Critique of Theoretical Framework
Religion, Amusing Policy, and Amusing Assignment Convenance Faith-based Casework in Accessible Abundance It is about accustomed that the abbey has been a locus of amusing account and amusing change throughout America's history, and "that the abstraction of animal casework emerged, at atomic partially, from a religious base" (Ellor, Netting, ; Thibault, 1999, p. 13). Furthermore, it is accustomed that the amusing assignment profession in the United States was afflicted by a continued history of religious traditions (Ellor et al, 1999; Hugen, 2012; Rosethal, 2006).
The amusing abundance arrangement that emerged in the United States, ormerly and presently, continues to be a mix of faith-based and civil organizations and groups with adapted perspectives and approaches (Ellor et al, 1999). The assorted perspectives and approaches to amusing abundance in the United States are abiding in an all-embracing arrangement of worldviews and acceptance traditions. The U. S. is a pluralistic association characterized by a assortment of people, opinions, and religions (Monsma, 2012).
The abbey is artlessly one of abounding places area amusing abundance ideations acquire embodied themselves, and the battles adjoin amusing injustices acquire been fought. For abounding years a abundant array of religiously affiliated organizations, colleges, hospitals, and amusing account agencies acquire accustomed federal abundance funding. There is annihilation greatly new about the admittance of faith-based organizations in the commitment of amusing abundance casework to the blank and accessible populations (Karger et al, 2007).
What is new is the bulge of postmodern, humanistic ideologies in amusing abundance that began in the 20th aeon (Hugen, 2012). The clashes amid abreast humanistic and faith-based ideologies acquire spawned a abiding political agitation over the definiteness of federal government unding of faith-based amusing services. A above battleground for this political agitation occurred in 1996 aback the United States Congress anesthetized a set of accoutrement beneath the Claimed Albatross and Assignment Befalling Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) area 104”also accepted as the Accommodating Best article (Daly, 2009; Wuthnow, 2004).
Charitable Best removed abounding of the restrictions on amalgam religious agreeable with faith-based commitment of amusing services, and positioned faith-based amusing account agencies as agnate to civil amusing account agencies (Karger et al, 2007). The ovement to absorb faith-based amusing account agencies was added fueled by President George W. Bush's Acceptance Based and Association Action (FBCI) (Kennedy & Bielefeld, 2006; Daly, 2009; and Wuthnow, 2004).
The Bush administering aimed to do two things based on the bulk Judicious attempt of Accommodating Choice: first, to admission the bulk of federal social-welfare assets activity to faith-based organizations; and second, to assure the authoritative abandon and religious appearance of these groups aback apprenticed with the government (Daly, 2007). As a aftereffect of the Bush-era FBCI, eleven acceptance and community-based offices were created n federal agencies, and abounding states began to advance programs to aggrandize the role of faith-based amusing casework in carrying anti-poverty abetment (Reingold, Pirog & Brady, 2007).
The Bush-era faith-based action was able abundant that the Bush administration's proposed account for 2002 allocated about $90 actor to organizations that broadcast or emulated models ot tai tn-based amusing account programs (Twombly, 2002). Today, according to the Civic Center for Accommodating Statistics (NCCS), there are 956,738 accessible charities, 97,435 clandestine foundations, and 70,745 alternative types of nonprofit organizations (NCCS, 2013). According to the NCCS Bulk Files, accessible charities appear over $1. 59 abundance in absolute revenues, and $1. 9 abundance in absolute costs in 2011. Of the accessible charities' revenues: 22% came from contributions, adeptness and government grants; 72% came from affairs account revenues, which accommodate government fees and contracts; and 6% came from "other" sources (NCCS, 2013). Blackwood, Roeger, & PettiJohn (2012) acknowledge that there was a 42. 3% advance in the cardinal 501(c)(3) accessible charities from 2000 to 2010. In New York Accompaniment alone, there are 1 5,362 religious or spiritually accompanying accessible charities (IRS Business Master File 04/2010).
Eric Twombly (2002), an associate of The Urban Institute, and Ira Colby (2007), a amusing assignment assistant at the University of Houston, point out that abounding faith-based organizations, such as The Salvation Army, United Jewish Communities, Catholic Charities, and Lutheran Amusing Casework acquire historically accustomed government abutment and played a cogent role in amusing account accoutrement in the United States. These groups are key players in abounding bounded areas in both absolute ocial accouterment and ambience government account priorities.
The ambition of this article is to analyze the political agitation over Accommodating Best and the faith-based initiative, and secondly, to bare the implications for amusing assignment convenance and amusing assignment apprenticeship from this debate. It is axiomatic that faith-based organizations comedy a abundant role in the commitment of amusing abundance casework in the United States (Nagel, 2006). To activate our analysis of this issue, we will attending at the accordant worldviews and acceptance systems that abutment or abnegate the federal government abutment of faith- based amusing account agencies.
Worldview/ Acceptance Issues Republicans acquire advantaged the privatization of amusing abundance and able the bulk of nonprofits. Conservative thinkers acquire that churches can abode abundance bigger than the government and the civil amusing account arrangement (Cnaan & Boddie, 2002). Conservatives agilely advance the acceptance that government should accounts and bear amusing casework to the citizenry (Karger et al, 2007). Conservatives altercate privatization has become a absurdity in amusing abundance because the clandestine area has been activated in account accouterment and precedes the abundance accompaniment in abounding instances.
David Osborne and Ted Gaebler (1992) advance in Reinventing Government that the clandestine and accessible sectors acquire altered roles. The government's role should abide primarily of establishing the objectives of amusing policy, and the clandestine area role should abide of active the policy. David Stoesz (2007) co-author of American Amusing Abundance Action argues, "nonprofit organizations acquire been poor competitors, generally accident out to for-profit firms" (p. 193).
He added asserts that the attributes of nonprofits accomplish them beneath aggressive than bartering firms, and aback for-profits nter the aforementioned market, they generally booty a abundant allocation of the bazaar until nonprofits acquire the aforementioned administering procedures and become added efficient. A ample acceptance is this: if for-profits doubtable that they can accomplish a accumulation by accouterment above account to a clientele, they will seek to farm with the government and accommodate the service.
Conversely, Ira Colby (2007) the Dean and Assistant of amusing assignment at the University of Houston asserts that privatization of amusing casework as the acknowledgment to creating ettective account accoutrement tor the poor is a "grossly erroneous assumption" (p. 194). According to Colby (2007) the catchphrases of "compassionate conservative" or "faith-based amusing services" are artlessly resurfacing account from a antecedent abundance era area greater assurance on the clandestine area was emphasized.
Liberal credo asserts that the government should comedy a axial role in the accouterment of services”that government is amenable for ensuring that all people, behindhand of cachet in life, acquire bare casework and supports that aerate their abundance and adeptness to participate in society. In essence, basal amusing casework are the business of the government (Colby, 2007). Monsma (2012) identifies 5 factors that underlie and assignment to cast how liberals appearance the accessible role of faith- based organizations.
The aboriginal is a able accent on the free, autonomous, allotment individual. The additional is a suspicion of acceptable ethics and adoration aback they admission the accessible square. The third is seeing government as a potentially absolute force for amusing change and improvement. Fourth is its embrace of the austere church-state separation, no-aid-to-religion standard. The fifth and final agency is the bequest of the nondiscrimination statuses of the 1960s. These factors, which can be onsidered beliefs, advance liberals to attending abnormally aloft faith-based animal account providers.
The accent seems to be instead on abandon of best and what the government can potentially do to advance civic conditions. Rev. Robert Owens (2001) posits that a abrogating alternation exists amid the bulk of allotment accustomed by religious organizations and the backbone of religious mission. Owens, in his attitude adjoin accessible allotment of religious organizations, argues that accepting government money to accommodate amusing account programs alone deepens the abashing in communities about who works for whom. Accepting government money turns the state/ abbey accord upside down”where the abbey works for the state.
The band-aid again is to accumulate religious congregations absolute of the admission of government. Political, Legal, Amusing Action Afterwards the Abundant Depression, President Roosevelt's New Deal political ideations focused on the structural altitude accidental to abjection and amusing inequality. Because of the depression, it had become accessible that claimed chastity could not anticipate or be the primary account of abjection (Nagal, 2006). Therefore, the accessible albatross for ocial abundance was emphasized, and the accepted moral ambit was minimized in amusing account delivery.
Following the New Deal era, the Reagan administering confused the focus aback to the admittance of faith-based alignment in amusing account provisions. President Reagan advised religious organizations to be added able than accessible or secular, nonprofit amusing account providers (Cnaan & Boddie, 2002). Reagan went so far as to use the apologue of the Good Samaritan as a allegory for the account of poverty. His acumen of the biblical apologue assorted a authoritative aseworker adjoin the Good Samaritan: The adventure of the Good Samaritan has consistently illustrated to me what God's claiming absolutely is.
He beyond the road, knelt down, apprenticed up the wounds of the baffled traveler, the pilgrim, and agitated him to the abutting town. He didn't go active into boondocks and attending tor a case-worker to acquaint him that there was a tellow out there that bare help. He took it aloft himself. (Denton, 1982, p. 3 as cited in Cnaan & Boddie, 2002) Reagan believed in volunteerism and the added albatross of clandestine organizations to accommodated society's social-welfare needs. The accent on volunteerism resulted in a abatement of government spending on amusing abundance initiatives in the 1980s.
Reagan challenged the clandestine area to footfall up and accommodated the needs of society. He alleged on churches to accommodate for the needs of the poor aural their own neighborhoods (Yancey, 2007). President Clinton took the claiming one footfall added and appropriate that organized adoration would be able to accomplish a cogent addition to abbreviation the charge for amusing abundance if anniversary aggregation in the United States would appoint one being in charge (Wuthnow, 2004). Here is what President Clinton said:
Under this law [Charitable Choice], every state, aback it becomes effective, every accompaniment in the country can say: If you will appoint somebody off welfare, we'll accord you the abundance checks as a supplement for the accomplishment and the training. It means, folks, aback you go aback home, your abbey can acquire a person's abundance analysis and add to it alone a bashful bulk of money to accomplish a active wage, and to booty some time to alternation bodies and accompany their accouchement into the church, and accomplish abiding their accouchement are all appropriate and accord them a home and family.
I Just appetite every pastor in this admirers to anticipate about it. Just anticipate about it. If every abbey in America assassin one being off welfare, if every abbey in America could get some assignment to do that, it would set an archetype that would crave the business association to follow, that would crave the accommodating and alternative nonprofit organizations to follow. We cannot actualize a government Jobs affairs big abundant to break the accomplished thing, but if everybody did it, one by one, we could do this Job. Associated Press, 1996, area A2) Throughout the afterwards allotment of the 20th century, the federal government alleged on the Abbey to act as the primary assurance net for bodies in need. History reveals that faith- ased organizations acquire consistently been a allotment of accouterment amusing abundance services. The Claimed Albatross and Assignment Befalling Reconciliation Act of 1996 with the Accommodating Best article and Bush's Acceptance Based and Association Action artlessly added the accord amid faith-based organizations and the federal government.
Separation of Abbey and Accompaniment Afore the Accommodating Best accouterment of the Claimed Albatross and Assignment Befalling Reconciliation Act of 1996, faith-based organizations application with the government had to abolish all religious symbols from the allowance area account was rovided; acquire all clients; burden from any religious ceremonies; appoint agents that reflected society, not the organization's acceptance system; attach to government arrangement regulations; and absorb alone as an 501 (c) (3) nonprofit organizations (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002).
All this afflicted afterwards the PRWORA of 1996. First, faith- based casework providers absorb their religious autonomy; second, the government could not abbreviate the religious announcement or convenance of faith-based services; third, taitn-based account providers were absolved trom acknowledging with application behavior andated by the Civil Rights Act of 1964; finally, acceptance based alignment application with the government were no best appropriate to authorize a separate, civil 501 (c) (3) nonprofit alignment (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002).
There are, however, some agreement that abide in adjustment to arrangement with the government. Faith-based organizations are fiscally answerable to use government funds for the advised amusing casework and not for religious adoration or proselytization. The purpose of this area of the law is to ensure a bright break amid abbey and state. In adjustment or the government to abide aloof to the religious or civil appearance of organizations, both are offered an befalling to participate in amusing account programs.
As Rosenthal (2006) states in his cessation on Accommodating Best Programs and Title VII's Co-Religionist Exemption: By alms religious institutions the befalling to participate in amusing account programs, Congress is anxiously agreeable the built-in assumption of neutrality by affording these organizations the aforementioned opportunities as non-religious organizations. On the cast side, however, the Constitution requires that this accord be both ecular and non-discriminatory, so as to ensure that religious organizations are not benefited artlessly by advantage of their religious character. p. 665) Association for Amusing Assignment Convenance David Stoesz (2007) in his acknowledgment to Should Amusing Casework be Privatized asserts that the amusing assignment profession commonly abandon with amusing welfare. This leads to the adjournment of nonprofit agencies and arrant abhorrence to for-profit agencies. Because of this bias, amusing assignment apprenticeship is bare of the adeptness and abilities that are capital to business strategies in account provision. The association for amusing assignment apprenticeship would entail an admission of agreeable in finance, marketing, advice systems, and contracting.
This would accouter amusing workers to be added aggressive in the new human-service market. With admission to government allotment that no best commendations the religious appearance of the account provider as a albatross to the break of abbey and state, it is acceptable (if not already axiomatic by the NCCS reports) that added faith-based organizations and churches will appoint in affiliation with the accessible sector. This cogent change has afflicted amusing account delivery.
As a amusing assignment practitioner, I could calmly acquisition myself alive aural a faith-based alignment or at atomic accommodating with a faith-based alignment in account delivery. Amusing assignment is a value-based profession. Although added secularized than anytime before, amusing assignment can accommodate administration in abstraction the collaborative accomplishment amid the allowance professions and faith-based organizations. This is abnormally important in because the affiliation of adherence and adoration in amusing assignment practice.
With the prevalence of faith-based organizations accouterment amusing services, it ould be benign for amusing assignment apprenticeship to admission the agreeable on ethical amusing assignment convenance aural religious settings. With an added adequacy in the affiliation of amusing assignment convenance with adoration and spirituality, amusing assignment practitioners can added acknowledge the efforts of religious organizations to abode amusing problems. Amusing assignment should additionally "proceed carefully to outline the ambit ot ethical amusing assignment convenance in religious organizations" (Sherr et al, 2009, p. 64) so that account commitment does not cantankerous the ethical band and become an befalling for proselytizing. The profession of amusing assignment continues to apprehend the accent of religious and airy behavior for clients. The accent of these issues in amusing assignment apprenticeship is accurate by the Council on Amusing Assignment Apprenticeship (CSWE) Educational Action and Accreditation Standard, 2. 1. 4: Amusing workers accept how assortment characterizes and shapes the animal acquaintance and is analytical to the accumulation of identity.
The ambit of assortment are accepted as the intersectionality of assorted factors including age, class, color, culture, disability, ethnicity, gender, gender appearance and expression, clearing tatus, political ideology, race, religion, sex, and animal orientation... [Social workers] accretion acceptable self-awareness to annihilate the admission of claimed biases and ethics in alive with assorted groups... (CSWE, 2008, p. 5) The NASW Code of Ethics (2008) credibility to the accent of acquainted religious and airy behavior in adjustment to convenance in a holistic, client-centered manner.
Section 1 . 05(c) of the Code of Ethics states: Amusing workers should access apprenticeship about and seek to accept the attributes of amusing assortment and abuse with account to race, ethnicity, civic origin, color, ex, animal orientation, gender appearance or expression, age, aggressive status, political belief, religion, clearing cachet and brainy or concrete disability. (NASW, 2008, p. 9) Competently acclamation religious and airy behavior is allotment of the holistic access to alive with the multi-dimensional person”bio, psycho, social, and spiritual.
To avoid the bulk arrangement of a applicant leaves the aperture accessible for amusing workers to taint the allowance accord with their own behavior and ethics (Zellmer & Anderson-Meger, 2011). Summary populations (Karger et al, 2007). History reveals that faith-based organizations acquire lways been a allotment of accouterment amusing abundance services. The Claimed Albatross and Assignment Befalling Reconciliation Act of 1996 with the Accommodating Best article and Bush's Acceptance Based and Association Action artlessly added the accord amid faith-based organizations and the federal government.
Conservative thinkers acquire that churches can abode abundance bigger than the government and the civil amusing account arrangement (Cnaan ; Boddie, 2002). Conservatives agilely advance the acceptance that government should accounts and bear amusing casework to the citizenry (Karger et al, 2007). Liberal credo asserts that the government should comedy a axial role in the accouterment of services”that government is amenable for ensuring that all people, behindhand of cachet in life, acquire bare casework and supports that aerate their abundance and adeptness to participate in association (Colby, 2007).
With an added adequacy in the affiliation of amusing assignment convenance with adoration and spirituality, amusing assignment practitioners can turtner acknowledge the etto religious organizations to abode amusing problems. With the prevalence of faith- based organizations accouterment amusing services, it would be benign for amusing assignment ducation to admission the agreeable on ethical amusing assignment convenance aural religious settings. The clashes amid abreast humanistic and faith-based ideologies acquire spawned a abiding political agitation over the definiteness of federal government allotment of faith-based amusing services.
In the American pluralistic society, accessible funds should not be acclimated to advance any accurate religion. Therefore, the amusing assignment profession should booty a administration role in affectionate diversity, and ethically abyssal amusing abundance and the faith-based initiative.
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