Countering Cyber Terrorism In India Criminology Essay

1. Cyber agitation is planned use of confusing activities, or the blackmail of the same, adjoin computers /networks, with the purpose of causing abuse or added social, religious, political or commensurable objectives, or to alarm anyone in advocacy of such objectives. With the “Love Bug” virus costing about $10 billion, it is difficult to appreciate the cyberbanking association of a added austere & absolute attack. Anniversary & every day, corporations all over the apple absorb crores active threats of cyber attacks & cyber terrorism. With the added accident of attacks, the amount will acutely admission in the advancing years.

2. The Internet actuality disrupted for aloof one day could afflict about $6.5 billion account of transactions. Added than aloof the eCommerce affairs beck over the Internet. Email, articulation connections, cyberbanking machines, acclaim agenda authorizations for stores, and the account is endless. Advice is the activity claret of business, authoritative blank & alike amusing status. The accent of the advice & the adeptness to admission it, alteration it & act aloft it has added to a point that it is doubtful for all but the aboriginal of businesses to activity afterwards computers or networks. As the amount of accretion basement increases so to does the amount of its disruption. Cyberbanking implications are one thing, but the cerebral appulse could be alike added damaging.

3. Cyberterrorism is the abutting big alarm beforehand that India is acceptable to face, as per the Intelligence Bureau [35] . Already, the bureau has accustomed abundant warnings on cyber attacks. Initial signs of tech-savvy terrorists came to prominance during the consecutive blasts that abashed the country a year ago. About the question, is how geared up is the country to face the threat?

4. Reports announce that for a abolitionist organisation, the easiest way to admit an beforehand on India would be via the cyber route. It is aerial investment, but saves the agitation of manpower on the field, & the appulse such an beforehand could be is immense. The agitator organisations could activate an Internet war by hacking into official websites and sending out bacilli to capsize the nation. The cyber assaults could accommodate cyber vandalism, accident to (ESCOMs) capital commodity-related sites and phishing.

 

5. The cyber war on India is accepted to be fought in three stages [36] . First the en could accompany bottomward the ascendancy systems of defence installations/infrastructures, Parliament, railways & airports. Next, they could beforehand cyberbanking casework such as banks & banal markets. Lastly, ESCOMs & alternative utilities casework could be taken over. This is a alarming book & it will actualize a lot of panic, & if they succeed, it would account a lot of destruction, back it could booty canicule afore the casework would actually recover.

 

6. Experts additionally appraise that although the Pak-based terrorists could prove lethal, the affliction beforehand are acceptable to appear from China through use of the Broadcast Abnegation of Casework attacks. In a DDOS attack, bandwidth of a targeted arrangement is swarmed. They beforehand the alternative systems by adding and creating botnets. Though India has had its allotment of these attacks, but as of yet they accept not been on a ample scale. The area targeted the best in the attacks is the telecom sector, but it has managed to survive, acknowledgment to a able infrastructure. However, the companies accept to consistently improve, to be one up on the enemy.

Fig 1 – Defacement of Indian Websites [37] 

Defending adjoin the New Terrorism [38] 

7. Acceptable Method. Arresting adjoin agitation area a computer or the Internet plays an important allotment in the agitation cast is actual agnate to arresting adjoin agitation that does not. The approved practices are still effective, except that the ambit of assertive elements is expanded. These techniques are generally presented, and can be to be adapted to accommodate their ‘virtual’ counterparts. Acceptable counterterrorist techniques [39] are :-

(a) Deterrence. Governments can use their arrogant accommodation to accomplish agitation too cher for those who seek to use it. They can do this by advancing strikes adjoin agitator bases, assassinations of key leaders, aggregate punishment, or alternative methods. There are several drawbacks to this approach, it can beforehand to unacceptable animal rights violations. In addition, groups may not appear to government absorption until movements are so able-bodied developed that efforts to accommodate them through bridle methods are insufficient.

(b) Bent Justice. Governments can amusement agitation primarily as a abomination and accordingly accompany the extradition, prosecution, and incarceration of suspects. One analysis to this admission is that the case of terrorists in a cloister of law can accommodation government efforts to accumulate intelligence on agitator organisations. In addition, bent amends efforts are deployed mostly afterwards terrorists accept struck, acceptation that cogent accident and accident of activity may accept already occurred.

(c) Enhanced Defence. Governments can accomplish targets harder to attack, and they can use intelligence capabilities to accretion beforehand ability of back attacks may booty place. As targets are hardened, however, some agitator groups may about-face their architect to softer targets. An archetype is the targeting of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998 by barter bombs. Targets in Africa were called because of their almost lax aegis compared with alternative targets.

8. Thwarting Cyber Terrorism.

 

(a) Securing advice infrastructures will crave abundant efforts. Close accord amid govt and the clandestine area is important. The govt charge acquaint tougher penalties for such crimes & added allotment for law administration efforts to activity it. This charge be accomplished with a aerial amount of cooperation globally.

 

(b) Computer & advice security, abstracts security, & aloofness are all appearing problems. No distinct technology/ artefact will annihilate the threats & risk. A all-around activity & activity for active this affectionate of agitation is the charge now. In 1998, a 12-year-old hacker in US bankrupt into the computer arrangement that controlled the floodgates of the Theodore Roosevelt Dam in Arizona, according to a Washington Post report [40] . If the gates had been opened, the commodity added, walls of baptize could accept abounding the cities of Tempe and Mesa, whose populations absolute about 1 million. The adventure serves as a allegory for today’s acute agitation over the Internet’s vulnerability to attack.

9. All-embracing Efforts Of Active Cyber Terrorism. Interpol, with 178 affiliate countries, is active cyber terrorism. They are allowance the affiliate countries and training their pers. The Council of Europe Convention(CEC) on Cyber Crime, which is the 1st all-embracing accord for active computer crime, is the aftereffect of four years assignment by experts from the 45 countries. This accord has been already activated afterwards its acceptance on 21st of March 2004.

10. Association of South East Asia Nations (ASEAN) has fabricated affairs for administration advice on computer security. They plan to anatomy a bounded cyber-crime unit. The allotment will be :- [41] :

(a) Preventing aloofness violations.

(b) Preventing advice and abstracts theft.

(c) Preventing broadcast abnegation of casework beforehand (DDOS).

(d) Preventing arrangement accident and destruction.

11. Accepted Aspects. Currently there are no foolproof agency of absorption a system. Majority of the classified advice is stored on machines with no alfresco connection, to ahead cyber terrorism. Apart from isolation, the best accepted agency of aegis is encryption. Encryption, however, does not avoid the absolute system, an beforehand advised to agitate the accomplished system, such as a virus, is impervious to encryption. Alternative accepted antitoxin measures are additionally used, but these are added so as aegis for abandoned machines and networks and not actual able agency of active cyber terrorism.

Strategies to Accord with Cyber Agitation Threats

12. To accord with cyber terrorism, the activity needs to be put in place. Assorted accomplish that can be taken by the parties complex to accord with the threats of cyber agitation finer are:-

(a) Accompany and Prosecute the Perpetrators. The parties that accept been afflicted from attacks of the cyber terrorists should be added bull in advancing the perpetrators. If there is an accretion cardinal of such attackers that can be brought to justice, it ability change the accepted mindset of the cyber agitator community.

(b) Advance Aegis Practices. Organizations should ensure that they advance and arrange a activated set of aegis practices ill-fitted accurately for their own operations. These activities will crave a lot of accommodating efforts from all parties in the alignment because every administration should chase aegis procedures.

(c) Be Proactive. Organizations and the accepted accessible should be added proactive in ambidextrous with cyber agitation issues by befitting up to date on the latest advice accompanying to threats, vulnerabilities and incidents and they should be added committed in convalescent their advice aegis posture. Organizations should consistently be attractive to beforehand aloft their absolute aegis infrastructure.

(d) Use Aegis Applications. The use of aegis applications such as firewalls, Intrusion Apprehension Systems (IDS), anti-virus software and others should be encouraged and in some cases, allowable to ensure bigger aegis adjoin cyber terrorism. Organizations should arrange both arrangement and host-based IDS alternating with alternative aegis applications. [42] 

(e) Disaster Recovery Plans. The affairs should absorb two capital activities that are adjustment and restoration. [43] The adjustment activity should fix the botheration in adjustment for the activity to accomplish normally. The apology affairs should be activated with pre-specified arrange with hardware, software and account vendors, emergency services, accessible utilities and others.

(f) Admission Aegis Awareness. Aegis training programs can abetment bodies to accouter themselves with the adapted abilities and ability that are bare to assure their computer and networks systems effectively.

(g) Stricter Cyber Laws. The government can abetment in authoritative cyber agitation attacks by adopting and alteration new cyber laws that will abuse the perpetrators added heavily if they are complex in such activities.

13. Countering Transnational Cyber Terrorism. Able advance adjoin transnational computer abomination & agitation is an capital aspect of assured aegis not abandoned with a appearance of angry adjoin e-terrorism but additionally absolute backfire to such new kinds of organized crime. Despite such afraid bearings in the apple of defence, there are some opportunities to break it: [44] 

(a) Alignment of able cooperation with adopted countries, law administration agencies, casework & additionally all-embracing organizations to activity cyber agitation & transnational computer crime.

(b) Forming a civic assemblage to activity cyber crimes and an all-embracing advice centre to accommodate aid at responding to transnational computer incidents.

(c) Extending transnational cooperation in the apple of acknowledged abutment to activity computer crimes and cyber terrorism.

(d) Accepting laws on e-security according to the absolute all-embracing standards and EU Cyber Abomination Convention. It is all-important to:

(i) Ahead and avoid costs of agitator acts;

(ii) Acquaint bent accountability for advised accouterment or accession funds to accomplish agitator acts;

Block funds and alternative cyberbanking assets or money of bodies that

commit or advance to accomplish agitator acts;

(iv) Find befalling to acceleration up the barter of operational advice with the purpose to ahead acts of terrorism;

(v) Refuse cover to those supporting, costs and planning agitator acts;

(vi) Render abetment in appearance of bent investigations accompanying to costs or abetment of agitator acts;

(vii) Ahead displacement of terrorists by abetment of borderland control.

Render absolute cooperation in the framework of multilateral and mutual mechanisms and treaties with the purpose to ahead agitator acts;

(ix) Booty allotment in the agnate all-embracing conventions and protocols to activity all-embracing terrorism.

Law & Cyber Terrorism

14. Cyber agitation is a adverse abnormality that has not yet admiring the absorption of the Indian Government. The law in this attention is not able and the asperity of cyber agitation can be tackled appropriately either by authoritative a abstracted regulations in this attention or by authoritative adapted amendments in the already absolute Advice Technology Act, 2000. There is no law, which is abandoned ambidextrous with blockage of malware through some advancing defence. Thus, the agnate accoutrement accept to be activated in actual a advised manner. The defence adjoin malware beforehand can be claimed beneath the afterward categories:-

(a) Aegis beneath the Constitution of India [45] . The aegis accessible in the Constitution of any country is the safest one back it is the accomplished certificate and all alternative laws admission their ability and ascendancy from it.

(b) Aegis Beneath Alternative Statutes [46] . The aegis absolute beneath the Constitution is adequate by assorted approved enactments. These can be classified as :-

(i) Aegis beneath the Indian Penal Code (I.P.C), 1860.

(ii) Aegis beneath the Advice Technology Act (ITA), 2000.

15. What India Needs To Do

 

(a) In India, a absoluteness analysis with the cyber abomination wings portrays a poor picture. Back cyber abomination beef were set up in the country best cases pertained to abuse mails. Now the complaints accept become added adult and at an average, four complaints of phishing mails that are there everyday. The apprehension amount is not article that one can be appreciative with abandoned one out of four cases apparent and a afflicted confidence rate. The cyber ceels charge to accumulate afterlight and arrange new tactics [47] .

 

(b) A accumulated accomplishment is bare to adverse the cyber blackmail & cyber abomination badge stations charge to be revamped [48] .

 

(c) The Ministry of Finance too has upgraded its basement to ahead cyber strikes. They accept alien a two badge system, which mandates that a being backpack with him a accustomed countersign and additionally a badge that generates pin codes in absolute time. In key areas such as defence sectors, the use of a claimed laptop has been banned.

 

16. Acknowledged Aspects.

(a) India cannot break the botheration on its own. It will charge the advice of alternative countries. However, India is not a attestant to the 45-nation all-embracing assemblage on cyber crimes. Moreover, India still awaits a acknowledged framework on cyber attacks [49] .

(b) The description of “cyber terrorism” cannot be fabricated absolute as the attributes of answerability is such that it charge be across-the-board in nature. The appearance of “cyberspace” is such that new technologies are invented on a approved basis; appropriately it is not advisable to put the description in a straightjacket adjustment or pigeons hole. In fact, the accomplishment of the Courts should be to analyze the analogue as abundantly as achievable so that the annoyance of cyber agitation be tackled severely.

(c) The law ambidextrous with cyber agitation is not acceptable to accommodated the intentions of these terrorists and requires a face-lifting in the ablaze of the best contempo developments all over the world.

(d) The beneath mentioned can be cautiously admired as cyber agitation :-

(i) Aloofness violation. The law of aloofness is a acceptance of the individual’s adapted to be larboard abandoned and to accept his own claimed amplitude inviolate. Adapted to aloofness is a aspect of the adapted to activity and to alternative anointed in Commodity 21. With the accession of advice technology the acceptable abstraction of adapted to aloofness has taken new dimensions, which crave a altered acknowledged outlook. To accommodated this arising claiming resort to Advice Technology Act, 2000 can be taken.

(ii) Secret Advice Appropriation and Abstracts Theft [50] . The advice technology can be acclimated to adapted admired Government secrets and advice of clandestine individuals, government and its agencies. Computer networks endemic by the Government may accommodate important advice apropos defence and alternative secrets, which Government may not ambition to allotment otherwise. The aforementioned can be beneath beforehand by the terrorists to facilitate their activities, to accommodate abolition of property. It charge be acclaimed that the acceptation of acreage is not belted to moveables or immoveables alone. Thus, if a being afterwards accord of the buyer or any alternative abandoned who is incharge of a computer, computer system, computer arrangement accesses or secures admission to such a computer system, damages, causes to be damaged any computer, computer system, computer network, data, or any such alternative programmes in the computer system, he shall be accountable to acknowledged action.

(iii) Demolition of e-governance base. The aim of all cyber agitator accomplishments is to collapse a complete advice system, including an e-governance base. Thus, by a amalgamation of virus attacks and hacking techniques, e-governance abject of a government can be damaged. This would be added adverse and adverse as compared to alternative actual damages, acquired by the acceptable agitator activities. Likewise, the terrorists to the accident of the nation at ample can unlawfully admission advice adequate from accessible analysis in the absorption of aegis of the nation. Thus, a able-bodied e-governance abject with the best avant-garde aegis methods and systems is required.

(iv) Broadcast abnegation of casework attack: Cyber terrorists may additionally use broadcast abnegation of casework (DDOS) to afflict the Govt and its agencies cyberbanking bases. This is fabricated achievable by aboriginal infecting abounding afraid computers by way of virus beforehand and again run. These adulterated computers fabricated to accelerate advice or appeal in such a ample abundance that the servers of the victim collapse. Due to this accidental Internet traffic, applicable cartage is banned from extensive the Govt or its agencies computers. This after-effects in immense cyberbanking and cardinal accident to the govt and its agencies. The law in this attention is actual bright and individuals indulging in such activities can be prosecuted.

(v) Arrangement Accident and Disruptions. The key aim of cyber agitator activities is to aftereffect networks accident and their disruptions. This activity may alter the aegis agencies appropriately giving the terrorists added time and accomplish their assignment analogously easier. This activity may absorb a aggregate of computer tampering, virus attacks, hacking. The laws in this attention accommodate that indls indulging in such acts can be prosecuted.

The Road Ahead

17. The blackmail of cyber agitation can be finer cramped, if not actually eliminated, if the absolute organs of the Constitution assignment calm and in accord with anniversary other. Further, an active citizenry can supplement the affirmation of abatement of cyber terrorism.

(a) Legislative commitment [51] . The assembly can accommodate its abutment to the cold of abatement of cyber agitation by assuming adapted statutes pertaining to cyber terrorism. A new area ambidextrous with “Cyber terrorism” be added to the ahead absolute bent statues to accomplish them attuned with avant-garde forms of terrorisms. Similarly, a area ambidextrous with cyber agitation be congenital in Advice Technology Act, 2000. The repealment of POTA and its backup with a new authorization was an befalling for the assembly to accomplish the agitator law able to accord with cyber terrorism.

(b) Executives concern. The Central Govt and the State Govts can comedy their role finer by authoritative rules & regulations ambidextrous with cyber agitation & its facets from time to time. The Central Govt, by notification in the Official Gazette and in Cyberbanking Gazette,can accomplish rules to backpack out the accoutrement of Advice Technology Act. Similarly, the State Govt can, by notification in Official Gazette, makes rules to backpack out accoutrement of the Act. Further, the govt can additionally block web sites that bear cyber terrorism. The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) [52] has been nominated as the sole ascendancy for arising of directives in the ambience of blocking a web site. CERT-In instructs the Administration of Telecommunications to block the web sites afterwards acceptance the actuality of complaint and acceptable that the activity of blocking of website is actually essential.

(c)Judicial response [53] . The attorneys can participate by adopting a ascetic admission appear the crisis of cyber terrorism. But it charge aboriginal accouterment the administration botheration because above-mentioned to invoking its administrative admiral the courts charge to amuse themselves that they accept the requisite jurisdictionto accord with the bearings at hand. Back the Internet “is a accommodation adventure which is not endemic by a distinct article or govt, there are no centralised rules/ laws administering its use. The antithesis of bounded boundaries may aftereffect in a bearings area the act acknowledged a country area it is done may breach laws of addition country.

(d) Vigilant citizenry: The blackmail of cyber agitation is not the sole accountability of State. The citizens are appropriately beneath a austere albatross to activity adjoin the cyber terrorism. As a amount of actuality , they are the best cogent and admired cyber agitation abolishment and abolishment mechanism. The claim is to animate them to appear alternating for the abutment of combatting cyber terrorism. The govt can accord acceptable incentives in the anatomy of budgetary awards. However, their anonymity and aegis charge be ensured afore gluttonous their assistance. [54] .

 

Protecting Analytical infrastructures

18. There is a charge for bright laws and standards which crave operators of ample networks of Internet-connected computers to exercise adapted due activity in their budget and security. To this end, there is an burning charge for analogue of a minimum accepted of aegis for computer networks.

19. The aloft is not absolutely a atypical concept. All-embracing standards accept been developed in alternative areas area assurance and aegis are a concern. Consider the airline industry. There are all-embracing guidelines for airport safety; in cases area these standards are not met, after-effects ambit from warnings to banned travel.

20. Infrastructures already bent critical, charge to be protected. There is a charge to attending at them from the threats’ point of view. The blackmail could be a to appearance the vulnerabilities from the threat’s perspective, in the anatomy of “Red Teaming”. Red teaming is “a address that involves examination a abeyant ambition from the angle of an antagonist to analyze its hidden vulnerabilities, and to ahead accessible modes of attack. [55] ” Red teaming deepens compassionate of options accessible to adaptive adversaries and provides groups an acumen into their vulnerabilities. The aftereffect of a acceptable red teaming affair will accommodate a base for affairs to abate risks to analytical infrastructures.

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