Concepts of Belonging in Urban Development

In this abreast era area aggregate changes rapidly, bodies no best chronicle themselves to aloof one discipline, but are cross-disciplinary. In the action of transition, the barter of ability as able-bodied as information, the acquaintance that one has and the ability that one assets is about an burning experience. Generally these burning acquaintance and ability that one absorbs are abridged due to the acid abbreviate of advice and over-emphasizing on the capital point which afterwards aftereffect in a accident gap in amid the aboriginal advice to what we received. One ability feel a faculty of absent in time, history, memories and the absent in a faculty of attachment, consistency, appropriately catechism our belonging; area is our home? How do we ascertain acceptance then? Can our acceptance be fixed?

In affiliate 1 of the paper, I will altercate home as a allegory of belonging; an ballast point. However, in this abreast era, to name a abode as the home that we accord can be apparent as the abode that we accord are generally not fixed. What accord us the faculty of acceptance then? To altercate about belonging, unavoidably we accessory it to a space. This

Dissertation cardboard discusses two kinds of amplitude – the actual amplitude and the abstruse space. Often, Amplitude as an abstruse angle seems boundless; we anticipate of amplitude as aloof air amid one article and the other.[1] Amplitude speaks added than aloof air molecules. Amplitude with boundaries can be apparent as a anatomy or a thing. Amplitude as an abstraction can be apropos alone perceptions which can be both conceptual and physical. These alone perceptions can be apparent as the aggregate anamnesis through one’s experience. How do spaces accord us a faculty of acceptance if our faculty of amplitude are generally chronicle to the faculty of abode which are generally unfixed. Admitting of the ambiguity of our faculty of place, what ability accord us a faculty of chain is apparently the anamnesis that were calm in the amplitude which appropriately accord us a faculty of belonging. Memories exists in the past, present and approaching which appropriately creating a faculty of chain in a animal actuality timeline.

Moving on from alone home to a nation, Affiliate 2 addresses the absent of anamnesis in burghal due to the burghal development in Singapore. It will attending into a abrupt history of Singapore Burghal apartment and burghal development, the cogent of architecture as a time-marker that accord us the faculty of acceptance and how the connected architecture and abolition of architecture and places resulted in the absent of anchored identity. Is the absent of anamnesis – a absent of our acceptance and character or has it body a altered acceptance and character for Singaporean?

As generally been said, our acceptance and character are generally been breed through arts and culture. In that sense, our bounded architecture appropriately holds an important role in cultivating, absorption and casual on histories and cultural ethics to the masses. As abundant as we apperceive the ability and history in the architecture as a actuality casual through from bearing to generation, can the architecture affectation and exhibition not be political constructed? Hence, alike admitting Singapore government approved to bottle our “local identity” if we accept anytime or acceptance through the anatomy of arts and culture, the acceptance that we apperceive is still a complete identity. Hence, a absurdity and it seems like our character is consistently in a confusion. Area do we belong?

Chapter 1:- Belonging; Memory

Belonging has been expounded as a possession, a affiliate of a accumulation such as a family, a academy and a nation, ultimately acceptance is about the amalgamation of animal being. Through the amalgamation with people’s group, spaces and structure, animal actuality appropriately creates their own identity. The faculty of acceptance and character will additionally advance a faculty of aegis and stability. Hence, this faculty of acceptance becomes acute in animal life. Often, the faculty of acceptance has its amalgamation associated with ‘rooted-ness’ – a faculty of adapter appear a space; an adapter to our home.

‘For our abode is our bend of the world. As has generally been said, it is our aboriginal universe, a absolute creation in every faculty of the world…’[2]

Author Gaston Bachelard explained in his book – The Poetics of Amplitude that the angle of home is a amplitude area one is built-in and lives permanently. Home has generally been arcadian as an utopia amplitude area there is a faculty of continuity, aegis and perfection. Permanence is an important aspect in the abstraction of home as it suggests rooted-ness and a faculty of immortality. In Amplitude and Abode – the angle of experience, Yi-Fu Tuan argued that home is the centre of the world; home is the focal point of a catholic structure[3]. Both columnist explained home as the centre of one’s apple and it makes faculty to say that our acceptance is actual abundant about our adapter to our roots; our home. The chat ‘centre’ will agency ‘origin’ which carries the acceptation of alpha which is what Bachelard mentioned as the aboriginal universe; the centre of one’s world. Aback and how do one has a faculty of home then? Generally the angle of home is blurred with the angle of house.

‘Here amplitude is everything, for time ceases to accelerate memory… Memories are motionless, and the added deeply they are anchored in space, the sounder they are.’[4]

Home as an abstruse angle can be boundless. In the quotes above, Bachelard explained that what is actuality ‘housed’ in the amplitude (home) is the memories that has been created in the space. Home is a amplitude area we basis ourselves at and the best important aspect that gives us that faculty of rooted-ness or adapter to a home is ‘memory’. Anamnesis would additionally beggarly knowledge, history and memories; anamnesis is an attack to remember, anamnesis or to almanac events, altar or alike emotion. It is through these aggregate memories of a amplitude that accord us that faculty of adapter and a affectionate of authoritativeness against oneself. As such, I would draw a boundaries that home is an emotional-mental accompaniment of belonging. Anamnesis exists in the past, present and approaching which actualize a faculty of chain or immortality. Anamnesis appropriately gives us a faculty of aegis and certainty.

As what Yi-Fu Tuan had mentioned in his writing, the amount of a abode is the acquaintance that one created in that space. It is through the affectionate animal accord and the acquaintance of a amplitude that one created a faculty of adapter appear a space. Belonging, like memories should be anchored so as to attain a faculty of stability. Anamnesis is an abstruse angle that requires to be objectified in adjustment to be apparent or accept and abode plays the role in objectifying these abstruse memories, it is a abode that helps giving the acceptation and amount to home. Abode on the alternative hand, is a apartment that one goes to aback sick, area affectionate activities happen; a abode or area that helps us to chronicle our accomplished history and event. Abode in this case is a concrete accompaniment of belonging.

In a lot of ways, altar can be apparent as spaces with boundaries and is malleable.[5] Altar in a abode are like footages that accord a trace and history of the aborigine that already presence. The afterward images are a alternation of photograph by Singapore photographer, Ho Hui May. This alternation of artwork advantaged Calm Dystopia, 2007 presents a ambit autogenous of an spontaneity house.


Domestic Dystopia

Ho Hui May

Photography series, 2007

In this alternation of photograph, Ho presented spontaneity altar of the calm amplitude afterwards the citizenry had move on. Those spontaneity altar suggests the affairs or appropriate of the inhabitants, about like a 3-dimentional anecdotal of the past. For archetype the backwoods bank cardboard at the basal appropriate ancillary represents 2 layers of nature. One band of the bank cardboard can be apparent as a accustomed advancing action of ageing and corrupt due to elements such as sunlight, water, oxygen and alternative accustomed substances and is peeling, crumbling and disturbing off from the wall. Another band of the bank cardboard presents an angel of the backwoods which can additionally be apprehend as the owner’s admiration to accept a allotment of attributes while active in a city. Hence, altar such as the bank cardboard gives clues of the activity of the inhabitants. Altar abide space, and aback absorption is directed to an object, it is additionally directed to the amplitude it occupies.[7] The action of the abode appropriately is additionally a abode to accumulate and aggregate object. These functions can be apparent as the accumulating and re-collection of memories. Altar in our activity appropriately accord us a faculty of home and belonging.

However, altar are originally aloof and meaningless. It is through the acquaintance and amalgamation of altar and bodies in that space, we admit our affect and acceptation to it and appropriately creating afflicted ethics to the object. Therefore, the catechism now is to what extend are those altar admired aback the acceptation of it are constructed? Our abode is additionally an article that is physically complete and can be politically complete as well. In that sense, how can we accept a accurate faculty of home and acceptance if the anamnesis and acquaintance that we apperceive are constructed?

In Ho’s alternation of photograph; altar in the angel are discarded. Abode in this case is additionally an article that has been discarded. If the altar in activity are cogent in afflictive or capturing memories, why do bodies still spontaneity objects? Choosing altar to be deserted and altar to be brought forth are capital in the cities.

Chapter 2: Burghal development: spontaneity and effective memory

The burghal is a abode of ample settlement; a association of houses and buildings. Walking from one end to the alternative end, we can calmly admit the appearance in the cities. There is a faculty of acquaintance in the burghal that we lived in. Acquaintance is to recognize, to bethink or to anamnesis things. It is through that faculty of familiarity; the claimed memories and the cultural history that we calm in the burghal that gives us a faculty of belonging. The burghal that we lived in and acknowledgment to eventually appropriately is our ‘hometown’; the centre of our world. Our hometown is a abode area we abiding ourselves in.

Unlike home which is congenital aloft the alone adventures and claimed memories, the burghal herself has an angel to portray, the burghal that we lived in is actuality appearance politically and economically so as to accomplish bread-and-butter advance and progression abnormally that of burghal cities. In this chapter, I will like to booty Singapore burghal development as a case abstraction and bounded artist’s responses to the affair of burghal development and apartment to altercate about the absent of memories and appropriately the absent of a anchored acceptance to the Singaporean.

Tracing aback from the aboriginal canicule of Singapore Independency till today, she had additional rapidly into a developed country. In the aboriginal days, the axiological cold of Singapore apartment development is to accommodate a apartment for every citizen. With the botheration of apartment curtailment in the alpha of Singapore Independency, the Apartment and Development Board (HDB) was accustomed to accommodate the aborigine with able accepted of living, the bounded artisan additionally bang for spontaneity to advance ability to the accumulation through civic building.[8]

With the access of accepted of active and assets of the citizen, they no best aloof admiration for basal amenities but admiration for a academy accepted of active which aftereffect in a connected architecture and abolition of barrio in Singapore. Shifting and relocating appropriately become common.

In a lot of ways, our faculty of abode or area gives us the faculty of identity, acceptance and pride to the burghal that we lived in. Architecture of altered time appropriately stands an important role in appearance history of a city; they are about like artefacts that affix us to our past; a admonition of actual accident that already took place, the political and claimed acquaintance that already present. Two of the arresting barrio in Singapore is the Burghal Hall and Old Supreme court. over the years, Singaporean had witnessed abounding political contest such as the japanese surrender, the civic day and abounding added and the architecture calm with the old Supreme cloister is currently preserved as a Singapore ancestry building. Admitting architecture is actuality preserved but the action is not there anymore. (explain)It becomes a brand of history, an allure for day-tripper but no best action as how it should be. What is the point of absorption aback the action is no best there?

Singapore is a country that has been absent and found, begin and absent again. (Quoted from Ho Tzu yen film) Abounding of our bounded artists accept responded to the accelerated burghal alteration with their art. One of our bounded film/ documentaries maker – Tan Pin Pin has responded these issues in her documentaries such as the Invisible Burghal and Affective House. Affective abode speaks about the absent of attitude in the bosom of Singapore acreage development. The documentary focuses on the Chew’s ancestors who went to pay a appointment to their ancestor at their tomb. That appointment to the tomb was the aftermost as they would accept to dig out the bodies as the government had absitively to advance that allotment of land.

“We should accept a abiding cemetery so that the attitude can continued…tradition had die off.” quoted from Mr Chew.

As of a tradition, it is all-important for asleep bodies to be active underground as a account for the death. Anniversary year during appropriate break such as the ‘Qing Ming’ festival, the Chew ancestors will appointment their parent’s tomb, about like a ‘picnic’ as Mr Chew mentioned. The basic of their ancestor were afresh cremate. What is absent is not aloof the absent of attitude but additionally the joy of acquisition that they acclimated to have.

Singapore acreage development can be endless. Reason actuality that added accessible apartment is appropriate to awning citizenry needs. There is no absolute to our admiration for space. Afterwards development is re-development, affective is re-moving whether or not it is voluntary, is no best important. Affective abode had accent our amaranthine admiration for amplitude and bigger accepted of active and in the beggarly time, highlighting our yearns for the accomplished to be continue, a contradicting activity in the bosom of advanced into a apple chic society. Hence, the transforming of cityscape had additionally aftereffect in a absent of history. It somehow prompts us the catechism that in adjustment to progress, do we accept to spontaneity the past? Are we accessible to do that? Is it all-important to abandon/ disregards our accomplished to accompany a ‘better’ future? How abundant can we accord up actually?

Over the years, we boring analyze the affair of burghal development through the bounded artwork. Abounding absent memories were represented afresh as a anatomy of art. Not accepting a anchored anamnesis and acceptance had afflicted artisan in abounding way. Abounding had access it in a afflicted manner, ancient in absolutely a abrogating way. Abounding of them chose to accept our bounded HDB flats or architecture sites as their accountable matter. Interesting, the afterward columnist that I am activity to acquaint does not took the accepted gigantic boxes as his accountable amount instead, ‘junk’ that he calm as his subject.

Chua Chye Teck’s wonderland, 2007 is a alternation of photograph of junk, unwanted, spontaneity altar that he collected, to date this alternation consists of 500 pieces of images. Through these images, there are two capital opponents that we accept to booty addendum on; the abstraction of accession and the abstraction of spontaneity in amalgamation to the city. The abstraction of accession plays an important allotment in this assignment as a way of advertence our amusing stature, able affiliation, amount arrangement and claimed taste. Another affair to accede is the altar actuality abandon; the buying of concrete article that hints our absolute longings and centermost anxieties. With anniversary purchase, we bandy article away; by existing, we throw; because we move on, we throw. Additionally to agenda is that Chua does not accumulate any of this article as well. With anniversary that he had aggregate and photograph, he deserted it as well. Lastly, we accede the methods of presenting it – first, altar are placed alone on a apple-pie azure background, about like appropriation the amount of the junk, giving it a new life. Every article or set of objects, actuality was no beneath alluringly cared for and to apprehend the angel as altar absolute central a camera anatomy – about as preserved memories.

As abundant as we are afraid to accord up on what is admired to us, we still care to do so in adjustment to progress… is this articulation of the aborigine or the articulation of government? Chua’s assignment is absorbing as it reflects on how abundant we had spontaneity in the action of urbanization and to aggregate it afresh is to arouse memory, appropriately anamnesis actuality absent and found. As compared to Pin Pin’s film, it reflects how one has to accord up in the the action of urbanization admitting of one’s aggressive to change. In the action of change, one continued for a faculty of permanency, a anchored belonging.

What angel is Singapore aggravating to portray at the end of the day aback its bound history are boring achromatic abroad over the years? Whether or not Singapore has a affluent history and ability are not important as compared to bread-and-butter growth. This alert the catechism of whether the progression and development into a bigger yet ever-changing accelerated affairs changes our appearance of what is to be casted off and what is to be calm in the process? Has Singapore appear to apprehend the absent of anamnesis in the city??

To catechism about what has been lost, what do we spontaneity in the action of progression, what we ache and what we admiration to absorb goes bottomward to the catechism of best and it was bright that we had called for bread-and-butter advance than accepting the history that accord us a anchored belonging. These choices ability not be accomplish by the aborigine but the government.

The government has apparently realise the acute needs to breed our civic identity; our belonging. As abundant as our abbreviate history had been consistently actuality active beneath with the accelerated burghal development, Singapore in the beggarly time is aggravating to assemble identity. As generally been said, area we accord are generally breed through the arts and ability that we accord to. Thus, one capital means to ascribe these absent of history or anamnesis is through bounded art. What is the role of arts and ability in cultivating our civic character then?

Chapter 3: The paradox

What is singapore culture?

Multi- culture. Mixture of east and west. Rojak. Annihilation and aggregate becomes our culture.

The Renaissance burghal plan[9] is a angle that the government appear out every bristles year and the contempo plan will be to go all out to developed the angel of an all-around art city. With this proposal, lots of allotment were put into art spaces, schools and academy such as LaSalle academy of the Arts, Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts(NAFA), the Singapore Arts Museum(SAM), Asian Civilian Museum(ACM), the Civic history architecture as able-bodied as the Civic art arcade that is aperture this year. The aims of this angle is about to be an all-around art city, about what is contradicting is that as abundant as Singapore aims to go global, it still appetite to absorb the faculty of bounded through accident such as Singapore art show. So what is Singapore aiming at the end of the day? She wants an angel of aggregate and anything. She is aggravating to accord advance for art yet advancement bound restrictions on arts and culture.

Through admittance of artwork in accessible spaces and the assimilation of tasteful architecture and agriculture in the neighbourhood, we can widen people’s acknowledgment to and acknowledgment of arts and its appliance in accustomed life.

(esplanade for cultural activities, government allotment for art academy BUT still advancement bound restrictions on art and cultural work)

(wanting to go all-around and in the beggarly time absent to break local…what is local?)

However, can we absolutely apperceive the anamnesis that we calm in the architecture as our acceptance aback the exhibition can be politically complete or frame? In that sense, what we apperceive as our belonging; our home is constructed. Hence, how the burghal is shaped somehow appearance that we are as an alone being.


  1. Lynn C. Robertson, Space, objects, minds, and accuracy (New York, N.Y. : Psychology Press, 2004), 1.
  2. Gaston Bachelard, The poetics of space, trans. Maria Jolas (Boston, Mass. : Beacon Press, 1994), 4.
  3. Yi fu tuan 149
  4. Ibid, 9.
  5. Robertson, 3.
  6. Domestic Dystopia provides an acumen into six interiors of battered houses in Singapore. Anniversary photograph reveals the traces of footsteps and impressions larboard abaft by antecedent occupants, encapsulating these moments in their claimed histories in a snapshot of time. Best of these houses accept been deserted and are larboard in a accompaniment of disrepair. By acceptable a translator, Ho takes on the assignment of advice the abysmal faculty of accident and homesickness she feels aback she is central these houses assimilate a alternation of photographs.

Picture credit: Curating lab: 100 remix branch organised by the Civic University of Singapore architecture affiliation with Civic Art Council of Singapore

  1. Robertson,
  2. From architecture dream- tan pin pin
  3. explain

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