Read the passages below and address an article that addresses the following:
What is the position in anniversary passage?
What affirmation or affidavit are accustomed in abutment of anniversary position?
Which position is added acceptable and why?
Do no added analysis on the capacity alternative than application a dictionary. [NEW]
The Controversy: Does fracking accord to all-around warming?
Passage 1. Pro: from "Fracking Contributes to All-around Warming" by Louis W. Allstadt
The fracking that's activity on appropriate now is the absolute wake-up alarm on aloof what acute lengths are
required to cull oil or gas out of the arena now that best of the accepted reservoirs accept
been exploited—at atomic those that are accessible to access.
First of all you accept to attending at what is accepted oil and gas. That was appealing abundant annihilation
that was produced until about 2000. It's basically a action of conduct bottomward through a cap rock,
an impervious bedrock that has trapped oil and gas below it. And already you're into that reservoir—
which is absolutely not a void, it’s absorptive rock—the accustomed burden of the gas will advance up the gas
Now what's happened is that the anticipation of award added of those accepted reservoirs,
particularly on acreage and in the places that accept been heavily explored like the US and Europe
and the Middle East aloof is very, actual small. And the companies accept appealing abundant accustomed
that. All of them allocution about the charge to go to either nonconventional shale or bound beach conduct
or to go into added and added amnion or to go into absolutely adverse Arctic regions and possibly
Both the accumbent conduct and fracturing accept been about for a continued time. The industry will
tell you this over and over again—they've been about for 60 years, things like that. That is
correct. What's altered is the aggregate of fracking fluids and the aggregate of flowback that occurs
in these wells. It is 50 to 100 times added than what was acclimated in the accepted wells.
The alternative [difference] is that the bedrock aloft the ambition area is not necessarily impervious the
way it was in the accepted wells. And to me that aftermost point is at atomic as big as the volume.
The industry will acquaint you that the mile or two amid the area that's actuality fracked is not activity
to let annihilation arise up.
But there are already cases area the methane gas has fabricated it up into the aquifers and
atmosphere. Sometimes through old able-bodied bores, sometimes through accustomed fissures in the rock.
What we don't apperceive is aloof how abundant gas is activity to arise up over time. It's a point best bodies
haven't gotten. It's not aloof what's accident today. We're aperture up channels for the gas to
creep up to the apparent and into the atmosphere. And methane is a abundant added almighty greenhouse
gas in the abbreviate term—less than 100 years—than carbon dioxide.
Allstadt, Louis W. "Fracking Contributes to All-around Warming."
, edited by Dedria Bryfonski,
Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context
, Accessed 12
Dec. 2016. Originally arise as "Former Mobil VP Warns of Fracking and Altitude Change,"
, 19 July 2013.
Passage 2. Con: from "Fracking Does Not Accord to All-around Warming" by Coral
A new abstraction in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes that hydraulic
fracturing—the arguable address abaft the nation's contempo oil and gas boom—doesn't arise to
contribute decidedly to all-around warming, as abounding ecology groups accept warned.
It's abundant account for oil and gas companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell, and Chevron, which accept relied on
breakthroughs in alleged fracking technology to cheaply alleviate all-inclusive new affluence of calm oil and
natural gas that had been trapped underground in shale-rock formations.
"It's actual acceptable news," said Richard Keil, a agent for ExxonMobil, of the study. "This is a
groundbreaking survey. It's the best all-encompassing one that's been done yet, and it serves to add important
new affirmation that hydraulic fracturing does not accord to altitude change—it does not accord
methane emissions at levels college than those set by the Ecology Protection Agency [EPA]."
The abstraction assured that the majority of hydraulically burst accustomed gas wells accept apparent
equipment that reduces on-the-ground methane emissions by 99 percent, although it additionally begin
that abroad on fracking rigs, some valves do acquiesce methane to escape at levels 30 percent
higher than those set by EPA. Overall, however, the abstraction concludes that absolute methane
emissions from fracking are about 10 percent lower than levels set by EPA.
The $2.3 actor abstraction was conducted by scientists at the University of Texas, with allotment
provided by nine activity companies, including ExxonMobil, and one ecology group, the
Environmental Defense Fund. A agent for the University of Texas said that while the
companies contributed money to the study, they had no ascribe on the analysis or results, which
were accountable to absolute associate analysis afore actuality arise in the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, one of the nation's best celebrated accurate journals.
University of Texas advisers say their yearlong study, which complex barometer methane
emissions from 190 accustomed gas assembly sites in the Gulf coast, mid-continent, Rocky
Mountains, and Appalachia, is far added absolute than [other studies], which relied on
existing abstracts rather than new fieldwork.
Davenport, Coral. "Fracking Does Not Accord to All-around Warming."
, edited by Dedria
Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints.
Opposing Viewpoints in Context
Accessed 12 Dec. 2016. Originally arise as "New Abstraction Says Fracking Doesn't Accord to
, 16 Sept. 2013.
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