Counter Reformation, amorphous by the Catholic Abbey with the aperture of the Board of Trent, 1545, had two sides. One, the Counter Reformation proper, was a attempt adjoin Protestantism. The other—sometimes alleged the Catholic Reformation—was a movement for airy and moral ameliorate aural the Catholic Abbey (Reardon, 1981). For about a aeon abounding Catholic leaders had pleaded for a ameliorate of the abbey “in arch and members. ” Little could be done, however, because key abbey accessories remained in the easily of political leaders.
Spain was one of the ancient and arch supporters of the Counter Reformation. Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436- 1517) as abbey of Toledo activated desperate reforms in the church. Shortly afore 1517 Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, after Pope Paul IV, helped begin in Rome the Oratory of Divine Love, a association of priests committed to adoration and self- reform. In 1524, they disbanded and some of its associates founded the Theatines, an adjustment of priests committed to reforming the church. The adjustment advance through Italy, advance growing access (Bainton, 1983).
In Spain, Saint Teresa of Avila, a Carmelite nun and mystic, adapted her adjustment and exerted abundant access through her writings. Another Spanish abstruse and apostolic advocate was Saint John of the Cross. Adrian of Utrecht, a Dutch cardinal, was adopted pope, Adrian VI in 1522, but died 20 months later. He had accustomed to accomplish institutional reforms in the abbey bureaucracy and to accumulate abbey diplomacy absolute of continental politics, but his efforts were fruitless. Clement VII (pope 1523- 34) was an able clergyman, but afraid and changeable (Reardon, 1981).
Paul III (pope 1534- 49) was committed to reforming the church. He was not afflicted in abbey affairs by burden from continental leaders. Paul appointed abounding reformers to positions of authority. During Paul’s papacy, Ignatius Loyola founded the Association of Jesus, an alignment committed to reforming and deepening the church. Members, alleged Jesuits, formed as theologians to advice analyze and ameliorate abbey doctrines; as agents to brainwash adolescence in these doctrines; and as missionaries to advance the Gospel to adopted lands.
Paul accustomed the association as a religious adjustment in 1540. The Jesuits guided the Catholic awakening and led the Counter Reformation (Bainton, 1983). The Board of Trent apparent the alpha of the Counter Reformation. As aboriginal as 1534, Paul III had alleged for an all-comprehensive board to convention the reform, but his affairs were blocked by base abbey admiral and assorted continental leaders who capital to advance their access over the church. The board assuredly convened 1545 and sat for three sessions (1545-47, 1551-52, and 1562-63).
It reaffirmed Catholic doctrines, implemented reforms to anticipate abuses, and anchored apostolic conduct over the church. It additionally aggregate abbey armament into a affiliated advanced adjoin Protestantism. In 1555 Caraffa became Pope Paul IV. To authenticate his charge for reform, he bankrupt with the apostolic attitude of acquaintance and began a activity of austerity, a accepted which after popes maintained (Reardon, 1981). References: 1. Bainton, R. H. The Age of Reformation. Krieger, 1983. 2. Reardon, B. M. G. Religious Thought in the Reformation. Longman, 1981.
Order a unique copy of this paper