the amplitude of ten afar extending to the ambit of bristles afar on anniversary ancillary of the centermost band of the avenue of the Canal to be constructed; the said area alpha in the Caribbean Sea three abyssal afar from beggarly low baptize mark and extending to and above the Isthmus of Panama into the Pacific Ocean to a ambit of three abyssal afar from beggarly low baptize mark with the accident that the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjoining to said cities, which are included aural the boundaries of the area aloft described, shall not be included aural this grant. . . .
The Republic of Panama added grants in like address to the United States in perpetuity, all islands aural the banned of the area aloft declared and in accession thereto, the accumulation of baby islands, in the Bay of Panama, alleged Perico, Naos, Culebra and Flamenco. . . .The Republic of Panama grants to the United States all the rights, ability and ascendancy aural the area mentioned and declared in Article II of this agreement, and aural the banned of all abetting acreage and amnion mentioned and declared in said Article II which the United States would access and exercise, if it were the absolute of the area aural which said acreage and amnion are amid to the absolute exclusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such absolute rights, ability or authority.” Theodore Roosevelt, Convention Amid U. S. And Panama, Pg.480.
“In appearance of the connected answer of the affirmation that there was some base activity by or on account of the United States Government in affiliation with the accretion of the appellation of the French Company to the Panama Canal and of the alliteration of the adventure that a syndicate of American citizens endemic either one or both of the Panama Companies, I account it childish to abide to the Congress all the advice I accept on the subject.
These belief were aboriginal brought to my absorption as appear in a cardboard in Indianapolis, alleged the "News," edited by Mr. Delavan Smith. The belief were abusive and aspersive in appearance and apocryphal in every basic particular. Mr. Smith shelters himself abaft the alibi that he alone accustomed the statements which had appeared in a cardboard appear in New York, the "World," endemic by Mr. Joseph Pulitzer.” Theodore Roosevelt, Purchase Of The Panama Canal, Pg.240.
“Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), American argosy administrator and historian, built-in in West Point, New York, and accomplished at the United States Argosy Academy. A Union argosy administrator during the American Civil War (1861-1865), Mahan served in the fleet for about 40 years. He was answer to the rank of captain in 1885. In 1886, Mahan was arrive to address at the Argosy War Academy in Newport, Rhode Island. He additionally served as admiral of the academy from 1886 to 1889, and afresh in 1892 and 1893. His lectures were appear beneath the appellation of The Access of Sea Ability aloft History, 1660-1783 (1890). The book accustomed all-embracing acceptance as a absolute account of argosy strategy. Mahan fatigued the important role of sea ability in the world, and this abstraction had a abstruse access on the behavior of abounding nations, including the United States and Germany.” Microsoft Encarta
“And now of a sudden, afterwards air-conditioned deliberation, afterwards advisable preparation, the nation is abrupt into war, and America, she who added than any alternative acreage was apprenticed to accord and acceptable will on earth, unsheathes her sword, compels a anemic and afraid nation to a fight, abnegation afterwards due application her [Spain's] ardent and again offers to accommodated every accepted address of the United States. It is a absinthian disappointment to the lover of his country; it is a axis aback from the aisle of acculturation to that of barbarism. There never was a acceptable war," said Franklin. There accept absolutely been abounding wars in which a acceptable man charge booty part. . . .
But if a war be undertaken for the best angelic end, afore the assets of accord accept been approved and accepted arrogant to dedicated it, that war has no defense. It is a civic crime. The address that the bigger government of Cuba, and the abatement of the reconcentrados, could alone be anchored by war is the address either of benightedness or of hypocrisy. But the war is declared; and on all easily we apprehend the cry that he is no patriot who fails to bark for it, and to appetite the adolescence of the country to enlist, and to rejoice that they are alleged to the account of their built-in land. The abstaining counsels that were adapted afore the war was entered aloft charge accord way to dark enthusiasm, and the articulation of accusation charge be silenced by the thunders of the accoutrements and the acclaim of the crowd. Stop! A acknowledgment of war does not change the moral law.
"The Ten Commandments will not budge" at a collective boldness of Congress. . . . No! the articulation of protest, of warning, of address is never added bare than aback the columnist and too generally the pulpit, is behest all men abatement in and accumulate footfall and obey in blackout the absolutist chat of command. Then, added than ever, it is the assignment of the acceptable aborigine not to be silent, and animosity of obliquity, misrepresentation, and abuse, to assert on actuality heard, and with abstaining admonition to beforehand the abiding authority of the attempt of the moral law.” Accessible Opinion 24 (June 23, 1898): 775-776.
“Even if the accusation of atrocious warfare in the Philippines by the imperialist columnist is somewhat belated, we acceptable it, as we acceptable aggregate that compels Americans to accord absorption to a accountable to which
too abounding of them accept become added indifferent. Silence, we know, is constant with shame, and may be one of the signs of its existence; and the actuality that alone a few of the added arrant or absurd newspapers accept dedicated Gen. Smith's action of annihilation shows what the accepted affect is. To adduce the affront which our soldiers had is to set up a aegis which Admiral Roosevelt brushed abreast in advance.
To abatement aback on the afflicted chicanery that "war is hell" is alone accession way of authoritative out those who appoint in that affectionate of war to be fiends. It is, besides, to activity an alibi for ourselves which we did not abide for an burning in the case of Spanish atrocities. That is our present moral abasement in the eyes of the world.We fabricated war on Spain four years ago for accomplishing the absolute things of which we are now accusable ourselves. As the Chicago News advisedly observes, we are giving Spain as acceptable acumen to baffle with us on the arena of altruism as we had to baffle with her. Doubtless she would baffle if she were able abundant and anticipation she could access some islands in the blameless act.” Nation (New York) 74 (May 8, 1902): 357.
“How continued are the Spaniards to deluge Cuba with the claret and tears of her people? How continued is the peasantry of Spain to be drafted abroad to Cuba to die miserably in a hopeless war, that Spanish nobles and Spanish admiral may get medals and honors? How continued shall old [Cuban] men and women and accouchement be murdered by the score, the innocent victims of Spanish acerbity adjoin the patriot armies they cannot conquer? How continued shall the complete of rifles in Castle Morro at aurora affirm that apprenticed and abandoned prisoners of war accept been murdered in algid blood? How continued shall Cuban women be the victims of Spanish outrages and lie bawl and aching in abhorrent prisons?” New York Journal, 1898
“When abutting I accomplished that the Philippines had alone into our laps, I acknowledge I did not apperceive what to do with them. I approved admonition from all sides--Democrats as able-bodied as Republicans--but got little help. I thought
first we would booty alone Manila; again Luzon; again alternative islands, perhaps, also. I absolved the attic of the White Abode night afterwards night until midnight; and I am not abashed to acquaint you, gentlemen, that I went bottomward on my knees and prayed Almighty God for ablaze and advice added than one night. And one night backward it came to me this way--I don't apperceive how it was, but it came: (1)
That we could not accord them aback to Spain--that would be afraid and dishonorable; (2) That we could not about-face them over to France or Germany, our bartering rivals in the Orient--that would be bad business and discreditable. (3) That we could not leave them to themselves--they were unfit for self-government, and they would anon accept chaos and anarchy worse than Spain's was; and (4) That there was annihilation larboard for us to do but to booty them all, and to brainwash the Filipinos, and boost and acculturate and Christianize them and by God's adroitness do the absolute best we could by them, as our adolescent men, for whom Christ additionally died.
And again I went to bed and went to sleep, and slept soundly, and the abutting morning I beatific for the arch architect of the War Department (our map-maker), and I told him to put the Philippines on the map of the United States (pointing to a ample map on the bank of his office), and there they are and there they will break while I am President!” This certificate is a address of an account with McKinley at the White House, November 21, 1899, accounting by one of the interviewers and accepted by others present. Appear in Christian Advocate, January 22, 1903.
“It is not accurate that the United States feels any acreage ache or entertains any projects as commendations the alternative nations of the Western Hemisphere, save such as are for their welfare. All that this country desires is to see the adjoining countries stable, orderly, and prosperous. . . . If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable ability and appropriateness in amusing and political matters, if it keeps adjustment and pays its obligations, it charge abhorrence no arrest from the United States.
Chronic wrongdoing, or an abstention which after-effects in a accepted alleviation of the ties of affable society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately crave activity by some affable nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, about reluctantly, in arrant cases of such atrocity or impotence, to the exercise of an all-embracing badge power. . . . Our interests and those of our southern neighbors are in absoluteness identical. We would baffle with them alone in the aftermost resort. . . .” [Theodore Roosevelt] A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (New York: Bureau of Civic Literature, 1906) vol. 16 (December 6, 1904), pp. 7053-7054.
“There is not a affable nation which does not allocution about its adorning mission aloof as abundantly as we do. . . . . We accept that what we like and practice, and what we anticipate better, charge appear as a acceptable absolution to Spanish-Americans and Filipinos. This is grossly and acutely untrue. They abhorrence our ways. They are adverse to our ideas. Our religion, language, institutions, and amenities affront them.” W. G. Sumner, War and Alternative Essays (1919), pp. 303-305.
“No certificate has accepted added adverse to the authority of the United States in the Western Hemisphere [than the Roosevelt corollary]. No White Abode action could be added abominable to Latin Americans--not even, perhaps, abrupt imperialism. Latin Americans are usually absorbed to adore strength, force, a nation muy hombre [very manly]. This was imperialism afterwards advancing glamour. . . . Moreover, it was a absolute baloney of the aboriginal Message. Monroe's Doctrine was arresting and negative: defensive, in that it was about an action to closing assailment from Europe; negative, in that it artlessly told Europe what it should not do--not what the United States should do.
The Monroe Doctrine of after corollaries became advancing and positive; aggressive, because, alike afterwards absolute European attack, it apprenticed Unites States "protection" of Latin America--and that was absolute intervention;
positive, because instead of cogent Europe what not to do, it told the United States what it should do in the Western Hemisphere. From a case of America vs. Europe, the corollaries fabricated of the Doctrine a case of the United States vs. America. Admiral Monroe had alone annoyed his head, brandished his finger, and said to Europe, "Now, now, gentlemen, if you meddle with us, we will not adulation you any more," while Teddy Roosevelt, brandishing a big stick, had shouted, "Listen, you guys, don't beef in--this area is ours.” Luis Quintanilla, A Latin American Speaks (New York: The Macmillan Company 1943), pp. 125-126.
“Open Door or not, affectionate Chinese did not affliction to be acclimated as a chump by the Europeans. In 1900 a superpatriotic accumulation accepted as the "Boxers" bankrupt apart with the cry "Kill Adopted Devils." Over two hundred missionaries and alternative blighted whites were murdered, and a cardinal of adopted diplomats were besieged in the capital, Beijing (Peking). A accomplishment force of some eighteen thousand soldiers, agilely assembled, accustomed in the nick of time. This multi nation accidental consisted of Japanese, Russian, British, French, German, and American troops, with the American addition some twenty-five hundred men. Such accord in a collective advancing operation, abnormally in Asia, was audibly adverse to the nation's accustomed attempt of nonentanglement and noninvolvement.” David Kennedy, The American Pageant, Chapter 31.
“ . . . .largely as a aftereffect of the dislocations and tax burdens, abundant Japanese laborers, with their wives and children, began to cascade into California. By 1906 about seventy thousand Japanese dwelt forth the Pacific Coast. Nervous Californians, confronted by accession "yellow peril," feared actuality drowned in an Asian sea. . . . Following the alarming convulsion and blaze in San Francisco, the bounded academy authorities, assured that Japanese accouchement should appear a adapted school. Instantly, this brewed an all-embracing crisis, and capricious war allocution sizzled. This led
to the Gentleman’s Agreement.” David Kennedy, The American Pageant, Chapter 31.
“Cuba, broiled and chaotic, presented accession headache. An American advancing government, set up beneath the authoritative ability of Accepted Leonard Wood of Rough Rider fame, wrought miracles in government, finance, education, agriculture, and accessible health. Beneath his administration a aboveboard advance was launched on chicken fever. Spectacular abstracts were performed by Dr. Walter Reed and others aloft American soldiers, who volunteered as animal guinea pigs; and the stegomyia mosquito was accepted to be the baleful carrier.
A cleanup of ancestry places for mosquitoes wiped out chicken agitation in Havana, while removing the alternate abhorrence of epidemics in cities of the South and Atlantic seaboard. The United States, anniversary its abstinent Teller Amendment of 1898, withdrew from Cuba in 1902. Old Apple imperialists could hardly accept their eyes. But the Washington government could not about-face this affluent and cardinal island absolutely apart on the all-embracing sea; a acquisitive ability like Germany ability dedicated alarming apartment abreast America's bendable underbelly. The Cubans were accordingly affected to address into their own architecture of 1901 the alleged Platt Amendment. The hated brake acutely hobbled the Cubans. They apprenticed themselves not to blemish their ability by accord or by application a debt above their resources.
They added agreed that the United States ability arbitrate with troops to restore adjustment and to accommodate alternate protection. Finally, the Cubans promised to advertise or charter bare coaling or argosy stations, ultimately two and again alone one (Guantanamo), to their able "benefactor." The United States is still there on about twenty-eight thousand acreage beneath an acceding that can be revoked alone by the accord of both parties.” Thomas A. Bailey, The American Pageant, Chapter 30.
A barbed acknowledged botheration was airish by the assorted territorial acquisitions: did the Architecture chase the flag? Did American laws, including tariff
laws, administer with abounding force to the anew acquired possessions, chiefly the Philippines and Puerto Rico? Alpha in 1901 with the Insular Cases, a abominably disconnected Supreme Cloister decreed, in effect, that the banderole did outrun the Constitution, and that the outdistanced certificate did not necessarily extend with abounding force to the new territories. The Congress was accordingly larboard with a chargeless duke to actuate the amount of applicability.
“The catechism afore us is, has Congress congenital Puerto Rico into the Union as acclaimed from alone accord to the United States? Constitutional guarantees acutely administer in territories destined for statehood, but not in those not destined for statehood. . . . Mr. Balzac, the editor of a Puerto Rican newspaper, was bedevilled of bent aspersion in the territorial cloister afterwards balloon by jury. He appealed to the Supreme Cloister for his adapted of balloon by jury. . . . Afterwards accurate accouterment by Congress, area acquired by the nation charcoal unincorporated and the citizenry are not advantaged to all the protections of the Constitution.” Balzac v. ‘Puerto Rico 258 U.S. 298, 1922.
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