Critical evaluation of a research article
This assignment presents a analytical appraisement of the assay commodity entitled, ‘How alarming is breast cancerPost-traumatic accent affection (PTSS) and accident factors for astringent PTSS at 3 and 15 months afterwards anaplasty in a civic accomplice of Danish women advised for primary breast cancer’, accounting by O’Connor et al. and appear in 2011 in the British Journal of Cancer, aggregate 104, pages 419-426. The appraisement provides a description of the aims, allegation and arguments put advanced in the article, a analytical appraisement of the issues, theories and concepts included in the commodity and an appraisal of the sources of advice acclimated in the article.
The appellation of the commodity – How alarming is breast cancerPost-traumatic accent affection (PTSS) and accident factors for astringent PTSS at 3 and 15 months afterwards anaplasty in a civic accomplice of Danish women advised for primary breast blight – is an authentic representation of what is included in the article, as the article, indeed, talks about PTSS and accident factors for astringent PTSS in Danish women advised for primary breast cancer. The appellation is a actual authentic description of what is included in the article.
The aim of the commodity is clear: as acclaimed in the abstruse for the article, the declared aim of O’Connor et al. (2011; 419) was to, “…explore the prevalence of and accident factors for cancer-related PTSS in a civic birth accomplice of women advised for primary breast cancer”. The accuracy of the aim, accompanying with the bright and accurately anecdotic title, allows the clairvoyant of the commodity to acclimatize themselves as to what the authors will be discussing in the anatomy of the article. It is accessible for the clairvoyant to feel that the authors ha a bright abstraction of what their assay was, breadth it fits in the anatomy of assay and abstruse in this accountable and, on this basis, how they would backpack their assay out.
The objectives of the commodity are fabricated not fabricated so bright by the authors, but it can be understood, from the actual bright declared aim, that the cold of the commodity was to actuate what the prevalence and accident factors are for PTSS in primary breast blight survivors in Denmark. In agreement of the account for the study, the authors accomplish clear, in the aboriginal book of the abstract, that the abstruse in this area, whilst extensive, is not concurrent, in that there are variations, beyond the letters in the research, as to the prevalence of PTSS in women active with and convalescent from breast cancer. The account of the O’Connor et al. (2011) abstraction was, therefore, to add to the abstruse in this breadth with a absolute abstraction of PTSS, and its accident factors, in a sample of Danish women.
A chase of PubMed, for example, application the chase agreement ‘breast blight PTSS’ allotment bristles results: the O’Connor et al. (2011) article; an commodity by Andersen et al. (2008) attractive at the chase for faculty in breast blight survivors with low affection of life; an commodity by Morrill et al. (2008) attractive at the alternation of post-traumatic advance and PTSS on the attendance of abasement in breast blight survivors; an commodity by Tjemsland et al. (1998) attractive at PTSS in breast blight survivors one year afterwards surgery; and the fifth and final commodity which is not accordant to the topic. It is clear, therefore, that the account for the abstraction is valid: there are, indeed, few appear accessories attractive at the specific assay affair proposed by O’Connor et al. (2011).
In agreement of the sample and abstracts collection, as O’Connor et al. (2011) note, the sample for the assay was 4917 women from Denmark, age-old amid 18 and 70, all of whom had been diagnosed with, and were convalescent from, primary breast blight and who had undergone anaplasty for their breast blight during a actual specific time period, namely October 2001 and March 2004. In agreement of the admittance belief for the sample, it was important that all women included had no history of alternative cancers and that the women could apprehend and address in Danish (to ensure that they absolutely understood, and could acknowledge to, the check acclimated to aggregate the data). It is important to agenda that all women called for admittance in the O’Connor et al. (2011) assay were breast blight chargeless at the time of the abstracts collection.
The women’s medical histories were arrested and alone women advised via the aforementioned assay modality, namely the standardised guidelines as set out in the Danish Breast Blight Cooperative Group, were included in the sample acclimated in the research. This was to ensure that the women had all accustomed the aforementioned treatment, at the aforementioned time, to ensure that any abeyant bent was reduced. Bent could accept been introduced, for example, if the women called for abstraction had been in accretion for best or if the women had all accustomed altered assay modalities or if the women was still active with breast cancer: by selecting women on the base of a assertive date for the surgery, and a assertive assay modality, and by applying the austere admittance criteria, the advisers minimised the abeyant furnishings of bias, ensuring as aerial a accessible authority and believability for the after-effects begin (Gerrish and Lacey, 2010).
As Roberts et al. (2006) note, “…reliability and activity are agency of demonstrating and communicating the rigour of assay processes and the abidingness of assay findings”. For assay to be helpful, the assay action and the after-effects appear charge to be as bright and cellophane as possible: ambiguous advice will account the clairvoyant to agnosticism the assay action and, therefore, the authority of the after-effects reported. As Roberts et al. (2006) suggest, the abidingness of a assay commodity depends on abounding factors including the assay catechism posed, the antecedent assay question, the agency in which the abstracts is collected, the agency in which the abstracts is analysed and the abstracts that are fatigued from the allegation presented (see, also, Cormack, 2000). At the moment, on the base of the assay catechism airish and the abstracts accumulating methods, the O’Connor et al. (2011) seems to be accurate and, therefore, reliable. Reliability, in this context, can be accepted as the amount to which a accurate set up can, “…produce agnate after-effects in altered circumstances, bold annihilation abroad has changed” (Roberts et al., 2006).
Regarding the abstracts accumulating method, O’Connor et al. (2011) utilised a mailed-out check to access abstracts from the sample of women apropos their post-traumatic accent symptoms, as abstinent application the IES, which is utilised broadly in the abstruse as a admeasurement of PTSS, accustomed the able correlations in interviews amid IES array and analytic diagnoses of PTSS. Additional covariates were aggregate from the women via the questionnaire, including demographic and socioeconomic variables such as age, conjugal status, cardinal of children, income, educational level, amusing cachet and net wealth, amidst alternative variables (O’Conner et al, 2011). These variables were calm in adjustment to test, statistically, the relationships amid the amount of PTSS begin in the patients and all of the variables, to see if there were any common links amid the attendance of PTSS and any accurate variable. It could be, for example, that a patient’s age predisposes them to be added acceptable to acquaintance PTSS afterward anaplasty for breast cancer, or that the person’s educational accomplishment affects their likelihood of experiencing PTSS. It was important, therefore, that O’Connor et al. (2011) controlled for all potentially abashing variables, in adjustment to be abiding that any accord begin amid the attendance of PTSS and the best apparent accident factors were absolutely accurate and not artlessly an achievement of the abstracts accumulating adjustment (Black, 1999).
In agreement of the abstracts analysis, the abstracts assay was conducted application non-parametric tests, namely Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis (O’Connor et al., 2011). Comparisons amid the absolute variables and the PTSS score, as abstinent via the IES, were conducted application chi-squared tests. Adapted analyses were conducted application logistic regressions with PTSS actuality the abased capricious (O’Connor et al., 2011). The after-effects begin were appear as adapted allowance ratios (O’Connor et al., 2011). It can be seen, therefore, that the statistical tests acclimated were adapted for the blazon of abstracts collected: the use of non-parametric tests, for example, was appropriate, accustomed the actuality that the variances were begin to alter clearly amidst respondents (Bryman and Cramer, 1990). The use of the chi-squared assay in this case is additionally appropriate, as discussed in Siegel (1957), accustomed the actuality that all participants were absolute and that abundance abstracts was calm from the participants via the questionnaire. Overall, then, the alternative and use of the statistical tests to analyse the abstracts were appropriate, giving aplomb that the abstracts assay was conducted appropriately and that the after-effects begin from the analyses are reliable.
Regarding the estimation of the after-effects and the capital allegation of the article, about 20% of the women surveyed apparent PTSS at 3 months afterwards surgery, abbreviation to about 14% at 15 months afterward the anaplasty (O’Connor et al., 2011). Apropos the predictors of PTSS in women actual breast cancer, the attendance of astringent PTSS was accompanying to earlier age at 3 months post-surgery. Actuality a mother of baby accouchement additionally added a woman’s affairs of developing PTSS afterward their surgery. The abstracts assay additionally begin that several socioeconomic variables were additionally able predictors of PTSS: education, anatomic status, claimed assets and domiciliary net abundance (O’Connor et al., 2011). Higher educational accomplishment was acerb accompanying to a bargain adventitious of developing PTSS. It is clear, then, that there are assorted factors that are accompanying to a woman’s adventitious of developing PTSS afterward anaplasty for primary breast cancer.
In agreement of whether the commodity makes any addition to the acreage of bloom psychology, it is bright from the commodity that there are assorted factors that are accompanying to a woman’s adventitious of developing PTSS afterward anaplasty for primary breast cancer. Accustomed the able articulation amid these factors and the development of PTSS, there is an altercation to be fabricated that women patients with breast blight who accept such accident factors should be offered counselling pre- and post-surgery in adjustment to be able to advice to abate the accident factors and advice these women to abstain developing PTSS.
Regarding the cessation of the article, in agreement of whether the abstracts fatigued are justified, as has been discussed in the appraisal of the article, the authors took every anticipation accessible to ensure that the sample alternative and abstracts accumulating were advised in such a way that the accident of bent was minimised, this accretion the believability and authority of the findings, and conclusions, presented in the article. This agency that the abstracts fatigued are not alone justified, in agreement of the aim of the article, but additionally that the abstracts from the commodity can be advised able-bodied and, therefore, trustworthy. The acceptation of the article, in agreement of the addition it makes to ability in this breadth is great. As O’Connor et al. (2011) themselves note, this is the aboriginal commodity to attending at the prevalence of, and accident factors for, PTSS in breast blight survivors. Additionally, accustomed the ample sample admeasurement of the commodity and the rigour of the abstracts accumulating and abstracts analysis, the after-effects acquired can be argued to be actual able-bodied (Creswell, 2008) and, therefore, of aerial reliability.
Regarding the admeasurement to which bodies who accept accomplished breast blight ability be helped by the allegation of the article, as O’Connor et al. (2011) note, breast blight and actual breast blight is a awful alarming acquaintance for women. Knowing what factors account women to acquaintance greater levels of agony post-surgery is actual advantageous as this ability can be acclimated to ambition those women at greater accident of adversity PTSS and, able with this knowledge, carrying counselling to these women to ensure that their accident of developing PTSS is lessened. As O’Connor et al. (2011) suggest, to accept this ability is affiliated to actuality forewarned: pre-emptive measures can be taken to abate the abeyant abrogating furnishings of the accident factors and to abate the adventitious of women at accident of developing PTSS. In accepted terms, then, the commodity – if its allegation were transmitted through the accepted media – would be accessible to women as women could, if they were at accident of developing PTSS afterward surgery, seek advice themselves from their medical team. As PTSS has been affiliated to abasement and alternative psychiatric problems in breast blight survivors (Morrill et al., 2008), any bactericide measures that could be offered to such women would advice save them from added agony and advice them to alive with a bigger affection of activity (Andersen et al., 2008).
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